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HARVARD COLLEGE 
LIBRARY 




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THE 



ANNALS OF MANCHESTER 



A CHRONOLOGICAL RECORD 
FROM THE EARLIEST TIMES TO THE EKD OP 1885. 



EDITBD BY 

WILLIAM E. A. AXON. 



•^ JOHN HEYWOOD, 

DCAlCaOATS AXO RlOOETIKLD, UAKCHCSTrR ; 
AKD 11, PATKRXOflTKR BUILOIXUS, 

LONDON". 

ISbO. 



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TO 

GEORGE MILNER, 

President of the Manchester Literary Club, 

WBO HAS EARNED AN HONOT7BED PLACE AllOXGST MANCHESTEB WOBTBUBB 

OF THE PBESENT, THIS RECORD OF THE WORK OF THE 

MANCHESTER WORTHIES OF THE PAST 

IS DEDICATED. 



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PREFACE. 



THE Tolume now offered to the pnblic, as a revised edition of the Man-- 
chegter HUtoricai Becorder^ is virtually a new work, owing to the 
many changes and additions that have been made by the present editor. 
The book in its different editions has had a curious history. The utility 
of a concise chronological record of Manchester history appears first to have been 
practically recognised by James Butterworth, whose Tab%da MancunienaU—A 
mere pamphlets-appeared in 1829. The next effort was made by William Foid, 
and then— ten years later— Mr. Charles Henry Timperley, a man of great 
industry and vride reading, compiled the Annals of Manchester, a little book 
which it highly to be commended for its usefulness. Various editions have 
since appeared, bringing down the record to a later period, but without any 
attempt at systematic revision or the incorporation of the abundance of fresh 
material amassed by the labours of subsequent investigators. The following 
list is the completest I have been able to make of the forerunners of the present 
volume :— 

Tabula Maneuniensis ; or a Chronological Table o/ Events, comprising 
teiihin the cofmpass of a few pages the history of the toum and neighbourhood 
of Manchester, from the remotest period to the present time. . . . By James 
Butterworth. . . . Manchester : Printed by J. Bradshaw, 34, Church Street, 
1820; 8vopp. 16. 

In the Manchester Free Library there is a little book, believed to be unique, 
with a MS. title : Ford's Chronological Series of Events in Manchester^ 1888. 
This is made up of proof slips and cuttings from the Stockport Advertiser, in 
which the articles appeared. The dates are 1801-1822 inclusive. This work of 
William Ford's does not appear to have been published, but may have formed 
the basis of Timperley's Annals. 

Annals of Manchester: Biographical^ Historical, Ecclesiastical, and 
Commercial, from the earliest period to the dose of the year 28S9. By C H. 
Timperley. Manchester : Bancks and Co., Exchange Street, 1830L 18mo, pp.108. 

The Manchester Historical Becorder : ora concise Biographical, Ecdesi' 
astical, and Commercial History of the Bise and Progress of the lotcn cmd 
Neighbourhood, from the earliest period to the close of the year 1846. By a 
Native of the Town. Manchester : Horsefleld and Davies, Printers, Riding^s 
Court, St Mary's Gate and Deansgate. 18mo, pp. iv. 160. This is described in 
the preface as the second edition. 

Beeords Historical, Municipal, Ecclesiastical, Biographical^ Commercial, 
and Statistical of Manchester, from the earliest period, revised and corrected 
to the present time. By E. Waugh and T. Fawoett Published for the Pro- 
prietors by F. Wilde, 9, Half Street, and James Ainsworth, 93, Piccadilly, 
Manchester ; Simpkin, Marshall, and Co., London, 1861. 18mo. vi., 174. 

The Manchester Historical Becorder: being an Analysis of the Municipal^ 



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iv Preface, 

EecUaituiiecd^ Biographical^ Commercial, and Statistical History of Man- 
chester from the earliest period, chronolofficaUy arranged* Revised and 
corrected to the present time. Manchester : John Heywood, 141 and 143* 
Deansgate. London: Simpkin, Marshall, and Co., 1874. 

Those who have the cariosity to compare this new edition with its prede- 
cessors will find that the greater portion has been completely rewritten, and 
that in every page there have been alterations and corrections. It is impossible 
in a Tolome dealing with such a mass of dates and data to avoid mistakes, but 
it is hoped that the care that has been exercised will have prevented any serions 
errors. Several of the proof sheets have been read by Mr. J. E. Bailey, F.S.A., 
and Mr. C. W. Sutton, whose kindness for this service and for various useful 
suggestions I gratefully acknowledge. Mr. David Kelly, of Stretford, kindly 
placed an annotated copy of the Recorder at my disposal, and has also favoured 
me with various items of information. Mr. Robert Wood, of Rusholme, also 
lent me his annotated copy. The custodians of the various public libraries of 
Manchester and Salford have treated me with great indulgence, and I have 
also to return cordial acknowledgments to Dr. Richard Gamett, of the British 
Museum. 

The history of Manchester is important, not only to its citizens but to all 
those who care to trace the development of modem civUisation. Its greatness 
in the present century sometimes leads to forgetfulness of the fact that it is 
one of the oldest communities in the land, and has had an unbroken existence 
from Roman and pre-Roman days. The long chain of events which have trans- 
formed the ancient village into one of the greatest commercial centres of the 
world are not only important in this connection, but are also interesting in 
themselves. The annals of the city and district contain many quaint, 
picturesque, and romantic incidents. 

The Annals of Manchester attempts to give, in chronological order, a brief 
and pithy analysis of the history of Manchester from the earliest times to the 
present day. The sale of several successive issues of the Manchester Historical 
J2^€ore?«r has sufficiently shown the value and usefulness of such a manual. 
This edition contains, it is hoped, the most essential data in regard to the 
general, ecclesiastical, municipal, and commercial history of Manchester and 
Salford. Statistical information has been included, and biographical sketches 
given of the worthies of the place. 

The arrangement by dates has been retained, as affording the greatest 
facility for research, whilst not materially interfering with a general view of 
the changes, social, national, religious, and commercial, in which Manchester 
haa had a share, and often an important one. In this way the reader has 
brought before Urn the prehistoric settlement ; the Roman station ; the Saxon 
village ruined by the Danes; the Norman barony; the mediieval manor; the 
early manufacturing town ; the Puritan stronghold where the first blood of the 
Civil Wars was shed ; the town which gave so many to the fatal rebellion of 
1745 ; and the busy district which saw the rise of the modem cotton trade and 
the development of the factory system. 

Particulars are also given of the struggle for local government, parliamen- 
tary reform, free trade, and the other great changes of the present century, to 
which Manchester has contributed in so large a measure. 



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INTBODUCTION. 



MANCHESTER, the great centre of the cotton manufacture, is a corporate 
and Parliamentary borough, and was elevated to the dignity of a city in 
1847, by being constituted the see of a bishop, and by. royal proclamation in 
1853. It is situated on the river Irwell, in the hundred of Salford, and county 
of Lancaster, and is distant from London 188 miles by the London and North- 
western Railway, 189 by the Midland, 1881 by the Great Northern, and 31.i 
from the port of Liverpool. According to the census of 1881, the municipal 
borough of Manchester contained 341,414 inhabitants, and the Parliamentary 
borough, which includes the townships of Harpurhey, Newton, Bradford, and 
Beswick, contained 393,585. In 1885 the city boundary was extended to include 
RuAholme, Bradford, and Harpurhey. and the population of the municipal 
borough was thus raised to 373,583, and of the Parliamentary borough to 
404,823. The limits of the municipal and Parliamentary borough of Salford 
are identical, and the population at the census of 1881 was 176,235. 

The following outline of the history of the city is condensed from an 
article contributed to the Encydopctdia Britannica by the editor of this 
volume :— 

Very little is known with certainty of the early history of Manchester. It 
has, indeed, been conjectured, and with some probability, that at Castlefleld 
there was a British fortress, which was afterwards taken possession of by 
Agrioola. It is, at all events, certain that a Roman station of some importance 
existed in this locality, and a fragment of the wall still exists. The period 
succeeding the Roman occupation is for some time legendary. As late as the 
17th century there was a floating tradition that Tarquin, an enemy of King 
Arthur, kept the castle of Manchester, and was killed by Launcelot of the 
Lake. Early mention of the town, in authentic annals, is scanty. It was 
probaUy one of the scenes of the missionary preaching of Paulinus ; and it is 
said (though by a chronicler of comparatively late date) to have been thi* 
residence of Ina, King of Wessex, and his queen Ethelberga, after he had 
defeated Ivor, somewhere about the year 889. Nearly the only point of certainty 
In ita history before the Conquest is that it suffered greatly from the devasta- 
tionB of the Danes, and that in 923 Edward, who was then at The! wall, near 
Warrington, sent a number of his Mercian troops to repair and garrison it. In 
Domesday Book^ Manchester, Salford, Rochdale, and RadcUffe are the only 
places named in South-East Lancashire, a district now covered by populous 
towns. Large portions of it were then forest, wood, and waste lands. Twenty- 
one thanes held the manor of Salford among them. The church of St. Mary 
mnd the church of St. Michael, in Manchester, are both named in Damesdap, 
and some difficulty haa arisen as to their proper identification. Most anti* 
<|uarles have considered that the passage refers to the town only, whilst others 



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vi Introduction. 



think It relates to the parish, and that* while St. Mary's is the present Manches- 
ter Cathedral, St. Michael's woold be the present parish churchof Ashton-nnder 
Lyne. BCanchester and Salf ord are so closely allied that it is impossible to 
disassociate their history. Salford received a charter from Banolph de 
BlandeviUe, in the reign of Henry III., constituting it a free borough, and 
Manchester, in 1901, received a similar warrant of municipal liberties and 
privileges, from its baron, Thomas Gresley, a descendant of one to whom the 
manor had been given by Roger of Poicton, who was created by William the 
Ckinqueror lord of all the land between the rivers Mersey and Ribble. The 
Gresleys were succeeded by the De la Warres, the last of whom was educated 
for the priesthood, and became rector of the town. To avoid the evil of a non- 
resident clergy, he made considerable additions to the lands of the church, in 
order that it might be endowed as a collegiate institution. A sacred guild was 
thus formed, whose members were bound to perform the necessary services of 
the parish church, and to whom the old baronial hall was granted as a place of 
residence. The manorial rights passed to Sir Reginald West, the son of Joan 
Greslet, and he was summoned to Parliament as Baron de la Warre. The 
West family, in 1579, sold the manorial rights for £3,000 to John Lacy, who, in 
1506, resold them to Sir Nicholas Mosley, whose descendants enjoyed the 
emoluments and profits derived from them until 1845, when they were 
purchased by the Town Council of Manchester for £200,000. The lord 
of the manor had the right to tax and toll all articles brought for sale into the 
market of the town ; but, though the inhabitants were thus to a large extent 
taxed for the benefit of one individual, they had a far greater amount of local self- 
government than might have been supposed, and the Court Leet, which was the 
governing body of the town, had, though doubtless in a somewhat rudimentary 
form, nearly all the powers and functions now possessed by municipal corpora- 
tions. This court had not only control over the watching and watering of the 
town, the regulation of the water supply, and the cleaning of the streets, but 
also had power, which at times was used freely, of interfering with what 
would now be considered the private liberty of their fellow-citixens. Some of 
the regulations adopted, and presumably enforced, sound grotesque at the 
present day. Under the protection of the barons the town appears to have 
steadily increased in prosperity, and it early became an Important seat of the 
textile manufactures. Fulling mills were at work in the 13th century ; and 
documentary evidence exists to show that woollen manufactures were carried 
on in Ancoats at that period. An Act passed in the reign of Edward VI. regu- 
lates the length of cottons called Manchester, Lancashire, and Cheshire cottons. 
These, notwithstanding their name, were probably all woollen textures. It is 
thought that some of the Flemish weavers who were introduced into England 
by Queen Philippa of Hainault were settled at Manchester ; and Fuller has given 
an exceedingly quaint and picturesque description of the manner in which these 
artisans were welcomed by the inhabitants of the country they were about to 
enrich with a new industry, one which, in after centuries, has become perhaps 
the most Important industry in the country. The Flemish weavers were, in 
all probability, reinforced by religious refugees from the Low Countries. 
Leland, writing in 1038, decrlbes Manchester as the ** fairest, best builded, 
quickest, and most populous town of Lancashire." In 1041 we hear of 
the Manchester people purchasing linen yam from the Irish, weaving it. 



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Introduction, vii 



and returning it for sale in a finished state. They also brought cotton wool 
from Smyrna to work into fustians and dimities. The right of sanctuary 
had been granted to the town, but this was found to be so detrimental to its 
industrial pursuits that, after very brief experience, the privilege was taken 
away. The college of Manchester was dissolved in 1547, but was re-founded in 
Mary's reign. Under her successor the town became the head-quarters of 
the commission for establishing the reformed religion. In the civil wars the 
town was besieged by the Royalists under Lord Strange, but was successfully 
defended by the inhabitants under the command of a German soldier of 
fortune. Colonel Rosworm, who complained with some bitterness of their 
ingratitude to him. An earlier afl^ay between the Puritans and some of Lord 
Strangers followers is said to have occasioned the shedding of the first blood 
in the disastrous struggle between the King and Parliament. The year 1G80 
witnessed that strange episode, the trial of those concerned in the so-called Lan- 
cashire plot, which ended in the triumphant acquittal of the supposed Jacobites. 
That the district really contained many ardent sympathisers with the Stuarts 
was, however, shown in the rising of 1715, when the clergy ranged themselves to 
a large extent on the side of the Pretender, and was still more clearly shown in 
the rebellion of 1745, when the town was taken possession of by Prince Charles 
Edward Stuart, and a regiment, known afterwards as the Manchester regiment, 
was formed and placed under the command of Colonel Francis Townley. In 
the fatal retreat of the Stuart troops the Manchester contingent was left to 
garrison Carlisle, and surrendered to the Duke of Cumberland. The officers 
were taken to London, where they were tried for high treason and beheaded on 
Kennington Conunon. The variations of political action in Manchester had 
been exceedingly well marked. In the 16th century, although it produced 
both Catholic and Protestant martyrs, it was earnestly in favour of the 
reformed faith, and in the succeeding century It became indeed a stronghold 
of Puritanism. Yet the descendants of the Roundheads, who defeated the 
army of Charles I., were Jacobite in their sympathies, and by the latter half of 
the 18th century had become imbued with the aggressive form of patriotic 
sentiment known as Anti-Jacobinism, which showed itself chiefly in dislike of 
reform and reformers of every description. A change was, however, imminent. 
The distress caused by war and taxation, towards the end of the last and the 
beginning of the present century, led to bitter discontent, and the anomalies 
existing in the Parliamentary system of representation afforded only too fair 
an object of attack. While single individuals in some portions of the country, 
had the power to return members of Parliament for their pocket boroughs, 
great towns like Manchester were entirely without representation. The 
injudicious conduct of the authorities, also, led to an increase in the bitterness 
with which the working classes regarded the condition of society in which 
they found themselves compelled to toil with very little profit to themselves. 
Their expressions of discontent, instead of being wisely regarded as symptoms 
of disease in the body politic, were looked upon as crimes, and the severest 
efforts were made to repress all expression of dissatisfaction. This foolish 
policy of the authorities reached its culmination In the affair of Peterloo, 
which may be regarded as the starting point of the modem Reform agita:ion. 
This was in 1819, when an immense crowd assembled on St. Peter's Fields (bow 



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viii Introduction, 



covered by the Free Trade Hall and warehooaes) to petition Parliament for a 
redress in their Krievanoes. The authorities had the Riot Act read, but in such 
manner as to be quite unheard by the mass of the people, and drunken 
yeomanry cavalry were then turned loose upon the unresisting mass of 
spectators. The yeomanry appear to have used their sabres somewhat freely ; 
several people were killed and many more injured, and although the magistrates 
received the thanks of the Prince Regent and the ministry, their conduct excited 
the deepest indignation throughout the entire country. Naturally enough, the 
Ifanchester politicians took an important part in the reform agitation, and 
when the Act of 1832 was passed, the town sent as its representatives the 
Right Hon. 0. P. Thomson, Vice-President of the Board of Trade, and Mr. Mark 
Philips. With one notable exception, this was the first time that Manchester 
had been represented in Parliament since its barons had seats in the House of 
Peers in the earlier centuries. In 1654 Mr. Charles Worsley and in 1666 Mr. 
R Raddiffe were nominated to represent It in Cromwell's Parliaments. Worsley 
was a man of great ability, and must ever have a conspicuous place in history 
as the man 'who carried out the injunction of the Protector to *' remove that 
bauble,** the mace of the House of Commons. The agitation for the repeal of 
the corn-laws had its head-quarters at Manchester, and the success which 
attended it, not less than the active interest taken by its inhabitants in public 
questions, has made the city the home of various projects of reform. The 
^* United Kingdom Alliance for the Suppression of the Liquor Traffic** was 
founded there In 1853, and during the continuance of the American war the 
adherents both of the North and of the South deemed it desirable to have 
organisations to influence public opinion in favour of their respective causes 
A charter of incorporation was granted in 1838; a bishop was appointed in 
1SI7; and the town became a city in 1833. The Lancashire cotton famine, 
caused by the civil war in America, produced much distress in the Manchester 
district, and led to a national movement to help the starving operatives. The 
relief operations then organised are amongst the most remarkable efforts of 
modem philanthropy. 

The spinning of cotton and the manufacture of various fabrics from that 
article are the staple of the Manchester district. There are also calico-printing 
works, in a wide circuit round Manchester, of great magnitude, and the ware- 
houses established in the city in connection therewith are of corresponding 
extent ; while the bleach and dye works, for miles round, furnish employment 
to numerous hands. The manufacture of an infinite variety of articles com- 
prised in the general term of "smallwares** engages a large amount of capital, 
and many of the mills are of large dimensions. Ironfounding and the manu- 
facture of stationary and locomotive steam engines, together with machine and 
tool making, are branches of great importance, employing immense power and 
expenditure. Biany chemical works are on an extensive scale, and in the 
vicinity are paper mills. The merchants and manufacturers of Manchester 
have commercial relations with all parts of the world. 

Ifanchester contains some fine public buildings, the most noteworthy 
tieing the Royal Exchange, Assise Courts, Royal Infirmary, Free Trade 
Hall, Royal Institution, the Town Hall, the Owens College, and the Post 
Office. The new Town Hall is one of the most spacious and elegant struc- 



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iTUroduction, ix 



tares in Europe, and is probably the largest in the world devoted to civic 
pnrXKWM. Besides pnblic edifices, there are many warehouses of gigantic sixe, 
foremost among which stands the magnificent warehouse of Messrs. S. and J^ 
Watts, ICany new streets have been formed of late years, and others widened 
for the immense traffic constantly passing along them. Nearly in the centre 
of the city is Albert Square, in which stands the new Town Hall and the 
memorial erected to the late Prince Consort. Deansgate, an ancient thorough- 
fare of many centuries* existence, has been transformed into a broad and 
handsome street. 

The charitable institutions of the city are numerous, affording relief and 
eonsolation to the poor and indigent. The educational machinery of Man- 
chester and Salford ranges from excellent elementary schools to the Victoria 
UniTersity, empowered to grant degrees alike to men and women. Schools 
for the Deaf and Dumb and an Asylum for the Blind are likewise provided ; 
whilst the foundations of Bishop Oldham, Humphrey Chetham, and Benjamin 
NichoUs remain as monuments worthy of Imitation. 

The government of Manchester, previous to the charter of incorporation 
being granted, was vested in a boroughreeve, two constables, and other 
officers, elected or appointed at the Court Leet of the Lord of the Manor. The 
corporate body, onder the municipal charter, consisted of a mayor, fifteen 
aldermen, and forty-eight councillors. This number has increased, since the 
Incorporation of Rusholme, Bradford, and Harpurhey into the city, to nineteen 
aldermen and flfty-eeven councillors. The first election took place on the 14th 
Deeember, 1838, and on the 15th Mr. Thomas Potter, afterwards knighted, was 
elected to the civic chair, and the following year le-elected. A stipendiary 
magistrate sits daily at the City Court, Minshull Street, for the disposing of 
petty offences, or committal to the sessions or assises of more serious offenders. 
Salford also has a stipendiary magistrate, who sits at the Town HalL Assizes 
are held thrice during the year, and sessions every six weeks. 



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APPENDICES TO INTBODUCTION. 



LIST OF THE BOBOUGHBEEVES OF MANCHESTER 



1M2-S Robert B«cke (<L between Sept 90, 
l&M. and AprU SI, 1557). 

155S-4 

1554-5 NieholM SydAlL 

lft55-« WUUaib Hardey (d. between Sept 30 
And March S9, 1556). 

1554-7 Peter Cowopp. 

1557-8 Rlebaid Owen. 

1558-9 
155»-«0 John Oee (d. 158«)l 

1580-1 Richard Oaltoy. 

1581-S Thomaa Harriaon. 

1583-S Edward RUatone. 

1588-4 Thomaa Willott 

15«4-5 

1585-8 Oeoige Pendleton (draper). 

1586-7 Jamea Cboriton. 

1587-8 John Davy. 

1588-9 Chriatopher Grant 
1589-70 Edward Banaon. 

1570-1 Ralph Proudlove. 

15n-S William B««Qla7. 

157S-3 John Btreh. 

157S-4 John RadcUffe. 
1574-5 Bnmfray Haughton. 
1575-« Qeorfa Birch. 
1578-7 John Oeeu 
1577-8 John Oea. 
1578-9 Robert Langley. 
1579-80 Thomaa Ooodler. 
15flO>l Henry Oee. 

1581-t Thomaa Beeke (eon of BobertX 
158S-S Henry Fandleton. 
1583-4 OeoTB* TraTia, aen. 
1584-5 Oeoiva PnmdloTe. 
1585-8 Richard Sorooold. 
1588-7 Robert Lanfley. 
1587-8 Roger Hardey. 
1588-9 Roger Bexwiek. 
1589-00 Richard MonCoo. 
1500-1 Oeotge Travla. 
ISOM Anthony Moaley. 
15M-3 John Oee. 
1598-4 Hamfrey Haoghtoo. 
1594-5 Robert Laagtoy. 
1595-8 George Tipping. 
1598-7 Oswald M osei«r. 



1597-8 Thomaa Ooodler, aen. 

1598-9 Richard Nugent 
1599-1800 Richard Fbx. 

1800-1 Nicbolaa HarUey. 

1801-3 William RadcUffe. 

1802-S Robert Langley. 

180S-4 Ooorge Tipping. 
1804 Alexander Raddyffe (to Eaatar,1808X 

April 

1808 Robert Ooodler (to Oetobtr). 
Oct* 

1808-7 WiUiam Stanley. 

1807-8 Oswald Moeley, jun. 

1808-9 PraocU Pendllton. 
1809-10 Lawrence Langley. 
1610-11 Adam Smith. 
1811-12 Robert Robinson. 
181S-1S WiUlam Raddyffe. 
1613-14 Thomaa Brownsword. 
1814-15 Fianda Moaley. 
1815-18 William Spark. 
1818-17 Pruicia Pendleton. 
1817-18 Alexander Raddyffe. 
1818-19 Jamea Pox. 
1819-90 Richard Pox. 
1880-1 Edward Marler. 
1821-3 Stephen Radley. 
1822-3 William Raddyffo. 
18S3-4 Henry Kdey. 
1624-5 Henry Johnaon. 
1825-8 Thomaa Lanoaahlre. 
1828-7 Richard HaUiwoU. 
1827-8 Jamea Pox. 
1828-9 Oeorge Clarke. 
1829-90 William Oooke. 
1830-1 John Hartley. 
18S1-S Rowland Moaley. 
1832 3 William BeU. 
1033-4 John Boawlek. 
1834-6 John Marter. 
1835-8 Fnineia Moaley. 
1838-7 Samud Tipping. 
1837-8 John Raddyffe. 
1838-9 Edward Johnson. 
1839-40 Oeoffray Croxton. 
1840-1 MIcbad DIokonaon. 
The Reoorda are mlaslng from 1841 to 1847. 



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Appendices to Introduction. 



XI 



BOBOUGHREEVBS OF 
Oct 

1647-6 TboiBM lAacMhlra. 
M46^ John lUrtor. 
April 

1680 HleholM Rawvit 

Oet. 

1«M>-1 IdwutlJohiMOii. 
1661-S Uefawd IUdellfl«, Biq. 
165S-S WiUkm JaokMn. 
165S-4 BmurjDkkt 
l«5i^ BotavtlUriM-. 
1«&6h6 Jan 
l«M.7MieliMlButoo. 
ie&7-8 WII]km9jTOm(ofllaiidMttar,<f<.48, 

1M4X 
16684 ThoniM DUngworth. 
April 

1666 HfBty DIokooMO. 

Oet 

1660.1 RobtftHia 
1661-S NleholM llottof . 
166S4 TbomM Bwke. 
1668-C John UghtbowM, Esq. 
16644 Uefawd ll«tf«. 
1666-6 John Btttl^j, Bh|. 
TlM Baeordi an BilMdiif from 1666 to 1668. 
1660-70 MIcbaat Baxton. 
1670-1 John Alazandar. 
1671-S John Holbrooke. 
1671-6 Kdward Bootla. 
167S.4 John Moxon. 
16744 Joaaph Higbam. 
167S4 Bnmbaj Marlar. 
1676-r John Smdiford. 
1677-6 BIdiard Pox. 
1678-0 Saaaoal DIckoiiaoii. 
1670.80 WiUlam Hantar. 
1680-1 Wffllam Byrom. 
168M Laamioa Gardner. 



1688-4 Tliomaa Shaw*. 
16844 MatthawBootta. 



1686-7 Bobtft nUnrvorth. 
Iha Baeotda aro mlMlng from 1687 to 178a 
1781-8 Jaramlah Bradahaw. 
17884 Biehard Davanport 
1788-4 Bobart Bowkar. 
17844 TlMMnaa Birch. 
17864 Blefaard Milliaeton. 
1786-7 Jooathaa Lmi. 
17874 JaoMa Bdt*. 
1786-0 Bditard BTron. 
178040 flamiidGkmaB(ofBroa^too,d.Jaly, 

1778X 
1740-1 BogwBadfwkk. 
1741-8, 
17484 , 
17484 < 



MANCHESTER— OMKtfiKect 

Oot 

17444 John HawknralL 

17454 John Flaldan. 

1746-7 Abrdiam Hawarth. 

17474 William Clowea. 

17484 llllat Bowor. 
1740-60 John Dlckanioo. 

1750-1 Bobart Uviaay. 

1751-8 John Mom. 

1758-8 Thomaa Johnaon. 

1758-4 Samual Bldinga. 

1754-5 Joaaph Alexander. 

17554 Jonathan Patten. 

1756-7 Thomaa Farrott. 

17574 Thomaa Tipping, sen. 

1758-9 Jamee Oreatrax. 
175040 John Markland. 

1760-1 Thomaa Batterabee. 

1761-8 Bdward Byrom. 

17684 Thomae Chadwiek. 

1768-4 Thomaa Tipping. 

17644 John Baidman. 

17654 Jamea Hodeon. 

1766-7 Charlea Ford. 

17674 Jamea Bomm. 

1768-9 WlUJam Edge. 
1760-70 Bobert OarUide. 

1770-1 Samuel Clowee, Jun. (d. January 
1801, eon of Samuel, 1789). 

1771-2 Thomaa Stott 

17784 John Heywood. 

1778-4 Edward Bomm. 

17744 Benjamin Bower. 

in54 Thomaa Marriott 

1776-7 Daniel Whltaker. 

17774 Joeeph Byder. 

1778-9 William BuUock. 
1779-80 Thomaa CSiadwick. 

1780-1 Benjamin Luke Winter. 

1781-8 Nathaniel FhiUpew 

17884 Lawranee Gardner. 

1788-4 Thomaa Johnaon. 

17844 William Houghton. 

17854 Thomaa Starkle. 

1786-7 John Keardey. 

17874 George Barton. 

1788-9 Jamee BilUnga. 
178940 Bdward Place. 

1790-1 Thomaa Walker. 

1791-8 Nathan Crompton. 

179S4 Jam«>e Acken. 

17964 Jamee Bntwlatle. 

17944 Thomaa Blohaxdaon. 

17954 Henry Fkrrington. 

1796-7 Joeeph Hardman. 

17974 John Foole. 

1796-9 WUUam Myert. 
1799-1800 Charlee Frederick Br 
1 800-1 John Tetiow. 



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Xll 



Appendices to Introduction. 



BOROUQHRKEVES OF MANCHESTER Omiinuid. 


Oct 


Oct 


IWl-S JoMph Thackeiy 


18S4^ 8. Orimahaw. 


18(»*S8Ama«l Smith. 


18S5.0 William Lomaa. 


1808-ft Edwwd Hobwo. 


18S6.7 OeoiveNedeD. 


1804*6 Jamm Hibbert. 


1897^CharieaCnMa. 


1806^ WmJam Fbx. 


1828*9 David Banncnnan. 




1829-80 Bolkeley FHoa. 


1807^ WllUAm Btarkie. 


18S0-1 Jamee Bart 


1808-9 Richtfd Riuhworth. 




1809.10 John BatcUffe. 


18828 The aame reappointed. 


1810.11 Thonuw Foebrooke. 


1833.4 R. C. Sharp. 


1811.12 Richard Wood. 


1834.5 Edmund Buoldey. 


181S-13 Jeremiah nelding. 


1885.0 John Ma«Tiear. 


181S-14 Thomaa Hardman. 


1836.7 John Hyde. 


1814.15 Hugh Hornby Birley. 


1837-8 John Brown. 


181&.ld Wm. Johnaou Edenaor. 


18SS-9 Thomas Bvmna. 


ISIMT Joeeph Oreen. 


1839^0 John Brooks. 


1817.18 T. Scholee Withington. 


1840-1 David Ainaworth. 


1818-19 Edwaid Clayton. 


1841.2 Richard Biriey. 


1819*30 Tbomaa Sharp. 


1842.3 John WooUam. 


18S0.1 Jamee Brierley. 






1844-5 John Burgees. 


182S'3 Tbomaa Worthington. 


1845-6 Alexander K«y, the bat Borough- 


182S.4 OUbert Winter. 





LIST OF THB MATOBS OF MANOHEdTER. 

1. Sir Thomas Potter, Knight (died Maxx^ 20, 1845) 1838-9,1839.40 

2. William Nleld (died April 4, 1864) 1840-1,1841-2 

3. JamesKershaw,M.P. Stockport (died April 27, 1864) 1842-3 

4. •Alexander Kay (died M«y 16, 1863) 1843.4,1844-5 

5. William Benjamin Watkina (died June 24, 1864) 1845-6 

6. Sir EUcanah Armitage, Knight (died NoTember 26, 1876) 1846.7, 1847-8 

7. Sir John Potter, Knight, M.P. (died October 25, 1868) 1848-9, 1849-50, 185051 

8. Robert Barnes (died December 25, 1871) 1851.2.18523 

9. Benjamin Nieholla (died March 1, 1877) 1853-4,1854-5 

10. Sir Jamee Watta. Knight (died April 6, 187$) 1855-6,1856.7 

11. iTieMackie (died February 23, 1873) 1867-8, 1858.9. 1859^J0 

12. Matthew Curtis 1860-1,1875-6 

13. Thomas (}oadsby (died February 16, 1866) 1861.2 

14. AbelHeywood 1862-3,1876-7 

15. JohnMarsland Bennett 1863-1,1864.5 

16. William Bowker (died April 7, 1868) 1865-6 

17. RobertNeiU 1866-7,1867-8 

18. JohnOrsTe 1868-9, 1869-70.1870.1 

19. William Booth (died September 16, 1S.h:0 1871-2,18723 

Sa Alfrsd Watkin (died June 23. l»75) 1878-4 

21. John King, jun. 1874-4 

22. Charles Sydney Orundy 1877-8,1878-9 

23. Henry riittoson 187i»-80 

24. Sir Thomas Baker, Knight (died April 17, 1886) 1880-1,1881-2 

25. John Hopklneon 1882-3 

» Philip Ooldsehmidt 1883-4 

n. John Jamee Harwood 1884^ 

tS. Philip (Mdadunidt 1885.6 



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Appendices to Introduction. 



Xlll 



LIST OF THB BOBOUOHBBBVBS OF SALFOBD. 



17» RlebMd B«n7. 
J^ } Chtf iM Bnun wen. 

1796 A<UmCroaehl^. 

1797 John WUeoxon. 
17»Rog«Nield. 
1799 JuDas Dean 

1740 ThomM NlekL 

1741 Wimam BelL 
174S Jamas lfaM«7. 

1749 TlkonuM WUooxon. 

1744 WlUiam Barlow. 

1745 Roffw Biich. 
1740 Tbomaa Hulma. 

1747 Thomas WUcozon. 

1748 John Withi2)gtoD. 
174» Chariaa Bramall, juo. 

1750 Samuel Worthington. 

1751 Richard Barrow. 
1759 Samuel Honldge. 
1759 John llellor. 

1754 Thomas Nightingale. 

1755 Charles Mills. 

1756 John Cooke. 

1757 John Bury. 

1758 Thomas Gorton. 
1750 John Booth Oore. 

1780 Robert Gorton. 

1781 Richard Bury. 

1789 Benjamin Rlchardion. 
1789 John Leech. 

1784 William Christopher. 

1785 Prands Baxter. 
1788 Henry Birtlea. 

1787 Jamee CockeriU. 

1788 Joeeph Barrett. 

1789 Robert Farrin. 

1770 Peter Wright 

1771 Thomas Shorrocks. 
1779 Thomas Barrow. 
1179 WUliam Leaf. 

1774 Miles Dixon. 

1775 William Loxham. 
1778 Bdward Hobaon. 

1777 Winiam Barrow. 

1778 Thomas Cbesshyre 

1779 Jamea Cook. 

1790 John Barrow. 

1791 James Bury, Jun. 

1789 James HoDand. 

{Zg^Thomaa Walker. 

1795 Blehaid Gorton. 

1798 DMlel Bddleston. 
1787 Benjamin MaUa. 
1798 Tbomas Partington. 

1790 Idwud Hoh«». 



1790 Richard Harrison. 
1701 James Kay. 
1799 Joseph Hanop. 
1799 George Walker. 
1704 Jonathan Beerer. 
1795 Robert Hlndley. 
1798 George Clowes. 

1797 Dauntsay Hulme. 

1798 John Broom. 

1799 John Boardman. 

1800 John Atkinson. 

1801 WUliam Beck. 

1803 Nat. Kirkham. 
1809 Nat. Shelmenlino. 

1804 David Locke. 

1805 Thomas Holland. 
1808 WUliam Norrls. 

1807 James HaU. 

1808 a H. Green. 

1809 Geoige Gould. 

1810 WUliam Tate. 

1811 WUliam Hutchinson. 
1819 Henry Burgess. 

1813 Thomas O. GUI. 

1814 Robert Hlndley. 

1815 John Heygate. 

1816 Richard Bindloes. 

1817 Joeeph Buckley. 

1818 John Greenwood. 

1819 John E. Scholes. 

1890 Jerry Lees. 

1821 Nat Shelmerdine. 
18S9 James Leech. 
1893 Thomas Marriott. 

1834 Benjamin Booth. 

1835 George Jones. 

1836 Thomas Heywood. 

1837 Wiltiam Hatton. 
1828 Joaiah Collier. 

1839 John Bradshaw Wanklyu. 
1830 James Kerr. 

1891 WiUiam HIU. 
1833 John Dugdale. 

1833 Lot Gardner. 

1834 WiUiam Jenkinson. 

1835 James HaU, Jun. 
1SS6 Jamee Garratt Froet 

1837 KUcanah Armltago (afterwards Sir 

Elkanah Armltage, Kt) 

1838 John Leemlng. 

1839 Thomas Basley (afterwards Sir Thomas 

Bailey, Bt) 

1840 George H. HaU. 

1841 BoUand Hoole. 
1849 WUliam Lockett 
1848 Robert Cbadwlek. 

1844 WUliam Lockett. the last BotwighreeT* 
and first Mayor of Salford. 



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XIV 



Appendices to IvtrodvAstum. 



LIST OF THB MAYORS OF SALFOBD. 

Wim«iiLoekrtt(dtodJul7 7,1856) 1844-6 

JolmKAjCdlwl April 26, 1871) 1845-6 

Bobert Funn UTlngctone (dl«i SepUmber 11, 18ftS) 1846-7 

WUlUm JcnUiiMii (dlDd FobniMT 28, 1802) 1847-8 

Bdwwd Ryby LMkgworthy* II.P. (dlad April 7, 1874) 1848-0, 184»^ 

nioiiiMAgnew (died March 21, 1871) 18S0-1 

Frmnk ABhton (died lUreh 7, 1885) 1851-2,1858-8 

WUUam Rom (dlDd 1878) 1858-4, 1854-6 

SteplMD Hedli (died 1871) 18554, 1856-7 

WilliAmHArTe7(dl«iDoo«mber 25,1870) 1857-8, 1858-8 

Jmiim Woods W«rton(dtod April 22, 1877) 1850-60, 1800-1 

'juBMWomll 1861-2 

WIIUamP«moii(dtodl87S) 1802-8,1868-4 

Wright Tara6r(dtod 1880) 1864-5, 1865-6 

Henry Dftrie Fochin 1866-7, 1867-8 

ThoBuwDariae (died October 18, 1885) 1868-9, 1860-70. 1870-1 

Thomas Bariow (died 1885) 18n-2, 1872-3 

Rlchanl Harwood 1878-4, 1874-5, 1875-6 

Waneia HairisoD Walmaley 1876-7, 1877-8 

William Robinson 1878-9, 1879«), 1880-1 

Richard Husband 1881-2, 1882-3 

Chailea Makinson 1883-4, 1884-5 

Jamas Flumer 1885-6 



PABLIAMBNTABY BLBOTIONS 



BOROUGH OF MANCHESTER. 



Charias Wortley, of Flatt, flnt Raprssantattra, by order of Oliver Cromwell, July 10th, 1654. 
Richard Raddiffa, of *^a Fbol, August 12th, 1666. 



18S2— Dec 18 A 14. 



Votea. 



Hark Philips (L) 2028 

Right Hon. C. P. Thomson (l) 2068 

8amuelJonesLoyd(L) 1832 

John Thomas Hope (c) 1560 

William CobbeiC(L) 1305 

18S5-^an. 8 4 P. 

Right Hon, C P. Tbomaon (L) 8355 

HarkFhaipa(L) 8163 

B. Rraidley <(•) 2535 

81r Charles Wulselay (L) 583 

1885— April 28 A 29. 

Right Hod. C P. Thomson (L) SS05 

& Bf»idlay(c) 1839 

18S7-jQly 27. 

Right Hon. C. P. Thomson iL) 4158 

Hark Philips (L) 8750 

W. 1. Gladatona (c) 2281 

1839-8eptamber 5. 

aH.Orsg(L) 8096 



Sir OebrM Hurray (c) . 
ilonel Thomson (v 



i(t). 



(Before the Borougfareeve.) 



18S0-8eptamber 6. Votes. 

aaOrag(L) 8421 

Sir George Hurtmy(c) 3156 

(Before the Hayor.) 

1841-June Oa 

XaricPhiUpa(L) 8695 

T.H. Gibson (L) 8576 

Sir George Hurrsy (c) 3115 

William Bntwistle(c) 2692 

1847-July 29. 

Bt Hon. T. H. Gibaon (l) ) „ . 

JohnBright(L) ; ....L^ppomi. 

1852-^aly& 

Right Hon. T. H. Gibaon (L) 576 

John Bright (L) 5476 

Oecfi«Loch(u:) 4363 

Captain Denman (Lc) 3965 

1867— Haroh 28. 

Sir John Fbtter(L) 

Jamas Asplnall Turner (l) 

Right Hon. T. H. Gibson (l).. 

John Bright (lO 



7854 



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AppeTidices to IvJtroductwa. 



XV 



PABLIAMENTABT ELBCTIONS FOR HAKCHESTER— OmlJiNMrf. 



X85S— Nov«mber 17. 
• Bid«y(L} 

1800— Apiflaa Totea 

iil«T(t.) 7545 

jMBMAm«iMnTm>«r(L} 7300 

AM Hcjwood (L) 5448 

CfepteiB Denmui (c) 5S01 

1806-Jttl7l. 

TlionMBiulfly(L) 7900 

ldwwdJ«n6«.Q.C.(L) W08 

Jaeob Bright (L) 5608 

AbelHeywoodiL) 424S 

1007— "NoTonbtf SO* 

jMobBiMt(L) 8100 

J. M. Bennett (c) 0400 

]lltclMUH«ni7(L) 04S 

ISOO^NoTwnber 17. 

Hii^Biri«7(c) 15480 

IbomMBteleyCL) 14102 

jMobBri«fat(L) 18514 

JcMephHofti«(c) 12084 

■meet Jonee (L) 10002 

MitclMl Heniy ft) 5280 

1874— Febniftiy & 

HnghBlrleyrc) 10004 

wTb CallaKier(c) 10040 

BtrThomMBaxley, Bwt.(L) 19325 

jMobBrl«ht(L) 18727 

1870— Pebnury 17. 

Jacob Brlffht(L) 22535 

F.8.PtoweU(c) 20074 



1880~Aiiril L Totei. 

J<ilm8la«(L) 24950 

jMDb Bright (L) 24789 

Hugh Biriey (o) 20504 

W. H.Hoai(Uworth(c) 20208 

188S-October 4. 

W. H. Hooldsworth (c) 18188 

Dr.fi.M. PaDkhant(A) 0210 

1885— Norenber 20. 

East Dinaiov. 

A. J. BiUcmr (c) 4580 

A. HopUneon (L) 3712 

North Dituiov. 

J. P. Hatton (c) 4008 

a B. Schwann (L) 3143 

Nosm-EAST DivMioK. 

8irJ. PenruMonCc) 4341 

R. P. BlennerhMMtt(L) 2808 

NOBTH-WlCBT DiTISIOir. 

W. H. Bouldflworth (c) 5834 

JohnSUgg(L) 5111 

Sorm DiTisiov. 

Sir R E. RoMoe (L) 3701 

Dr. P. Ro7le(c) 3121 

floum-Wnr Dituioh. 

Loitl P. C. Hamilton <c) 8020 

Jacob Bright (L) 3302 



PABLIAMBNTABY ELECTIONS 

fOE TBS 

BOROUGH OF SALFORD. 



1832— December. 



Votes. 



Juseph Brotherton (l) 712 

William Qaraett(c) 518 

1835— January. 

JcMph Brotherton (L) 705 

John Dugdale (c) 



572 



1837— iLagost 

irton (l) . . . 
kOamett(c). 

1841— July 12. 



JoM^ Brotherton (L) 800 

inmam c - 



Joss^ Brotberion (L) 091 

WUUam Oamett (c) 873 



1847— August. 
Joseph Brotbcrton (l) unvp p om i 

1852-July 7. 

Joseph BroChertoD (l) 

(Died Jan. 7th, 1857.) 

1857— Pebruaiy 2. 
K. B. Uuigworthy (i) 



1857— March 2. 



Votes. 



Wm. Nathaniel Massey (L) 1S80 

Sir Elkaoah Armltage (L) 1204 

1850— April 30. 

Wm. Nathaniel Haaeey (L) 1010 

Henry Ashworth (l) 1787 

1804. 
John C!heetham (l) unoppoMcC 

1805-July 12. 
JdhnCheetfaam(L) tmctppoMrf 

1868— NoTember 17. 

aECaw]ey(<) 0812 

W. T. Charley (r) 0181 

John Chectham (l) 0141 

Henry Rawmn <L) 0013 

1874— February 6. 

C. B.Cawley(r) 7003 

(Died April 2nd, 1877.) 

W. T. Chariev (r) 00S7 

JoeephKay(L) tVv.>9 

Henry Lee (l) 0707 



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XVI 



Appendices to Introduction. 



PARLIAKENTART ELECTIONS FOR SALFORD^-CbnKmied 
18n— April 10. VoCm. 



O. 0. Wallur(c) 8042 

JoMphK«7(L) 8S72 

188(K-Aprtt 1. 

Annltsg«(L) 11116 

ur Arnold (l) 11110 

Sir W. T. durlay, Kt. Q.a (c) .. 8400 

O. O.WAUMr(c) 8802 



1885— NoTombtr 25. 
voATH Divuiov. Vote*. 

B.HardflMtlerc) 8510 

A.Araold(L) 8848 

SOUTH DITUIOV. 

WIIUAm]Utlier(L) 8752 

T. 0. BowlM (c) 8600 

wnr DiviBiOM. 

B. Annlta««(L) 8437 

BlrW.C. Worala7(c) 840 



POPULATION AND AOBEAGB OF THE 
OF MANOHESTBR, 



CITY 



Wau>. 


Pojmlatum 

xnrni 


&atuUAcru 


CoDestftto Church 


0,828 

813 

10,515 

846 

4,878 

4,653 

11,650 

25,721 

} 68,041 
47,080 
24.078 
81,197 
88.130 
22,468 
11,238 
84.545 
86,602 


137 


ExchftnM , .............. 


45 


8t JohiT* 


125 


St. Ann's 


89 


St.JAniM'ii .., ,....x..., .,. .... .. 


97 


Oxford 


136 


St. aem«nt'« 


151 


•Cheetham x.^ .......... 


919 


St. Michael's 


(^2 
(501 


^ Hftiinirhey ..., , 


KewCroM 


855 


--Bradford 


385 


• Ardwick 


509 


St. Luke's 


419 


A)18«<nt*' 


227 


v^flufholcie 


1,158 


Medlock Strwt 


194 


St George's , -- 


283 












Tirtals.... 


878,588 
841,414 


5,927 


Before the Bstcnsion 


of at7 BoundAiy in 


1885, 


the 


4,292 









HOUSES AND POPULATION OF SALFOBD 

AT THE GBirtUi OF 1881, WITH AOBBAO& 



DieTKICT. 



Artain 

StatuU 
Acrta, 



HOUMB. 



Population. 






^1^ BuUding Mala F*maUa 



Aa6il«f 



IWot 



Brouffhton 1,426 

PendJeton end Pwndlehury . . | 2,416 

SeUord < 1,829 

Totals ' 5.171 

WAMxm. 

Creeeent — 176 

Oreengmto 61 

laUngton 124 

Kertal 1,046 

Ordaal ' fi6 

Regent ; 521 

Ht. John's 367 

8t Matthias's 77 

St Stephen's , 104 

St Thomas'e ^17 

Heedley l.iWJ 

Trinity 52 

Totals I 5,171 



6,156 
8,574 
19.476 



067 
1.869 
2,157 



25 14,589 
51 I 20.323 



161 



49.606 



16,945 
22,794 
51.886 



81,684 

48,117 

101,684 



84.206 



4,493 



217 



84.610 I 91,625 176,286 



2,395 
1.446 
1,904 
8,516 
4.748 
8.701 
2.710 
2,165 
l.SM 
3,591 
4,983 
1.161 



818 
112 
IVO 
648 
447 
593 
428 
152 
122 
470 
899 
205 



4 
25 
63 
80 

*8 

1 

81 

2 



fi.«53 
8,443 
4,620 
8,127 

12,813 
9,872 
6,650 
5,183 
4,527 
8,554 

11.760 
3,199 



6.273 

3,632 

4,903 I 

9,692 
12.4S7 
10,445 

7,389 

5,718 

4,970 

9.687 
l^l57 

3,822 



84.206 



4.408 



217 84,610 91.625 176,286 



12,126 
7,075 
0.528 
17,819 
25,300 
20,817 
14,039 
10,901 
9,497 
18,191 
24,926 
6,521 



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Appendices to Introduction. 



xvn 



AOBBAOB, POPULATION, AND RATEABLE VALUE 

OF LOCAL BOABD DUTBICTS. 



DuimicT. 



Acrtt 



PmnUaium 

(1881) 



Valu€ 



Barton , 

Oumpafell , 

Dantcu and Haiagfatoii., 

DroTladan 

fWfaworth 



Gorton and Longdght. 

HaatonNonii 

Lavanahuhna ......... 

MSddleton and Tom . 

If CM Side 

Kawton Haath 

Opanabaw 

Piaatwich «... 



Swinton and Pandlabuiy . 

Wbitaflald 

Wlthlngton 



1,105 
S,200 

7SS 
S,ft9S 
1,144 
1,07S 
1,484 
1,604 

040 
4,684 

480 
1.850 

1,017 
1,641 
8,i54 
2,223 
3,048 
5,728 



5,990 

25.904 

8.154 

12.711 

8,679 

7,912 

88,090 

5.797 

8,557 

18,952 

18,184 

81,240 

10,153 

8.498 

5.557 

19.018 

18,107 

9,510 

17,108 



£82,791 

110,000 
88,728 
40,807 
80,000 
80,092 

102,406 
80,007 
18,137 
55,019 

110,501 
97,419 
80,878 
40,880 
29,703 

122,960 
70,000 
40,242 

187,289 



/a IA« C9M» ofCmmptaU omI PrtttwieK the populatiim u rtekotml without tkt inmata qf 
tJU Wwkhoum and Atplum, 



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ANNALS OF MANCHESTEE. 



48-79. 

THE first slimpse of historical Manchester Is as a Roman military station. 
The ccutnim was situated on a tongue of land formed by a curve of the 
river Medlock, which "approached nearest to the fortress at the southern 
angle of the latter, from which it was distant about 85ft., forming a defence on 
the south-western side, a partial one on the south-eastern, and a more distant 
one on the north-western. The river Irwell, running north and south, approaches 
nearest to the c<utrum opposite its western angle, from which it is distant 
about 528 yards, the junction of the Medlock with it occurring some 130 yards 
lower down. This proximity of the Irwell, and the intervention of a morass 
between it and the caatrum, proved a second line of defence to the latter 
on its north-western side. The fortress occupied a slightly-elevated plateau, 
which had a gentle slope towards the south. In shape it was a paral- 
lelogram, the angles of which almost exactly faced the cardinal points. 
The north-eastern and south-western sides measured 490ft. in length, and 
the north-western and south-eastern sides 440ft., thus giving an area of 
about Ave acres. Whether a British post occupied the site previously 
to the advent of the Romans Is a problem which can hardly now be solved." 
Such is the description given by Mr. W. Thompson Watkin in his Bonuin 
Lanecuhire. The Rev. John Whitaker unhesitatingly asserts that there was 
a British fortress, to which he gives the name of Maneanion, but there is no 
certain evidence either of the place or the name before the Roman conquest. 
The date of the foundation of Manchester is also uncertain, but it can be fixed 
within comparatively narrow limits. The Brigantes— the tribe to whom this 
district would belong— were subjugated by the Pro-praetor Petillus Cerealis, 
A.D. 71>75. It is known the lead mines of North Wales were worked as early 
as A.D. 74, and that Chester and the roads to it from Manchester, by North- 
wich, and to Warrington, by Frodsham, &c., were then in existence. Mr. 
Watkin observes, ** As the former of these roads would scarcely be made to 
North wich only, we may safely assume that it was continued on to Man- 
chester, and thus that Mancunium was in existence in a.d. 74. Indeed, it Is 
possible that Ostorius, who in a.d. 48 subdued the Cangl and put down a 
revolt of the Brigantes, may have founded Manchester at this juncture. The 
recorded inscriptions show that the First Cohort of the Frisiavones, who are 
regarded as the auxiliaries of the Twentieth Legion, were engaged In 



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2 Amfuds of Manchester. [su-ser 

the conatraction of the ecutrum. The Frisii came from the district now 
known aa Fiiesland, and from the north and west of the Zuyder Zee. 
An ingenious attempt has been made in recent years to show that the 
language of these Roman auxiliaries has had a permanent effect on the 
dialect of South Lancashire. The Third Bracarian Ck>hort is also belieyed to 
have been stationed at Manchester. A fragment of the Roman wall still 
remains, and, by the care of the late Lord Francis Egerton, was covered 
with a wooden shed at the foot of one of the large piers of the Altrincham 
Railway Viaduct. Its preservation is provided for by deed. There was an 
altar to Foriuna Conservatrix—" Fortxme the Preserver." (HoUin- 
worth, pw 16.) Another altar shows that at one time the garrison 
consisted of a vexillation of RhaetU and Norici— Swiss and Tyrolese. 
A fine miniature statue of Jupiter Stator, a small cross, perhajw an 
indication of early Christianity,, and a variety of smaller objects and coins, 
have from time to time been unearthed. These evidences of Roman 
occupation are fully described and discussed by Mr. Thompson Watkin in his 
Roman Lanccuhire where fiany of them are illustrated. It will be seen 
that there is a probability that Ifanchester came under the Roman power by 
the agency of Petilius Cerealis, but it may not have been until the later cam- 
paigns of Agrioola, whose progress by the woods and estuaries— special charac- 
teristics of Lancashire— is expressly mentioned by Tacitus in his narrative ot 
the march by which the great general alarmed and terrified the Brigantes, and 
subdued such communities as had still preserved their independence. The 
building of Mancnnium would not therefore be later than a.d. 79, whilst it 
may have been as early as a.d. 48. Agrioola, if we may trust Tacitus, had the 
wisdom of a statesman as well as the valour of a soldier. The winter after his 
conquest he began the task of civilising the conquered tribes, by teaching them 
the art of constructing houses and temples, by imparting to the sons of the 
native chieftains an acquaintance with liberal sciences and a knowledge of the 
Latin tongue. Thus they learned to imitate the manners, speech, and dress of 
the dominant race. 

In 1973» during the making of some roads in Broughton Park, the work- 
men came upon a dnerary urn containing calcined bones. It is now in the 
Peel Park Museum, Salford. 

311. 

This year is memorable as the date of the assumption of Christianity by 
Constantine the Great. His father died at York, 25th July, 306, and it was at 
that place, the capital of the district which included Ifanchester, that ho 
assumed the purple. Before he left England for Rome he had conducted a brief 
but successful campaign against the Picts and Scots who had now begun to be 
troublesome. 

367. 

The Picts, Scots, and Saxoos combined made an incursion into Southern 
Britain, but were driven back northwards by Theodoeius, who returned most 
of their spoil to the rightful owners, and restored the damaged forts and 
cities to their fonner condition. How far Lancashire sufliered is not known. 



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^n^^4m Armals of Manchester. 8 

378-396. 

When TheodosloB, the son of the general whose Ttctories have been named^ 
became Joint Emperor with Gratian, hie elevation to power excited the anger 
of Maximna, a former fellow-offlcer, who waa proclaimed Emperor, it is said at 
York. He raised an army, which inclnded the flower of the British yonth, 
invaded Ganl and defeated Gratian, who was killed a.d. 883. Bat the star of 
Mazimns soon paled, and he was defeated and slain by Theodosios ▲.d. 388. 
The victor died in 305, and in his reign was appointed the last known Governor 
of Britain, Chrysanthos, who was VicarinB^ 

400-421. 

It has been said that the famous Stilicho distinguished himself in Britain, 
but other authorities state that it was the terror caused by his crushing defeat 
of the Saxon pirates, the scourges of the northern coast* which led the Picts to 
retreat from Britain to their mountain fastnesses. 

The accession of Theodosius IL, about a.d. 407, led to the approhension of 
a Vandal invasion, and the Britons, with the Roman troops stationed in the 
island, revolted and proclaimed Marcus, who in a few months was killed and 
succeeded by Gratian, described as a native, whose reign was equally brief. 
The next Emperor was a common soldier, bearing the auspicious name of 
Constantine, who went to Gaul with a large following from this island, and 
conquered Spain and Northern Italy, and was assassinated A.D. 411. The 
revolt* however, had taken the best strength and blood from the land, and 
when the legions were recalled the country fell an easy prey to the attacks of 
the Picts and Scots. The exact date of the withdrawal of the Roman troops ia 
not known, but ** historians agree that it was in the earlier part of the reign of 
Theodosius U. (a.d. 402-430) that Britain, with several other provinces, was lost 
to the empire. Numismatic evidence confirms this, for while the coins of 
Honorius and Arcadius are plentiful, those of Theodosius IL are few, and of 
Vallentinian IIL (a.d. 42&455) very rare— probably accidentally lost in the 
course of commercial transactions. Lancashire has yielded very few coins of 
even Arcadius and Honorius " ( Watkin). 

449. 

Balnes narrates, on the authority of Geol&ey of Monmouth, the suoeessea 
of Aurelius Ambroslus against the invading Saxons. Octa was conquered at 
York, and '* Ebissa, who had probably occupied Manchester while Octa waa 
stationed at York, also submitted; but on the death of Ambroslus they 
revolted, and took Overbrough, Walton-le-Dale, Manchester, and Warrington. 
They were defeated and captured at York." Even if it were possible to accept 
Geoffrey of Monmouth as a sober chronicler, or to separate the grains of 
tradition from the mass of fable— which appears equally hopelesa— It must bo 
further confessed that Geoflkey makes no mention of Manchester In his narra* 
Uve. He does not say that Manchester was part of the lordship or kingdom of 
Eosa, Ebnsa, or Ebissa, as the chief is variously styled. He merely says that 
It was ** the country bordering upon ScoUand." The conqueror of Ebussa is 
ths legendary Uther, the father of Kins Arthur. 



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4 Armals of MamcKester. (620-688 

620. 

HoUlnworth, In his MancuniengU, refers to a tradition which must have - 
heen current in his, the seventeenth century. *' It is sayd,** he observes, ** that 
Sir Tarquine, a stout enemie of Eling Arthur, kept this castle, and neere to the 
f oard in Medlock, about Mabhouse, hung a bason on a tree, on which bason 
whosoever did strike. Sir Tarqnine, or some of his company, would come and 
fight with him, and that Sir Launcelot du Lake, a knight of King Arthur's 
Round Table, did beate uppon the bason, fought with Tarquine, killed him, pos- 
sessed himselfe of the castle, and loosed the prisoners. Whosoever thinketh it 
worth his pains to read more of it may read the history of King Arthur. It is 
certain that about a.d. 520 there was such a prince as King Arthur, and it is 
not incredible that he or his knights might contest about this castle when he 
was in this county, and (as Ninius sayth) hee put ye Saxons to flight in a 
memorable battell near Wigan, about twelve miles off" (pp. 21, 22). The 
Arthurian localities have been a subject of vigorous debate, and it may be 
regarded as utterly impossible to settle them with any reasonable degree of cer- 
tainty, lir. Skene identifies places in the North, Dr. Guest is equally confident 
as to localities in the South ; Hollinworth, Whitaker, and lir. D. H. Haigh 
are positive as to Lancashire. The river Duglas and the region Linius 
remain nnidentifled. The various theories are carefully summarised by Bfr. 
CLarlea Hard wick in his Lancashire BcUtU^fidds. 

607. 

Ethelfrith, the C^eftain or Eling of Northumbria, in the course of his march 
upon Chester, where he slew the Welsh priests, would pass through South 
Lancashire, which was probably occupied by the English at this date, ** and the 
nature of the occupation,** observes Professor Boyd Dawkins, ** may be gathered 
from the treatment of the city of Chester. A fire (to use the metaphor of 
Gildas) went throng the land, and the Brit- Welsh were either put to the sword 
or compelled to become the bondsmen or conquerors.** The conquest of North 
Lancashire was still later. 

62a 

In this year Baines states that Edwin, King of Northumbria, permanently 
reduced the town of Blanchester under the dominion of the Saxons, but he dtea 
no authority for the statement. 

627. 

Edwin, King of Northumbria, adopted the (Christian faith, and was bap- 
tised at York by Paulinus, who also preached the Gospel in Lancashire. About 
this date there probably arose a Saxon church at Manchester, but of this there 
is no absolute evidence. 

689. 

Manchester selected for the residence of Ethelburga, the consort of Ina, 
King of Wcssex, during his march against the Welsh under Ivor and Henyr, 
who had laid waste the province of Chester. Having conquered the invaders 
in two sanguinary conflicts, Ina, according to a chronicle quoted by Humphrey 
Lhuyd, ** departed himself with Adelard, his cousen, to Queen Ethelburga, 
being then at Manchester, and continued there about three months.** 



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YM.990] Armala of Manchester, 



(Ormeiod*s Cheahirey toL !., introd. xzy.) In the Rhyming Chronicle ot 
Robert BCannyng, alias Robert de Bnmne, of about A.D. 1300 (and which ia 
^iparently a paraphrase of Peter Langtoft's French Chronicle), is the following 
Tersion (modernised) of the facto cited by Humphrey Lhuyd :— 
"TlM KaglUh kiogi tamed ; th«y ooald do no more 

Bttt toJoimMd thma awhile, iu reet, «t Bengor ; 

80 that each king of realm thould make him all ready, 

Aft the Eoetm- (after King Ina would tarry), 

Homeward to go, to child and to wife, 

To Tialt their landa and eolace their life. 

Ina, King of Weeaex, for hia wife eent 

Unto Mameoeetre, The Queen to him went." 

704. 

HoUinworth has the following : " After that Ethelred, King of the Nortn- 
nmbers* was slaine anno 794, there was an interregnum for thirty yeares, in 
which time this whole I^vince (wherein this towne must needes have ito share) 
was made a prey and a laughing-stocke to iU neigbors, saith William of 
Malmeabury.** (P. 22.) 

863. 
/* It is allso sayd," states HoUinworth, * *that the townesmen carried valiantly 
against the Danes when, about Ao. Chrlsti 863, they landed in Northumber* 
land, though it is utterly unworthy that the inhabitanto should imagine, as 
Mr. Cambden pretends they did in his time, that Ifanchester should signify the 
*City of Men ;* and with this light and frothy conoeite, implying their owne 
commendation, should at all please themselves ; yet it is true that they did 
carry valiantly and fared the worse for it ; for the Danes, about ten years after, 
tooke and possessed themselves of the whole region of Northumberland ; they 
tooke allso the city of Yorke ; they held the countrey about 00 years. Certainly 
at that time Ifanchester was either ruined totally or in a great measure, as 
Chester allso and other cityes when their destroying f eete trampled downe the 
beauty of the land.** (Pp. 22, 23.) 

001. 

In this year died Alfred the Great, to whom has been traditionally assigned 
the division of the lands into hundreds as areas of local government and de- 
fence. The name of Salfordshire was given to South-East Lancashire, and It is 
reasonably conjectured that Manchester had suffered so greatly from the 
ravages of the Danes as to be in a ruinous condition, and therefore of less im- 
portance at that time than its neighbour, Salford. 

020. 

'* In the yeare of our Salvation 020, King Edward the Elder (as Mavianus 
wrlteth) sent an army of Mercians into Northumberland, To reedify the Citie 
0/ Manchester and to place a garrison there (for it belonged formerly to the 
kings of Northumberland), and seemeth to have been quite destroyed in the 
Danish warre, against whom, because the inhabitants had borne themselves as 
valiant men« they will have their towne to be called Manchester^that is, as 
they expound it. The Citie of Men; and in this conceit, which implieth their 



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6 Anruda of Manchester. (938-iom 

own oommeiidation« they wonderfully please and flatter themselTes. But foil 
little know the good honest men that Mancunium was the name of it in the 
Britans* time, so that the etymologle thereof ont of onr English tongue can by 
no means seem probable. I, for my part, therefore, would derive it rather 
from main, a British word which signifleth a stone ; for upon a stony hill it is 
seated, and beneath the very towne, at Cfolyhursiy there are most good and 
famous quarries of stone." Camden (Phil HoUancTs Tranatatian, pp. 746-7). 

023. 

'* In this year," says the Saxon Chronide, " after harvest, King Edward 
went with his forces to Thelwall, and commanded the town to be built, and 
occupied, and manned ; and commanded another force also of Mercians, tho 
while that he sat there, to take possession of Ifanchester, in Northumbria, and 
repair and man it." There has been some controversy as to whether Manchester 
was included in the kingdom of Merda or in that of Northumbria. Whitaker 
maintains that it was part of Merda, but the passage in the Saxon Chronicle 
seems good evidence to the contrary. It is dear also from this entry that Man- 
chester suflbred from the Danes, but the bloodshed and suffering caused by 
their incursions have remained unchronlded. 

At this time, in the opinion of Baines, the town of Manchester extended 
from the confluence of the Medlock with the Irwell to the confluence of the Irk 
with the same river ; in other terms, from the Castlefleld to the college (Chet- 
ham*s Hospital) ; and that Deansgate and St. Mary's-gate formed the prindpal 
streets, and Aldpark the vill prednct. In addition to the mill near the Roman 
castrum, another was built on the banks of the Irk, where Cateaton Street now 
stands, and gave the name to Old BUllgate, which is to be classed amongst the 
andent parts of the town. The market was held in and about Smithy Door, 
and the wakes were celebrated on St. Michael and St. Mary's days, the former 
of them along the course of Aldport Lane, and the latter in the area of Acres 
Field. 

1031. 

Canute the Dane, in his march into Cumberland to encounter the Scots, 
visited Manchester, and is reputed to have conferred his name on one of its 
ancient mills, popularly called Knot (or Canute) Mill, but there is no evidence 
of the occurrence. 

1086. 

The evidences as to the earlier history of the district are so few that much 
more has been left to ingenious conjecture than is at all satisfactory. With the 
Norman Conquest we have a document of great importance, though the infor- 
mation it contains is not always dear. The passage in Domesday Book relating 
to the Manchester district is thus translated : " King Edward hdd Salford. 
There are ill. hides and xiL carucates of waste land. There is a forest iii. leagues 
long and the same broad. There are many hays and a hawk's aery there. King 
Edward held RadecUve for a manor. There is i. hide, and another hide there 
belongs to Salford. The Church of Saint Mary and the Church of Saint Michael 
hdd in Mamecestre L carucate of land free from all customs but the gelt. To 
this manor or hundred belonged xxL berewicks, which so many thanes held for 
so many manors. In which there were xL and a half hides and x. and a half 



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20661 Awruda of Mcmcheeter. 



carncateft of land. The woods there are iz.. leagues and a half long and ▼• 
leagnes and a furlong broad. Gamel, a tenant of ii. of these hides in Becedham 
iBochdale), was free of all cnstoms but these six : theft, heinfare, forestel, breach 
of the peace, not keeping the term set him by the reeve, and continuing a fight 
after an oath given to the contrary. The fine for these was xi. shillings. Some 
of these lands were free from every custom but the gelt, and some were free 
even from the gelt. The whole manor of Salf ord, with the hundred, rendered 
zxxvii. pounds and iv. shillings. Of this manor there are now in the demesne 
iL carucates and viii. serfs, and iL villeins with L carucate. The demesne 
is worth c shillings. Of the lands of this manor these knights hold, by the 
gift of Boger of Polctou, Nigel ill. hides and half a carucate of land, Warin 
iL carucates of land, another Warin i. carucate and a half, Goisfrld i. carucate 
of land, and Gamel il. carucates of land. In these are three thanes and xzx. vil- 
leins and ix. bordars and a priest and x. serfs. They have xxii. carucates among 
them. The whole is worth vii. pounds.** (Beamont, Domesday Book^ p. 81.) 
After an Intervening passage about Leyland, we read : " The men of this manor 
(Lailand] and of Salford were not bound by the custom to work at the King*s 
hall or to mow for him in August. They only made hay in the wood, and they 
had the forfeitures for bloodshed and rape. In the other customs of the other 
manors above mentioned they bore their part.'* (Beamont, p. 81.) Of the 
entire district between Bibble and Mersey it is said : " In King Edward's time 
the whole was worth cxl v. pounds and ii. shillings and ii. pence. When Boger of 
Poictou received it from the King it was worth cxx. pounds. The King now 
holds it, and has in his demesne xii. carucates, and [there are] ix. knights hold- 
ing a fee. Amongst them and their men there are cxv. carucates and ill. oxen. 
The demesne which Boger held is valued at xxUi. pounds and x. shillings, 
what he bestowed on his knights at xx. pounds and xi. shillings.** (Beamont^ 
p. 83.) It appears to be implied that there were two churches in Manchester, 
but if the Church of St. Mary be identified with the parish church, it is difficult 
to know where St. Michaers could have been. One suggestion is that the pas- 
sage applies to the whole district, and that St. Michael's at Ashton-under-Lyne 
is meant. The necessity for two churches in a place so small as Manchester 
then was is not at all apparent. The subject is discussed fully in Ulbbert 
Ware's FoundatUma of Manchester. 

Boger of Poictou, to whom William the Conqueror granted the land 
between Mersey and Bibble, was one of the sons of Boger de Montgomery, Earl 
of Arundel and Shrewsbury, and grandson of Boger the Great de Montgomery. 
The pedigree is by no means undisputed, but the evidence is carefully analysed 
by Mr. H. H. Howorth in the Palatine Note-book (vol. ii.). The second Boger 
styles himself es^Normannis Normannua, and was probably a descendant of 
one of the freebooters who, under Bollo, settled in Normandy. The surname 
of Montgomery came from a fief in what is now the department of Calvados. 
The wife of the second Boger was a daughter of William Talvas de Belesme.^ 
The father's character was a bad one, and the lady is described as small of body* 
A great talker, crafty, cruel, and audacious. The marriage is said to have taken 
place in ICKIS, and Boger de Plctavensis was the third son. At the time of the 
Conquest, among the most important, rich, and influential of all William's 
feudatories, was Boger de Montgomery, viscount of the HiesmoJs. Waoe has 



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8 Armala of Manchester. [iios-iisi 

giyen a vivid acooont of his share in the battle of Hastings, and his statement 
Is adopted by Freeman. On the other hand Orderic Vitalis states that he 
remained behind as Governor of Normandy. The question was fully debated 
between Mr. Howorth and Dr. Freeman {PcUatine Note-hook^ vol. ii.). Mr. 
Howorth believes that it was Roger of Poictou, and not his father, who fought 
at SenJac, and, in confirmation, points out, that of the various sons of the Earl 
of Arundel, he was the only one who received a reward from the Norman Con- 
queror. His estates in what is now known as Lancashire are entered under 
Cheshire in Domesday Book. The people were rather Mercian than Northum* 
brian in speech and race. The population was sparse. His possessions were in 
^e nature of an Honour, and not a County, and there is no good evidence that 
he ezerdsed palatine jurisdiction or was an Earl. He was a great selgnor, 
holding of the Crown and having extensive privileges. The courts of criminal 
and civil jurisdiction of such great landowners have been well described as 
public jurisdictions in private hands. It is thought that he fixed his residence 
at Clitheroe, and in that stronghold this lord of 300 manors may have held his 
court. He obtained his surname of Poictou from his marriage with a lady of 
that duchy. This was Almades, daughter of Adalbert IH., Count of La 
Blarche. Roger, between the Conquest and Domesday, had forfeited the great 
grants made to him in Lancashire by his defection from the King, but his 
honours were restored by William II. He appears to have been a turbulent 
spirit* and having joined Robert Duke of Normandy in a rebellion against 
Henry I., he was finally deprived of his possessions and banished from the 
country in 1101. 

1102. 

William Peverel, Lord of Nottingham, a natural son of William the Con- 
queror, succeeded to some of the possessions of Roger of Poictou, including the 
hundred and town of Salford. It is under his rule that Albert Grssley received 
his grant of lands forming the greater proportion of the barony of Manchester. 
Gresley is, however, said to have been a favourite of Roger Pictavensia, and is 
thought to have held the barony from 1066 to 1100. 

1120. 

** One writeth that about 1120 (a mistake for 1520, about 12 H 8) there wero 
three famous clothiers living in the north country— viz., Cuthbert of Kendal, 
Hodgkins of Halifax, and Blartin Brian, some say Byrom, of Manchester . . . 
he sayeth also that the sayd Martin gave much money to the building of a free 
school in Manchester.** (Hollinworth*s Mancunienais,) This has been fre- 
quently repeated, but Martin Byrom is purely mythical, and the passage ie 
based on one of Thomas Deloney's romances and has no historic value at all. 

1131. 

Robert, the son of Albert Gresley and second baron of BCanchester, gave to 
the Abbey of Swineshead, in Lincolnshire, his mill at Mancestre, ** at which 
lordship,** says Dugdale, " he held his principal seat.** He is stated to have 
died in 1135, but another account represents him as fpunding the abbey in 1143* 
Dugdale (Monasticon and Baronage) says 113I. 



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uss-isss] ' Annals of Manchester, 9 

1136. 

Albert Grelle, aenex, third baron, lived in the time of Stephen and Henry 
m. [? 1135-1166], and married a daughter of William FitzNigel, Baron of 
Halton, with whom he acqtrfred lands in the upper bailiwick of Mamcestre. 
Amongst his grants were four ozgangs to Ulric de Bilamcestre and four ozgangs 
to the church in Mamoefetre (supposed to be the site of the old Parsonage, 
Deansgate), and a croft to the Abbey of Swineshead. He is believed to have 
died about 1166. 

1166. 

Albert Gresley, seneas, was succeeded by Albert Greeley tjuvenis, as fourth 
baron, who in 1166 confirmed the grants of his father and grandfather to * 
Swineshead Abbey. Albert, JuveniSj married Isabel, daughter ot Thomas 
Baaset, and was dead in 1162. 

1182. 

• 

Robert Gresley. fifth baron, succeeded, but being under age (bom 117S), 
was placed under the guardianship of his mother, Isabel, and her brother, 
Gilbert Basset* She married again and became the wife of Guy de Creon. 
Details of his grants of land are given in Harland's Mamcestre, 

1105. 

Robert Gresley, Baron of Mamecestre, came of age and did homage 6th 
Richard L, and was invested with his lands. He was the first Gresley known 
to have lived in Mamecestre—vis., at the Baron's Yard or HuU* on the site of 
Chetham*8 Hospital. (Baines.) 

120O-1207. 

The Testa de NeviU gives particulars as to the various holders of land in 
Lancashire, as the result of an inquisition made by a Jury of knights, at a date 
not stated, but supposed to be about 120O— 1207. Full particulars are given in 
Harland's Mamcestre. 

1215. 

Robert de Gresley, Baron of Manchester, was one of the peers who de- 
manded Magna Charta from King John, at Runnymede, June 12. When the 
barons again rose in arms Gresley incurred the anger of the King, who com- 
mitted his castle to Adam de Yeland, probably as sheriff, and afterwards 
granted Greslet's lands to William Maresma the younger and Hugh de Vivian. 
These orders were never executed, and John's death In 1216 left Greslct 
undisturbed. ^^^. 

1222. 

Robert Greslet obtained a grant of a yearly fair of two days* duration at 
his lordship of Manchester, to be held on the eve and day of St. Matthew. 
The grant is dated 11th of August. As the King was then a minor, the privilcKO 
was limited until the time when the King should come of age. For this con- 
cession the baron gave five marks and one palfrey. See further under date 
1227. 



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10 Anrials of Manchester. nmim 

1227. 

A second charter for an annual fair, granted to Manchester by Henry III., 
at the request of the third Baron of Manchester. The time was now extended 
to three days— on the eve and feast day of St. Matthew, the apostle, and tho 
day next following— and the grant made perpetual. No consideration Is 
stated as having been paid for the charter, which is dated at Faringdon, 10th 
August. 

1231. 

Randulph de Blundeville, Earl of Chester, granted a charter making Salford 
a free or corporate borough. It is not dated, but was probably granted in or 
about 1231. The document is now in the Peel Park Museum. The following is 
a translation made by Mr. T. N. Morton :— 

** Ranulf, Earl of Chester and of Lincoln, to all now present, and to those wao 
hhall hereafter inspect or hear of this present Charter, gives saluUtion. 
*'[!.] Be it known that I have given, trranted, and by this my present 
charter have confirmed, that the town of Saiiord mav be a free borough ; and 
that the burgesses dwelling therein may have ana hold all these liberties 
underwritten : ill.] First, that every burgess may hold one acre of land with 
his burgage, ana shall pay for each burgage twelve pence per year, for all rents 

Ecrtainmg to the said burgage. [III.] If the reeve of the town challenge any 
urgess concerning any plea, and the i>artv challenged shall not appear at the 
day appointed, nor any other for him. in the laghe-moot, he shall forfeit to me 
twelve pence. [IV.] If any burgess snail sue another burffess for any debt, and 
he has acknowledged the debt, the reeve may appoint a day for him to appear 
(in court), viz., the eighth ; and if he comes not ne shall pay me twelve pence 
for forfeiture of the day, and pay the debt, and the reeve four pence, [v.] If 
any burgess shall in anger strike or beat any other burgess within the borough 
without shedding blood, he may make peace for himself in view of the bur- 



gcAAes, saving my right, vix., twelve pence. [VI.] And if any one shall be sued 
within the borough concerning any plea, he shall not answer, if a burgess to a 
bondman, or to any other, save in his ownportmannemoot, that is, concerning 



a plea which appertains to the borough. [VII.] If any burgess or other person 
accuse another burgess of theft, the prefect shall summon nim to answer and 
to stand Judgment in the portmannemoot, saving my right. [VIII.] If any one 
shall be suea by his neighoour, or by any other person, concerning any matter 
which appertains to the borough, and the complainant makes no appearance 
for three days, if the defendant shall have the testimonv of the reeve and of 
his neighbours that his adversarv has failed to appear during those three days, 
he need give no answer to that plea, and the other shall be at the mercy (of the 
lord of the borough). [IX.] Also no burgess outcht to take bread which Is for 
sale, except at my bakehouse, according to the reasonable customs (of the 
borough). [X.] If I shall have a mill there, the burgesses may grind at such 
mill to the twentieth bushel : and if I shall nave no mill there, they may grind 
wheresoever they wish. (XI. J Likewise the said burgesses can choose the reeve 
from themselves, whom they wish, and remove him at tho end of the year. 
[XII.] And when any burgesses shall wish to grant mortgage, or sell his bur- 
Ksge, he may do so to any one, unless the heirs wish to buy it, and then the 
uearvst shall have the preference, saving my service, and so that it be not sold 
to reli^rion. [XIII.1 Moreover, the burgesses may arrest their debtors for debta 
contracted in the Dorougb, if the debtor acknowledge the debt^, unless they 
hold a tenement in the borough. [XIV.] The chattelH of the burgesses may 
not be detained for any other debts than their own. [XV.] The aforesaid bur^ 
getutes also and ail theirs, of whomsoever they may buy or sell, and whereso- 
ever they may be within my lordships, whether at fairs or markets, shall be 
free from toll, except the salt toll. [XVI.] Whosoever shall break the assixev 
whether of bread or of beer, shall suflTcr a forfeiture of twelve pence three 
times : and the fourth time lie Hhall perform the assise of the tot>n. [XV^'II.] 
Also tlie Kaid burcesses shall have common free pasture in the \%u<)d, in the 
plain, and in all the pasturen belonging to the town of Salford ; and shall be 
free from pannage in the same wood of the town of Salford. [XVIII.] The 
same burgesses may take reasonably in the aforesaid wood all necessaries for 



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Ui9-1M3) 



Arnuds of Manchester. 11 



building and for burning. [XIX.] Any one may also implead for his wife and 
for hiB family, and the wife of any person can pay his fine, to be made to the 
reeve as he ought, and to follow the plea for her nusband, if he himself chance 
to be elsewhere. [XX.] A burgess, if he have no heir, can leave his burgage 
and his chattels, whensoever ne dies, to whom he pleases, savins my rlghty 
vis., four pence, and saving the service pertaining to the said bum«e ; 
so, however, that the burgage be not alienated in religion. [XXI.] when 
a burgess dies his widow shall remain in the house with the heir and 
there have necessaries so long as she remain without a husband, and 
from the time she may wish to be married again, she may depart freely, 
without dower, and the heir as lord shall remain in the house. [XXII.J 
Also when a burgess dies his heir shall give no further relief to me, 
except arms, vix., of this kind— a sword, a oow, or a lance. [XXIII.] No 
one within the wapontake of Salford, as a shoemaker, currier, fuller, or any 
such, may exercise nis calling, except in the borough, saving the liberties of 
the barony. [XXIV.] The aforesaid burgesses, moreover, shall pay my rent 
for the burgages at four periods of the year : viz., the Nativity of our Lord, 
three pence ; Midlent, three pence ; the fesMt of the blessed John the Baptist, 
three pence ; and the feast of the blessed Michael, three pence. [XXV.J All 
the above pleas shall be decided before the bailiffs of the lord the earl, upon 
view of the burgesses. [XXVI.] Whoever may wish to sell his burgage, ex- 
cept to religion, and to leave the town, shall pay me four pence and go freelr 
wheresoever he wishes, with all his chattels. I, Banulph, and my heirs will 
ffuarantee all the aforesaid liberties and customs to the said burgesses and 
their heirs against all men for ever, saving to me and to my heirs reasonable 
tallaae, except when the lord King impose a tallage on his boroughs through- 
out Cmgland. In the memory whereof to this present page I have affixed my 
•eal : liefore these witnesses : (1) Sir William, Justiciar of Chester ; (2) Simou 
de Uontfort ; (3) Pagan de Chauworth : (4> Fulc son of Warren ; (5) Gilbert de 
Segrave ; (6) Walkel de Ardeme ; (7) Kichard de Vernon ; (8) Roger Gernet ; 
<9> Roger de Derby ; (10) Geoflk^v de Bury ; <11) Hugh de Biron ; (12) Simon and 
(13) Jonn, scribes ; and many others.'* 

For further details the reader may consult The First Charter of Salford^ 
County Lancaster ^ by J. E. Bailey, F.S.A., reprinted with additions, ftc, from 
the Palatine Note Book for July and August, 1882. (Manchester, 1882.) 

Robert, Baron of Manchester, died in 1230^1. He had married a daughter 
of Henry de Longchamp, and was succeeded by his son Thomas. 

1249. 
Thomas Gresley had a grant of free warren over all his lands in Mamcestro 
and Horwidu (Harland.) 

1253-4. 
Greslet*s lands in Mamcestre and Horwlch forest were escheated, probably 
on account of his resistance to an aid sought by Henry UI. for his war iii 
Gasoony, and for a projected expedition to the Holy Land. 

1259. 
Thomas, Baron of Mamcestre, appointed in 1230^ "Justiciar** of the 
King's forests south of the Trent. Particulars of grants of land made by him 
are given in the Testa de yieviUe. This was probably a reward for his services 
In the expedition of the preceding year against the Welsh, who had overrun 
rembrokeshire. Ho married Christiana I^det, and died about 1261. 

1262. 
Robert Gresley succeeded to the barony on the death of his grandfather, 
Thomas. It was found by inquisition that Thomas had not infeofled his son 
Peter of his manor of Manchester, and that the custody thereof did appertain 
to the King, by reason of the minority of his heir, in regard it was held in 
capite by Barony; the sheriff had command to seise it. (Dugdale.) He 



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12 Annala of Manchester. 



[1281-1399 



was sammoned to Parliament, 1273—1276. His guardian dnring mlnoritj 
was Edward Cronchback, first Earl of Lancaster. His uncle, Peter Greslet, 
was for a time cuatos eccUsict, keeper of the church, but never held the 
barony. Robert married Hawise, daughter of John de Burgh, and made grants 
of land to the Abbey of Stanlaw and to Whalley Abbey. He died 1282 [1283-4, 
Dngdale] when about 90 years old ; whereupon Amadeus de Savoy had the cus- 
tody of the manor of Manchester, with its members, during the minority of 
Thomas, son and heir. (Dugdale.) 

1281. 

The rental of Salford, with water-mill, toll and stallage of the market and 
fair, and pleas and perquisites of the court, amounted to £12 16s. 6id. The 
assize rent of Burghton was £2 8s.; of Ordesall £1 12s. The pleas and perquisites 
of the court of the wapentake amounted to £4 7s. 3d. See an extract from the 
rent-roll of Edward, Karl of Lancaster, in Harland*s Manicesire. 

1282. 

Thomas Greslet, who succeeded to the barony, was only three years old at 
the time of his father's death, and during his minority was the ward of 
Amadeus of Savoy, a royal favourite, who acted as the proxy of Prince Edward 
of Carnarvon at his marriage with the Princess Isabella of France. 

The first notice of a court in Manchester occurs in the inquisitions held 
before the sscheator and sheriff this year. These inquisitions give many 
details as to the possessions of the lord of Manchester. The fulling mill Is said 
to be worth £1 6s. 8d.; the oven IDs. ; the Rectory of Manchester valued at 200 
marks per annum =£133 6s. 8d. The annual value of the entire manor of Man- 
chester, which extended far beyond the town, is calculated to have been nearly 
equal to £6,000 of modem money. 

1291. 

Pope Nicholas IV. caused a valuation to be made of the ecclesiastical 
livings in England, when Manchester was valued at £53 Os. 8d., and Prestwich 
at £18 13s. 4d. 

1295. 

Hugh of Mamcestre and William of Gaynesburgh were sent as ambassadors 
to the French King to vindicate the claim of Edward L to the lands of Aquitaine. 
Hugh was a man of learning and distinction, and was professor and doctor of 
divinity, and Provincial of the Dominican Preachers In England. An impostor 
having claimed that miracles had been performed at the tomb of Henxy IH., 
liaracestre detected the fraud and wrote an exposure of it, which he dedi- 
cated to Edward I., entitled *'De Fanaticorum Deliriis** (or the Dotages of 
Fanatics). '* I could wish,** says Fuller, " some worthy divine would resume 
this subject.** But it is doubtful if Hugh of Manchester belonged to Lanca- 
shire, and some regard him as a native of Warwickshire. The question is dis- 
cussed in the second volume of the Tranaactiona of the Lancashire cmd 
Cheshire Antiquarian Society, 

Henry de Ancotes gives an acre of land and a messuage In Anooats to 
Alexander le Tinctore [the dyeri of Manchester. Another deed, probably of 
the same date, mentions Robert, son of Robert son of Simon Tinctore. It is 



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IJOl] 



Annals of Manchester. 13 



thus deakT that dyeing was carried on in the town at least as early as the middle 
o( the thirteenth century. '* What fabrics,** asks Mr. Harland, '* were then 
dyed in lianchester t The oldest textile fabric of England was woollen cloth ; 
for even in the time of the Romans a manufactory of woollen cloths was estab- 
lished at Winchester for the use of the emperors. The English woollen manu- 
factore is mentioned in 1183, but it was not extensive till 1831, when the 
weaving of cloth was introduced by John Kempe and other artisans from 
Flanders. These were then called Kendal cloths and Halifax cloths ; and 
blankets were first made in 1340. But it is stated that the art of dyeing 
woollens was first brought from the Low Countries to England in 1008, prior 
to which the English cloths were usually sent white to Holland, dyed there, 
and returned to England for sale. So late as the year 1625 two dyers of Exeter 
were flogged for teaching their art in the north of England. The old records 
now under consideration prove indisputably that the trade of a dyer was 
carried on in Manchester in the thirteenth century. As early as 1311 an inqui- 
sition post mortem specified a fulling mill tj[, Colne ; thus showing that the 
woollen manufacture had its seat in this county nearly thirty years before the 
introduction of the Flemish artisans by Edward IIL ^It may be that the Man* 
Chester dyers of the thirteenth century operated upon linen cloths, which were 
first manufactured in England by Flemish weavers in 1253. However this may 
be, it is clear that the manufacture of woollens existed in Lancashire at the 
very early period when our dyers plied their trade in Manchester and Anootes; 
and there seems some reason for supposing that every process in the manufac- 
ture of coloured woollens was carried on in this neighbourhood at the early 
period now under notice.*' (Collectarea.) There was a fulling mill on the Irk 
at least as early as 1282. By the Salford Charter no one could exercise the 
calling of fuller anywhere in the wapentake except in the town of Salford. 

1301. 

The charter granted to his burgesses by the lord of the manor of Manchester 
i9 a document of such importance that it seems desirable to state its provisions 
in full, since it is the instrument which decided the method of municipal 
government for many centuries. The following translation is that adopted by 
Mr. Harland. The charter has been elaborately annotated by that writer in his 
Mamcesir€t and by Dr. Hlbbert Ware in his Foundatiotis of Manchester, 

[Charter.] 

** Know [all] present and to come that I, Thomas Grelle, have given and 
granted, and by this my present charter have confirmed, to all my burgesses of 
Mamecestre. To wit: 

** (1) That all the burgesses shall pay for every one of their burgages twelve 
pence by the year for [or in lieu of] all service. 

** (2> And if the reeve of the town [prefectus vllle] shall challenge [or mako 
claims against] any burgess of any plea, and the challenged shaU not come on 
the day, nor any one for him, into the Lagh-mote, he is in forfeiture twelve 
pence to the said lord. And the said lord shall have his plea [or action] against 
him in the Porteman-mote. 

** (3> Also, if any burgess shall implead any burgess of [or for] any debt^ and 
be [the debtor] shall acknowledge the debt, the reeve may appoint him a day. 



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14 Anmala of Manchester. nua 

to wit, the eighth ; and if he shall not come at the day he shall pay twelve 
pence for forfeiture of the day to the aforesaid lord ; and he shall pay the debt* 
and to the reeve eight pence. 

" (4) And if any one maketh complaint of anjrthing, and shall not find 
surety and bondsmen, and afterwards is willing to withdraw his complaint, he 
shall be without forfeiture. 

" (5) Also, if any burgess in the borough shall wound any burgess on the 
Lord's Day, or from noon on Saturday until Monday, he shall be in forfeiture 
of twenty shillings. And if on Monday, or on the other days of the week, he 
shall wound any one, he shall fall into [or incur] the penalty of twelve pence 
towards the aforesaid lord. 

'* (6) Also, if any burgess shall quarrel [or strive, eertaverU] with any one, 
and, through anger, shall strike him, without bloodshed, and shall be able to 
return to his house without challenge of the reeve or his servants, he shall be 
free from the plea from the reeve. And if he shall be able to sustain [or justify] 
the assault against him on whom he committed it, he shall do well. But if, 
nevertheless, by the counsel of his friends, he make peace with him, this also 
Ihe may do] without forfeiture to the reeve. 

" (7) Also, if any one shall be impleaded in the borough of any plea, he 
need not make answer either to burgess or villein, save in his Porteman-mote, 
nor even to a vavasour, except to a plea that belongeth to the King's Crown, 
and in one for robbery [or theft, latracinio], 

" (8) Also, if any one accuse another burgess of theft [latrodnio] the reeve 
may attach him [the accused] to make answer in the lord's court, and to abide 
[its] judgment. 

*' (9) Also, if any shall be impleaded of his neighbour, or of any one, and 
shall be in suit [or in attendance] three days, if he shall have testimony of the 
reeve and of his neighbours of the Porteman-mote that his adversary hath de- 
faulted [been absent] on those three days, after that he shall give no answer to 
him upon that plea. 

** (10) Also, the aforesaid burgesses shall follow [do suit at] the mill of the 
aforesaid lord and his oven [or bake-house], paying to the aforesaid mill and to 
the aforesaid oven the customs as they ought and are wont to do. 

" (11) Also, the burgesses ought, and have power, to choose the reeve of 
themselves, whom they wiU, and to remove the reeve. 

*' (12) Also, no one can put his neighbour to his oath unless he have suit of 
some [eiamoren] [against him]. 

** (13) Also, no one can receive (In purchase] anything within the town save 
by the view of the reeve. 

*'(14) Also, it shall be lawful for any one to sell or give his land, which is 
not of inheritance, if he shall fall into necessity, to whomsoever he will, unless 
his heir will buy it. But the heir ought to be the nearest [or first] to have the 
buying of it of him. 

** (15) Also, every one can sell [land] of hU inheritance, whether more or 
less, or the whole, by consent of his heir. And if, perchance, the heir be un- 
willing, nevertheless if he [the burgess] shall fall into necessity, it shall be law- 
ful for him to sell what is of his inheritance, whatever age the heir may be. 

** <10) Also, the reeve ought to deliver [or give possession] to every burgess 



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] Annals of Manchester. 13 

and to the f armen [or renters] their shope [or sheds] in the market place, and 
the reeTe ovight therefor to receive one penny, to the nse of the aforesaid lord. 

" <17) If a bargees or a farmer will stand in the shope [or sheds] of the mer- 
ehanta, he onght to agree to pay (or, perhaps, pay beforehand, pacare] to the 
aforesaid lord as mnch as a stranger. And if he stand in his proper shop [or 
ahedl then he is to gire nothing to the aforesaid lord. 

'* {18) Also, the bilrgesses may fatten their swine which are nearly fattened 
In the woods of their lord, except in the forests and parks of the aforesaid lord, 
ontil the term [or time] of pannage. And if they will, at the aforesaid term, 
withdraw it shall be lawful for them, without licence of the lord. And if they 
will make stay there for the term of pannage, for the pannage they shall satisfy 
^he aforesaid lord. 

'*(19) Also, If any one shall be impleaded before the day of the Lagh-mote, 
and shall then come, it behoveth him to answer, and he ought not to essoin 
[excuse] himself without forfeiture. And if he shall then [on the Lagh-mote 
day] be first impleaded, then he shall hare the first day [<.«., in which to 
answer]. 

** (20) Also, the burgesses may arrest [namare] men, whether knights, or 
priests, or clerks, for their debts, if they shall be found in the borough. 

" <21> Also, if necessity fall that any one sell his burgage, he may receive 
(or rent] another burgage of his neighbour. And every burgess may deliver 
(i.e., let or give possession of] his burgage to his neighbour, by the view of his 
eo>burgesses. 

'* (22) Also, it may be lawful for the aforesaid burgesses to deliver [convey 
or give possession of, tradere] their own proper chattels to whomsoever they 
will, within the fee of the aforesaid lord, freely, without licence from the afore- 
said lord. 

"(23) Also, if a burgess lend [eommodaverit, t.€., lend things to be returned 
In kind] anything to a man villein in the borough, and the term [of the loan] 
thereof shall expire in the borough, he may take a distress upon [the goods of] 
the villein, and by his distress may certify him. And he may restore the dis- 
tress [or goods distrained] by [or on the security of] bondsmen, even to the end 
of eight days, and then the bondsmen may return either the distress or the 
money. 

** (21) Also, a burgess, of whomsoever he shall buy or sell within the fee of 
the aforesaid lord, shall be free from toll. And if any one of another shire [or 
town] shall oome who ought to pay customs, and shall depart with the toll, 
withholding it from the reeve or from other of his [servants], he shall be in 
forfeiture twelve pence to the use of the lord. And he shall pay his tolU 

** (23) And if any one shall lend to another anything without witness, he 
[the borrower] need not make any answer unless he [the lender] shall have 
witness [or evidence, ieatimonium\. And if he [the lender] shall have witness, 
he (the borrower] may deny it by the oaths of two men. 

** (9B) Also, whoso breaketh the assise, whether of bread or of ale, ho shall 
be fat forfeiture of twelve pence to the use of the lord. 

** (27) Also, If any one shall wound another in the borough, the reeve ought 
to attach him, if he be found outside his house, by surety and bondsmen. 

** W Also, every one ought to be, and may be, at plea [or impleaded] for 



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16 Annals of Manchester. iisoMsot 

hia wife and family ; and the wife of every one may pay his rent to the reeve, 
and follow a plea [or attend a suit] for her husband, if he shall, perchance, bo 
elsewhere. 

" (29) Also, if any villein shall make claim of anything of. burgesses, they 
[the burgesses] ought not to make answer to him unless he shall have the salt 
of [or from] burgesses or other lawful [or law- worthy] men. 

**(dO) Also, a burgess, if he shall have no heir, loa^ bequeath his burgage 
and his chattels when he dies wheresoever he shall please, saving, however, 
the lord's service. 

" (31) Also, if any buigess die his wife ought to remain in the house, and 
there she may have necessaries as long as she wills to be without a husband, 
and the heir with her. And when she will marry she shall depart And the 
heir shall remain there as the lord. 

"(32) Also, if a burgess die his heir shall give no other relief to the afore- 
said lord save arms of some [or whatsoever] kind. 

'* (33) U a burgess sell his burgage and willeth to depart from the town, he 
shall give to the lord four pence, and he may go freely whithersoever he will. 

"(34) Moreover, all the pleas aforesaid shall be determined before the 
steward by the enrolment of the clerk of the aforesaid lord. 

" (35) And all the aforenamed liberties, I, the aforesaid Thomas, and my 
heirs, will hold to the aforesaid burgesses and their heirs for ever ; saving to 
me and my heirs reasonable toUage, when the lord the King shall make toUage 
upon his free boroughs throughout England. And that this donation and 
grant may be ratified and established, I have confirmed this writing by the 
affixing [thereto] my seaL These being witnesses :— 

'* Sirs JoHK Byron% \ .^ , . * 

"Richard Byron./ ^*fi^^ 
"IIknby db Trafforo, 
"Richard db Uulton, 
•• Adam db Prestwyche, 
•• Roger db Pilkington, 
"Geoffrey de Cuadertox, 
•• Richard de Moston, 
"John de Prestwycub, 
" And others. 
" Given at Mamecester the fourteenth day of May, in the year of the Lora 
one thousand three hundred and one ; and in the year of the reign of King 
Edward, son of King Henry [{.e., Edward I.] the twenty-ninth.*' 

1307. 

Thomas de Greslcy summoned to Parliament, March 10, and invested with 
the Order of the Bath. 

1309. 

For some unexplained cause Thomas de Greslet, with several Lancashire 

gentlemen, went to reside with his only sister Joan, the wife of Sir John la 

Worrs, Baron of Wick war, in Gloucestershire. Here he executed a deed by 

which, in return for an annuity of lOO marks 3siB66 13s. 4d., he formally granted 



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uu-UM] Armcds of Manchester. 17 

to Sir John and his wife the manor of Manchester, and the advowsons of the 
churches of Manchester and Ashton. Notwithstanding this transfer of his 
baronial rights he continued to be regarded as the lord of Manchester, and, as 
•nch, was summoned to senre in the wars and in parliament from 1907 to 1313, 
the year of his death. The matter is farther complicated by the fact that La 
Warre alienated the barony in 1310-11 to the abbey of Dore, in Herefordshire. 

1311. 

The "Great De Lacy inquisition,'* and the Birch Feodary, both of which 
are fully translated in Harland's Mamcestre^ gire particulars as to the tenants 
of the manor of Manchester. 

1313. 

Thomas de Greslet died without issue. The name of this family is variously 
spelled, Greslet, Gresley, Greslei, Gredle, and Gredley. 

1320. 

A survey of the manor was taken in this year. The document* not quite 
perfect, is printed with a translation by Mr. Harland. 

1322. 

In this year then was an " Extent** of the manor, which was then held of 
the Duchy of Lancaster. Two separate and different copies of this document 
are printed by Mr. Harland. The demesne in Manchester contained about 
3,55(M statute acres of arable land. There were 38 acres of heath land, and 85 
more claimed by the tenants by prescription. There were 326 acres of pasture 
land. Mamcestre had woods and moore of Tutbury, which on account of their 
great sixe and diveralty were not measured. The wood of Alport with its 
aeries of hawks, herons, and eagles, bees* honey, and the like issues, was worth 
89. 8d. The wood of Bradford was being destroyed, and comprised a mile in 
drcuit. The park of Blakel y, seven miles In circuit, was valued at 63s. 4d., and 
contained two deer leaps " of the grant of Kings.** The woods of Horewith 
and Openshagh, the wastes of Curmesall and Denton, the lord's mill, the 
common oven, and the fulling mill of Manchester are also named. 

Annual amount of the tolls and stallage for the markets and fain of Man- 
chester was £6 13s. 4d. 

1325. 

John la Warre, ninth baron of Manchester, again obtained possession of 
the manor, which reverted to him as an escheat from the Abbey of Dore, in 
1325-a& 

1330. 

** About 1330 lived Thomas Langford, the famous historian, a Dominican 
friar, of Chelmsford In Eemm^x, who U supposed to be one of the Langfords of the 
UoQgh.'*~Holllnworth*s ManounUnsis, 

1340. 

Parliament gave to Edward HL a subsidy of ninths, that is, the ninth 
lamb, fleece, and sheaf, for two yean. Foreign merchants, not dwelling in cities 

B 

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18 Armala of Manchester. aMT-iseo 

or boroughs, were esseased at no more than a fifteenth on their goods and 
movables. The Hundred of Salford contained no one who was liable to the 
fifteenth. The Jury of assessors also returned the ninth, or at a sum much too 
low to please the commissioners. Instead of 80 marks it was placed at about 
35J marks. 

1347. 

John la Warre died 0th May, 1347. He was a soldier who saw a great deal 
of active service. He went with the expedition to Flanders in 12fl7. He was 
constantly engaged in the Scotch wars. In 1310, when the French were defeated 
in the great naval battle off Sluys, La Warre was present. He also fought 
with distinction at Cressy. 

Roger la Warre, the tenth baron, was the grandson of the ninth baron. 
He was a warrior like his grandfather, and at Poitiers was one of the knights 
to whom the French king surrendered. He was twice married, and left two 
sons, anjl a daughter who became the wife of Thomas, Baron West. Roger 
died in 1370. 

1348. 

A destructive pestilence spread over England. The labours of husbandry 
were neglected; no courts of justice were opened; and Parliament was 
prorogued. 

1361. 

Henry ** the Good,'* Earl of Derby, created first Duke of Lancaster, with 
the same Jura regalia as the Earls Palatine of Chester had ever enjoyed. The 
Duchy became consequently a petty kingdom, and some of its original regula- 
tions are yet in force. 

1352. 

"A Commission was granted by the Bishop of Lichfeeld for the dedication 
of the chappell yard of Didsbury, within the parish of Manchester, for the 
burlall of such as died of the Pestilence in that hamlet, and In neigboring 
hamlets, in the chappell-yard there, because of their distance from the pariah 
church of Manchester.** 

1359. 

The bailiffji of the Duke of Lancaster having annexed certain inhabitants, 
commissioners were appointed to inquire whether Roger la Warre held, as he 
asserted, the town as a borough and market town. The inquiry was held at 
Preston, when John de Radedif and twelve others declared on oath that Roger 
did not hold Manchester as a borough, but that he and his predecessors had 
held it from a time to which memory goeth not as a market town. The result 
would be that the tofwn was no longer free from suit to the county and 
wapentake. 

1366. 

The Sheriff of Lancashire, after returning two knights for the shire, adds : 
" There are no cities or burghs within this county from which any dtisens or 
burgesses can or were wont to oome, by reason of their inability, low condition. 



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i3is-i4as) Annals of Mcmchester. 19 

or poTerty.** Lancaster and Preston had been represented sundry times before, 
in the reigns of Edwards I., n., and III. ; but from this date \o the reign oi 
Edward IV. no returns were made from the county. 

1368. 

The earliest record relating to "the Old Bridge," or, as it seems originally 
to have been called, "the Salford Bridge,** is the will of Thomas del Bothe, 
who is described as an opulent yeoman, resident at Barton, in the parish of 
Eccle8,-and of whom it is stated that he built a chapel on Salford Bridge, where 
prayers were wont to be made, as usual in those times, for the repose of the 
soul of the founder. His will directs the gift to the bridge of Salford of £30, 
payable in the three years next following his death in equal portions. 

1370. 

John la Warre, at the age of twenty-six, became the eleventh baron of 
Manchester. He took a share in the wars of Gasoony, and died, unmarried, 
27Ch July, iaO& 

1371. 

Thomas la Wane was presented to the vacant living of Ashton-under-Lyne. 

1373. 

About this date Thomas la Warre is believed to have resigned his living of 
Ashton and to have been inducted as rector of Manchester. 

1375. 

John la Warre, Lord of lianchester, granted to Nicholas de Longford the 
manor of WithingUm, on condition of finding one Judge for the lord's court. 
{Mameestre,) 

1382-3. 

Richard U. gave a special dispensation to John la Warre, Lord of Wakerley 
and Baron of Manchester, by which he was not required to attend Parliament 
during the remainder of his life. (Mamcestre,) 

1398. 

Thomas la Warre, who on the death of his brother became the twelfth 
banm of Manchester, was a priest, and rector of Mamcestre. He alienated his 
barony and estates from his heir^at-Iaw, and settled them upon his half-sister 
Joan, wife of Thomas, Lord West, and her issue. 

1422. 

The ooUeglatlon of the parish church is thus described by HolUnworth :~ 
*' This Thomas being Lord of the manor and parson of the church, as well 
as Patron, considering that the Parish was large and populous, and that the 
Conner Bsetors, some neuer, did reside, bethoughte himself as well for the 
gnater honor of the place, as the better edification of the people, to erect a 
Collsglale church in Manchester : to that purpose hee procured licence from 
Henry the 5th, dated Anno reg. 9^ May 82, vnder the seale of the Dutchy for 
appropriation of the Rectory and foundation of the CoUedge, for which 900 



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20 Annals of Manchester. ^422 

markes were payd into the Hanaper or Excheqaer of the Chancery. Then the 
Pari8hioner8» via. :— 

''Churchwardens : Lawrence Hulme, Henry Bulkeler. Knights : John 
' le ByroD, Johannes de Radcliffe. Gentlemen : Edmund Tranord, John de Booth, 
Badulph Longford. Thurstan de Holland, Jacob Strange way es. Robert de Hyde, 
Robert de Booth, Otho de Beddich, Johannes de Barlow, Badulph de Prestwich^ 
Petrus de WorkesUe, Jacob de Hulme, Joannes de Hulton, William de Birches, 
John Bamford, Laurentius de Barlow, Galfridus Hopwood, Galfridus de Hilton* 
William de Highfeeld. 

** And all and every Parishioners gathered together at the sound of the bell, 
and the community and university of the sayd parish, so fane as this might 
any way coneeme them, did for themselves, their heires and successors, give 
their free assent and consent thervnto, and draw up a writing to that purpose, 
sealed with the deeds of the Deane of Manchester and aboue twenty other scales 

" Then the sayd Thomas de la Warre made a deed of gift and feoffment ol 
his lands and Rectory of Manchester to Thomas, Bishop of Durham (who was 
allso chauncelor of England, and amongst other his good workes founded two 
schools at Plaoe-greene, one of Grammer, and the other of Musicke>, John 
Heneye, Richard Lombard, Parson of Holtham church, and Richard Firth. 

**This Thomas, Bishop of Durham, &c., founded a Collegiate Church; 
consisting of one Keeper or Master, eight fellowes chaplaines, foure clerkes, and 
sixe choristers, in honor of St. Mary (to whom this Parish church was formerly 
dedicated, and of St. Dyonyse, Patron St. of France, and St George, Patron St. 
of England (the sayd Thomas de la Warre being partly a French-man and 
partly an English-man) ; and having first resigned by Proxy, made to Will f am 
Brinkley, cannon of Lltchfeeld, and to Thomas Gierke, Chaplaine. 

*'This was allso confirmed first, by Richard Crosby, Prior of the convent of 
Coventry, and Henry Hallsall, Archdeacon of Chester, and then by William, 
Bishop, and Thomas Strelton, Deane, and the chapter, at Lltchfeeld. 

" Then Thomas de la Warre presented to William, Bishop of Ck>ventry and 
liitchfleid, John Huntingdon to bee the Master or Keeper of the sayd Colledge ; 
u&d the sayd Thomas, Bishop of Durham, &c., did give, grant, and confirmed 
vnto the sayd John Huntingdon five Messuages and ten Acres of land, which 
were parcelU of the manor of Manchester, one Messuage with the appur- 
tenances with one acre and twenty foure Pearches, called Barrens hull and 
Barrons yerde ; eight acres of land In Neder Aldport ; one messuage in (vorton 
greene, of eleven pearches ; another in Heaton, of eleven pearches. 

** This John Huntingdon, Batchelor in Degrees, and Rector of Assheton- 
vnder-lyme, was warden neere forty years, a man learned in the learning of 
those times, very devout and magnificent, hee built the Chancel or Quire, In 
the midst whereof and lust before the high altar, as then it stood, hee lyes 
buried with the suitable inscription, Domlne dilezi decorem domus tuae. His 
Rebus or name-devyse (a customs borrowed from the French) is to bee scene 
on either side of the Middle arch, as it looketh Eastward : on the Syde is an 
Huntsman with dogges whereby hee thought to expresse the two former 
sillables of his name ; Hunting ; on the other syde, a vessell called a Tonne, 
which being Joined together makes Huntington ; which is as good or better 
than Morton, A. B. of Canterbury, a man of a prudent and publique Spivit, was 



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I4^j AnTuUa of Manchester. 21 



content to use* vis. Mor nppon a tonne, and sometimes a mnlbery Tree, called 
in Latino, Moms, coming out of a tonne, to express his name of Morton. 

** About this time, or not long before, for ought appeares ended, the present 
large and stately stone bnildinge, which wo call the Church, being formerly a 
vast wooden building not much vnlike (save that probably it was more adorned) 
to the Soothes where the Court Leete, Court Baron, of the Lord, and the 
quarter Sessions, are now kept. Credible tradition sayth the one part of the 
sayd wooden building was removed to Oardsail, another part to Clayton ; but 
the nudne body was remooved to Trafford, which Is standing to this day, and 
now called the greate Bame. ,Who did most in the building of it is not cer- 
tainly known, but the names and armes of the Stanleys Wests, BadcliiTes of 
RadclilTe (some remainder of the Alabaster Statues (as it is sayd) of twoo of 
them are yet on the North Syde of the Quire), Byrons, Radcli/Tes of Oardsail, 
and others now or lately in the windowes, doe witness their assistance : onel>' 
one Richard Bexwick did many workes of piety and charity towards the 
Master and fellowes, and for the decent and honorable reparation and amend- 
ment of the sayd Quire and body of the sayd church ; and other Parishioners 
doubtless did freely contribute thereunto ; hence is that vulgar mistake that 
Didsbury church is more ancient than Manchester, which ammounts to no 
more truth (if so much) than that the present structure of Didsbury chappell 
U more ancient than the present structure of Manchester church, as allso their 
Font was much bigger, because when dipping of children and baptizing of 
Heathens grew most out of vse, then the Baptisteries were lesse or lesse. 

'* The windowes were richly painted, the east window of the South Isle 
had Michael and his Angells ; the nine orders of Angells fighting with the 
Dragon and his Angells: the East window of the North Isle had St. 
Austen and St. Ambrose singing Te Deum laudamus, and the other 
windowes represented some canonical or Ecclesiasticall story. In the middle 
Stanchion evry window, especially in the twenty-four vppermost windowes, 
was the picture of the Virgine Mary. But at the uppmost end of the Outmost 
North ally, neere to Strangewaies chappell, was a very rich window, whereby 
was described our Saviors arrcignement and crucifixion, with some pictures of 
the Trinity with these verses : 

^ob t^si s< pi ^%\^ ^^^^ 

4nbnt Bnb Son sail Jolg ^ost 

•fiffjt* 

glnb kftpt l(s]{t sonUs sst of {^lU 

C^st msbt thfif iDSBbo II Qt mss le 

Jn toori^ippt ol tl^i Crciutc 

ll^at %oU cnbtngt 

* . . ^ BS bgnbo (iff sup t^ngt. 
** In this comer vnder this window, its probable there stood an altar, and 
that it was a place of much devotion, it is sayd it was for the countrey. 

**In the chappell, where morning sermons were wont to bee preached, 
called St. George his chappell, belonging now to John RadcliflTe, of Oardsail, 
Esquire, was the Statue of St. Oeorge on horseback, hanged up ; his horse wa« 



* F^rUt glT« them gnet to do welL t Fortt^ giv« tb«m. I ForU^ Tlut tu 

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22 Armals of Manchester. a437-iiw 

lately in the Sadlen shop. The Statues of the Virgin Mary, and St. Dyonyae, 
the other Patron Saints, were nppon the two highest pillars next to the Qoiie, 
▼nto them men did bow at their coming into the church.** 

The reasons for the coUegiation of the church have been fully inyestlgated 
and stated in the supplement to Hibbert Ware's FaundcUuma of Manchester, 

1427, 

Thomas la Warre, rector of Manchester, lord of the manor, founder of the 
Collegiate Churcht died without issue 1426-27, and was buried at Swineshead 
Abbey. 

142a 

Sir Reginald West, who was bom in 1994, appointed Sir Edmund Trafford* 
William Chauntrell, and Thomas Overton, his attorneys, to receive seizin for 
him of and in the manor of Manchester, and the advowson and patronage of 
the church. 

1451. 

Sir Reginald West died 27th August, 145L He made one, if not two pil- 
grimages to Palestine. He had also made a pilgrimage to Rome. He waa 
succeeded by his son. Sir Richard West. 

1457. 

John Huntington, D.D., first warden of the College, died November 11, 
and was buried at the east end of the choir. His rebus is still to be seen upon 
the eastern side of the middle arch of the choir. On the left-hand side of the 
arch is a huntsman with dogs, and on the right-hand side a vessel called a 
tonne or tun ; and these devices put together represent the name of Hunting- 
ton. "Dr. Huntington was learned in the learning of those times : one very 
devout, magnificent, and of public spirit. He was the mover and contriver of 
that great work of erecting the stone church now in being, of which he built 
the choir and aisles.** 

Sir Edmund TraiTord of Trafford died. He was in the confidence of Henry 
VI., whose dreams of avarice he fanned by visionsof the philosopher's stone, and 
of the possibility of changing all the baser metals into gold and silver. On the 
7th of April, 1446, the King granted a patent to this Trafford and to Sir Thomaa 
Ashton, setting forth that certain persons had maligned them with the ehara> 
ter of working by unlawful arts, and might disturb them in their experiments, 
and, therefore, the King gave them special lease and licence to work and try 
their art and science, lawfully and freely, in spite of any statute or order to 
the contrary. The King, in issuing this commission, was overriding the pro- 
vision of 5 Henry IV., c 4, and if Sir Edmund succeeded in finding the 
ourum potabUe he carried the secret with him to the grave. 

1460. 

John Booth appointed warden. He was deprived by Edward IV. in 1406. 
He was a younger brother of Booth, of Barton. 

1465. 

Sir Ralph Langley, clerk (second son of Langley, of Agecroft), rector of 



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1470-14MJ Anifiala of Manchester, 23 

Prestwich, appointed warden. Resigned Juiy 27, 1481. He zealoualy continued 
tlie improvementa of the church began by Warden Huntington, and gave a 
clock and chimes. He was buried at Prestwich. 

1470, 

About this time Warwick, the king-maker, came in hot haste to Man- 
chester to ask help from his brother-in-law, the Lord Stanley, who then had a 
dwelling in the Aldport. 

1471. 

Somewhere between 1471 and 1484 the Abbot of Abingdon came to Man- 
chester in company with the Collector of the Apostolic Chamber and Gold Hall, 
from whom who would might buy plenary indulgences as effectual as if their 
purchasers had performed the pilgrimage to Borne, and had been there on the 
great day of the church*s Jubilee. The occasion for which the money was 
needed was said to be the defence of the Christian world against the Turks. 

1473. 

The "Rental** of Thomas West, Lord of Mamcestre, son and heiie of Lord 
la Warre, and Ellinor his consort, made at Mamcestre, May 1, 13 Edward IV., 
which is in the year 1473. There are some difflculties, however, as to the date, 
and it is Just possible that it may refer to the 23rd year of Edward IV., that is, 
1507-8. There appears then to have been about 150 burgages in the town. 

1476. 

Thomas West, eighth Baron de la Warre and fifteenth lord of Maneheater, 
obtained special livery of his lands in September, 1475^ though then a minor. 

1476. 

Sir Richard West, fourteenth baron of Ifanehester, is said to have died 
10th Biarch, 1470, though according to another account he was summoned to 
parliament in January, 1407. He was a staunch partisan of the House of Lan 
caster, and in 1400 had a grant of £40 per annum from the forfeited poesessions 
of Bichard Duke of York. In 1463 he had a grant authorising him to go beyond 
the seas. 

1481. 
James Stanley appointed warden. He was a younger eon of Thomas, Lord 
Stanley, created in 1485 Earl of Derby by Henry VII. 

Sir Balph Langley, former warden of the Cathedral, died July 27th. 

1486. 

Jamea Stanley, D.D., archdeacon of Richmond and warden of Blanchester, 
died. (HoUinworth.) He was succeeded by James Stanley, afterwards Bishop 
of Ely. 

1486. 

A tenement lying at " Salford bryge ende open the west syde,** mentioned 
in a deed executed 10th November. {PcUatine Nate-book, vol. v., p. 138.) 



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24 AnTuda of Manchester. (U9s-i6M 

1403. 

The tenement at Salf ord Bridge^nd named In a deed 1 February {PakUine 
AV>l6-6ooX:, ToL !▼., p. 132). See under date 1480. 

1406. 

Henry VIL Tiaited the Earl of Derby at Latham, and they afterwards came 
by Warrington to Manchester. At Latham a cnrions incident occurred. 
Earlier in the year took place the execution of Sir William Stanley, the Earl of 
Derby's brother, who ten years earlier had placed the tottering crown on 
Henry's brow at Bosworth fleld« The King and the Earl stood on the leads of 
the house to view the country. "The Earl's fool was in company, who, 
observing the King draw near to the edge of the leads, not guarded with 
business, he stepped up to the Earl, and, pointing down to the precipice, said, 
' Tom, remember Will r " The King made a hasty exit, and left the fool to 
lament the failure of his lord to avenge the death of his brother. 

1606. 

'* Care was taken for the reparation of the chappell standing on Salford 
Bridge, built, as it is sayd, by Thomas del Booth, in Edward in.'s time. He 
oertainely gave £30 towards the building of Salford Bridge ; and it was very 
usual on greater bridges to build chappells, in which they did pray for the 
soules of their founders. This chappell is now converted to a prison for Man- 
chester and Salford." (HoUinworth's Mancuniensis,^ 

1606. 

Richard Beswick erected the Jesus Chapel on the south side of the south 
aUle of the choir of the Collegiate Church. (HoUin worth.) The next TrafTord 
Chapel, he says, was built by Thomas del Booth, who gave it to Hugh Scholes, 
chaplain, who gave it to Sir John Trafford. The highest chapel was probably 
built by the Bjrrons. In the Strangeways chapel there was ** a pardon " under a 
picture of the Resurrection of Christ from the Sepulchre. The pardon, five 
paternosters, five aves, and a creede, is xxvj. thousand, and xxvj. days 
of pardon. (HolUnworth.) A similar pardon, brass, at Macclesfield has 
excited much attention, and it has been suggested that it may be the one 
removed from Blanchester. (See Palatine Note-book^ vol. iv., pp. 127, 151, 225w) 

1608. 

The chapel near to the porch of the Collegiate Church was built by Mr. 
William Galley, a merchant of Manchester, who died in 1606, and is buried in 
this chapeL (HolUnworth.) 

1600. 

Robert CI UTe, Bachelor in Degrees, appointed Warden. 

Sir James Stanley, Warden of Manchester, promoted to the bishopric of 
Ely. Jortin, in his Life of Erasmus^ says: **At this time he (Erasmus) 
refused a large pension, and larger promises, from a young illiterate English- 
man, who was to be made a bishop, and who wanted to have him for a pre 
ceptor. This youth seems to have been James Stanley, son of the Earl of 
Derby, and son-in-law to Margaret, the King's mother, and afterwards made 



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ins-i6Mi Annala of MaTichester, 23 

Bishop of Ely by her interest. However, it appears that the young gentleman, 
though ignorant, had a desire to learn something, and to qualify himself in 
) for the station in which ho was to be placed." 



1612. 
Chorlton Chapel erected about this time. 

1513. 
Sir James Stanley, Warden of Bianchester and Bishop of Ely, in conjunc- 
tion with others of his family, commenced the erection of the large chapel 
dedicated to St. John the Baptist, and the small chantry adjoining to it, now 
called the Derby ChapeL 

1514. 

Sir Edmund TrafTord of TraiTord died. In the same year he had been 
created a Knight of the Bath by Henry VIIL 

1518. 

George West, a kinsman of West, Lord La Warre, appointed warden of 
the college. 

1519. 

Hugh Oldham, Bishop of Exeter, the founder of the Free Grammar School, 
died June 16. He was bom, it is believed, in Crumpsall, and was educated 
both at Oxford and Cambridge, but took his degree of doctor of divinity at the 
latter place. He was a great patron of learning, and an extensive benefactor 
oi Corpus Christi College. Having fallen under the displeasure of Leo X. for 
refusing to abide by his decision in a case of dispute between himself and the 
Abbot of Tavistock, ho was excommunicated. The Free Grammar School was 
founded in pursuance of his will. To this good work the venerable prelate was 
moved, "considering,** as the statutes say, "the bringing up of children in 
their adolescence, and to occupy them in good learning therein, when they 
should come to age and virility, whereby they may better know, love, honour, 
and dread God and His laws ; and that the liberal science or art of grammar is 
the ground and foundation of all other liberal arts and sciences ; and for the 
good mind which he did bear to the county of Lancaster, where the children 
had pregnant wits, but had been mostly brought up rudely or idly, and not in 
virtue, cunning, education, literature, and in good manners.** The original 
Income was about £29 per annum. Details of its history and founder may be 
lonnd in Hibbert Ware's Foundatums of Manchester, £apinasse*8 Lancashire 
Worihies, Edwards* Mancfiester Worthies and their Foundations, and 
Smith's Admission Registers of the Manchester Grammar School. 

1520. 

St. Hilary's Chapel, at the east end of the choir of the Collegiate Church, 
Ouilt by Sir George West, warden. 

Martin Briam, a famous clothier. (See under date 1120.) 

1526. 
Thomas West, eighth Lord La Warre and fifteenth Lord of Mamcestre, 



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26 Annala of Manchester. [issa-uss 

died about January, 1525^, aa his wiil was proved in February. He was a 
favourite of Henry VII., who rewarded his aids by grants from the forfeited 
estates of " Jockey of Norfolk,** slain at Bosworth Field. He was created a 
Knight of the Bath in 148D. He served with the army in Flanders in 1491, and 
in 1490 had a large share in the suppression of the rebellion in Cornwall. He 
was made a K.6. in 1510, and was installed at Windsor on the same occasion as 
the King of Portugal. At the famous Battle of the Spurs, in 1513, his valour 
earned him the distinction of knight banneret. He escorted Charles V. from 
Graveline to England in May, 1522. He was succeeded by hi9 eldest son Thomas, 
ninth Baron de la Warre. 

James Stanley, Bishop of Ely and Warden of Manchester College, died 
March 22, and was buried on the north side of Derby Chapel. He is said to 
have died excommunicated. Fuller, adverting to his place of residence, 
observed : *' He blamed not the prelate for passing the summer with his brother, 
the Earl of Derby, in Lancashire, but for living all the winter at Somersham 
with one who was not his sister, and who wanted nothing to make her his wife 
save marriage.** In 1513 the Bishop of Ely sent his natural son, John Stanley, 
with his own retainers, to assist Sir Edward Stanley in the Battle of Flodden 
Field. Here young Stanley is believed to have been knighted. Notwithstand- 
ing his prowess, he appears to have been '* sicklied o*er with a pale cast of 
thought,** his favourite mottoes being those of the preacher who declares vanitas 
vanUcUum, omnia vanitcu. In 1523 he became engaged in a dispute with one 
of the Leghs, of Adlington, who had married the daughter of a mistress of 
Cardinal Wolsey. That haughty prelate summoned Sir John to London, and 
committed him to the Fleet until he surrendered his lease. Sir John founded 
a chantry in the church of Manchester, and ammged his estates for the benefit 
of his wife and child. Then by mutual consent a divorce wm pronounced 
between him and Dame Margaret, and he became a monk of the order of St 
Benedict in the Abbey of Westminster. His wife, when the divorce was 
arranged, intended to enter a nunnery, but anticipating the sentiment of a 
once popular song, she altered her mind and married Sir Urlan Brereton. 
When Stanley settled his property, he directed that his son was not to be 
married until he was 21, and then he was to choose his own wife by the advice 
of the Abbott of Westminster and Edmund TraiTord. 

1632. 

St. Lawrence*s (originally St. James*s), Denton, built about this time; 
chancel added 1800; gallery erected, 1728; pewing renewed, 1768; various 
restorations, 1701. 

163a 

Sir Edmund Trafford the 2nd died. He was bom in 1485, and was one of 
the first feoffees of Blanchester Grammar SchooL 

1636. 

The clear revenue of the Collegiate Church was retumed^to the First Fruits 
Office, 25 Henry VIIL, as £213 10s. Ud. 
George Colllar appointed Warden. 



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1B38-1S481 Anncda of Manchester. 27 

1638. 

Manchester ylaited by John Leland, the antiquary, who thus describes it : 
*' Mancestre, on the south side of the Irwel river, stondeth in Salfordshiret, 
and is the fairest, best buildid, quikkest, and most populus tounne of all Ijao- 
castreshire, yet is in hit one Paroch Chirch, but is a College, and almost 
^horowhowt doble Uyd ex qwMdrcUo lapide durisaimo, wherof a goodly 
4uarre is hard by the towne. There be divers stone bridges in the towne, but 
the best of iii arches is over Irwel. This bridge dividith Manchestre from Sal- 
ford, the wich is a large suburbs to Manchestre. On this bridge is a praty 
little chapel. . • . And almost ii fiyte shottes withowt the towne beneth on 
the same syde of Irwel yet be seene the dikes and fundations of Old Man 
Castel (Ould Manchester in Burton's transcript of Leland's MSS.) yn a ground 
now inclosid. The stones of the mines of this castel were translatid towards 
making of Briddges for the Toune.** (Itinerary.) 

Birch Chapel, Rusholme, built about this time, dedicated to St. James ; 
registers commenced, 1752 ; roof raised and edifice lengthened, 1753 ; repairs, 
ftc, 1803 ; improved and an organ added, 1811 ; new church erected, 1845-6, cost 
£4,300 ; consecrated, July, 1846 ; returned a district chapelry , 1850 ; constituted 
a rectory, 1854. 

1540. 

The bishopric of Chester founded. John Bird, D.D., was translated from 
Bangor to fill the new see, which waslformed of the archdeaconries of Chester 
and Richmond. Manchester had previously been in the diocese of Lichfield. 

The Collegiate Church of Manchester (in common with twenty-seven other 
places, principally collegiate) obtained the right of sanctuary, constituting it a 
*' place of privilege and uicion for term of life, to all offenders and malefactors, 
of whatsoever quality, kind, or nature their ofl'ence might be, for which saJde 
offences and crimes the peine and punishment of death should ensue by the 
statute laws and customs of the realme" other than murder, rape, burglary, 
highway robbery, or wilfully burning any house or bam. (32 Henry VUL) 

1541. 

''An aete touchinge the translation of the privilege of sanctuary from 
Manchester to Westchester'* (Chester). From this it appears that the privilege 
of sanctuary had proved detrimental to the good order of the town, and is 
therefore taken away. The town is represented as "well inhabited for a long 
time, and the King's sul^octs well set a work in the making of clothes as well 
ol linen as of woollen." 

1647. 
The collegiate clergy dissolved by Edward VI. The warden, Sir George 
Colliar, was deprived for denying the King's supremacy. The college houiie 
was, together with some of the lands, taken into the possession of the King 
and sold to the Earl of Derby, who provided three or four ministers to supply 
the service of the church. (HoUinworth's Mancunigntia.) 

1548. 
Sir Alexander Badcliffe, of Ordsall, died, aged 72. He was High Sheriff of 



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28 Annals of ManchesUr. ri06o-iMi 



Lancashire in 1647. In 1624 he was a feoffee of Manchester Grammar School. 
What is believed to be his brass, a palimpsest, is described by Rev. £. F. Letts 
in Palatine NoU-book^ vol. iv., p. 77. 

Blackley Chapel, dedicated to St. Peter, built abont this period ; sold to the 
inhabitants by Sir John Byron, of Newstead, in May, 1611 ; entirely rebuilt at 
a cost of £246, 1736 ; enlarged 1741 ; taken down 1844, and built to the north of 
the former one, cost £3»a00. 

1550. 

Stretford Chapel built about this time. For further particulars see Mr. J. 
E. Baileys Old Stretford. 

A general muster of troops was ordered by the Queen. Salf ord Hundred 
consisted of 894 harnessed (ue., with armour), 649 unharnessed soldiers. 

1552. 

An Act passed '* for the true making of woollen cloth.** It directs ** that all 
the cottons called Manchester, Lancashire, and Clieshire cottons, shall be ii 
length twenty-two yards, and that all clothes called Manchester rugs, or Man 
Chester frises, shall contain in length thirty-six yards, &c** 

An Act of Parliament passed by which the Manor of Manchester, the 
advowson of the Church and various other possessions of Thomas Lord La 
Warre were settled upon himself in tail with remainder to his half brother. Sir 
Owen West ; to the heirs male of his late brother Sir George West ; and to the 
right heirs of Sir Thomas West, late Lord Xja Warre, his father. 

The first recorded meeting of the Court Leet was held in October. The 
minute-book begins with the year 1552, when the Lord of the Manor was Sir 
Thomas West, ninth Lord La Warre. The steward is not named until a subse- 
quent entry, but was probably that great and powerful nobleman, Edward, 
* third Earl of Derby. It is one of the oddities of sixteenth century life to find a 
magnate of his standing and position— he was certainly the most powerful 
person in the county— holding this office. The names of the householders who 
had to serve as a Jury are given, as well as those of the officials. There was a 
borough-reeve elected by the burgesses and holding a position of responsibility 
closely approaching to that of the mayor of a modem city. There was a catch- 
pole, whose functions were those of bailiff of the Court. There were two 
constables, whose honorary but sometimes onerous duty was to secure the 
peace of the town, prosecute offenders, put down unlawful games, make a 
faithful presentment of all ** bloodsheds, outcries, affirays, and rescues,** and see 
that archery practice was duly enforced on the sometimes unwilling townsmen. 
For this purpose there were archery butts in Market Stead Lane, at Aldport, 
and at Collyhurst. The pillory is not named, though it may have existed ; but 
the decision for the erection of stocks is recorded in 1560. But if archery had 
become unpopular, Ixiwling was a favourite recreation, and giddy-gculdy or 
ro/'s pallet^ a now olwoIet« game, could only be put down by the terrors of 
fine and dungeon. The markets had to be looked after, and for this purpose 
there were four *' market lookers ** for com, two for fish and fieshmeat, and 
fire for white meats, which Mr. Earwaker explains as veal, pork, lamb, &c, 
but which are much more likely to have been milk, butter, and vegetables. 
Two officers were charged to keep the Market Place clean, and on one occasion 



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xMsj Annale of Mancheder. 29 

two women were appointed. There were appraisers to value varions kinds of 
goods, and ** sealers" of leather, who had to make sure that all skins were 
properly dressed and duly stamped in accordance with the statute. There were 
laws against buying in the market and selling at a higher price on the same 
day, and the injunctions against f orestallers are repeated. Standards by which 
to test weights and measures were provided. Strangers might not buy before 
a certain time. A couple of ale founders, or ale conners, had not only the duty 
of certifying the liquor for the use of the King's lieges, but were also entrusted 
with the oversight of the sale of bread. There were two hvrlamen for Market 
Stead Lane, two more for Deansgate, and four for Mllngate, Withynge Greue 
(Withy Grove), Hanging Ditch, Fennel Street, *' and so to Irk*s Bridge.** The 
duties of these officers were to see that the rules and regulations made by the 
Court were duly carried out in their several districts, and that they did not 
always attend to their duty is clear from these records, when they are some- 
times charged with allowing swine in the street and other faults of omission. 
The meaning of the name is doubtful, but it has been suggested that it is 
equivalent to bye-law men. To see that the streets were kept clean and in 
good order was the duty of certain other citixens, whose title of "scavengers** 
need not lead us to suppose that they actually did the work themselves. There 
were two for Market Stead Lane, two for Deansgate and St. Mary's Gate, three 
for the **01d Market Stede,** two for Smithy Door, three for Hanging Ditch 
and Long Millgate, two for Fennel Street, and four for Milngate and Hunt's 
Bank. Finally there were five afferatora or affeerera, whose duty was to 
assess the amount of the penalties to be Inflicted by the Court as fines. 

Such was the Court which assembled in October, 1532. Those important 
persons "the myse leyers** and "myse** gatherers, who had to make and , 
collect the local rates, arejiot named in this Court roll, but they occur in sub- 
sequent entries. There was also at a later date a swineherd, who each morn- 
ing conducted the porkers of the town by the sound of the horn to the common 
at Collyhurst, and brought them back again at nightfall. The jury found that 
a burgess had encroached upon the King's highway in the erection of a house, 
and he is admonished not to "ditch, pale, or hedge any^further there unless he 
have the licence of the twelve men.** Who were the "twelve men" is not 
stated, but they appear to have been the Jury of an inferior or smaller court, 
which m^ more frequently, but of whose proceedings there are no records. 
Perhaps, however, it is merely a general way of indicating the Court Leet 
jury, which would consist of not less than twelve. Another burgess is 
ordered to make a stone wall so that his dunghill shall not affect his neigh- 
bour's watercourse. Several orders are more or less anticipatory of recent 
action of the Health Committee in relation to the "pail system." A water- 
course that has apparently been diverted must, emphatically, "goo the same 
weye as hit hathe bene orderede afore," and less than two months are allowed 
for the change, on pain of a fine of twenty pence. Another man's palings are 
too high, and are ordered to be cut down four inches. A burgess who has a 
field in Toad Lane has allowed the ditch to become unpleasant, and he is there- 
fore admonished to aklannae it, and the word has the appearance of indicating 
that the authorities are firmly resolved to have that ditch made clean. The 
same man who had not observed the " building line" is directed to '* dyche the 



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30 Annals of Mancheeter. aMs-isw 

lyche anendfl his feldes ende In Newton Lane,** and the like ii^unction is laid 
upon another negligent fanner. A penalty of one penny is to be inflicted upon 
ill persons who suffer their geese to be put in the Market Stead. House- 
holders in St. liary'sGate having neglected to keep the "street end** dean, 
the landlord is informed that he mnst eanse his tenants to do this cleansing 
"or do it himself.** ExtracU from the Court Leet Records from 1552 to 1602 
have been edited by Mr. John Harland for the Chetham Society, and the 
Records are now being printed in full for the corporation, under the editorial 
charge of Mr. J. P. Earwaker. The first volume appeared in 1885. 

1563. 

Queene Mary refounded the Colledge, restored allmost all the lands (the 
Earle of Derby still keeping the Collegiate house, and some other small things), 
appointed one master or keeper, eight fellowes chaplaines, fours derkes, and 
sixe choristers, and did allso confirms and re-establish the statutes of the first 
foundation, and placed George CoUlar in his wardenship againe. This George 
CoUiar came along with Dr. Pendleton to John Bradford to dispute with him, 
anno 1655. 

1554. 

Making of " dawbe," which was used in the construction of the raddle and 
jtaub houses, was a great source of trouble, and there are numerous references 
to it. 29 Bfarch. (£arwaker*s Becards,) 

Thomas, ninth Baron La Warre and sixteenth lord of Manchester, died 
25th September, 1581, leaving no issue. William West, the son of the half 
brother of the last Baron Xja Warre, became lord of Manchester, in accordance 
with the act of 1552. 

An order in Council, dated May 22, states that "George Charleton, of 
Manchester, goldsmiths, suspected of coyning, was this day committed to the 
ffleete.** 

There was a great deal of counterfeit coining going on at this time all over 
England, and a nest of coiners was found at Bunbury, in Cheshire. 

1555. 

The Gout Leet Jury had quarrels to deal with. The wife of Robert Ker- 
•hawe gives "a piece of her mind ** to John Spenser, and tells him that he is 
no honest man, but " a recetter of theves,** which John repeats to the Jury, 
who remit the punishment of the woman to the steward of the manor. 10th 
October. (Earwaker*s Records,) 

John Bradford, a native of Manchester, suffered martyrdom in the cause 
of Protestantism at Smithfleld, Iu)ndon. He is supposed to have been bom 
about 1510, and to have been one of the earliest pupils at the Manchester 
Grammar SchooL He was secretary to Sir John Harrington, the treasurer of 
the King's Camps and Buildings, and after his conversion to the reformed 
faith, made resuiuUon for some real or fancied wrong he had then committed. 
In 1548 he entered Catherine Hall, Cambridge, and became M.A. In 1561 he 
was one of the chaplains of Edward VI., and in the following year visited 
and preached in his native county. On the accession of Mary he saved a 
Roman Driest from the fury of a London mob. " Ah, Bradford,** said one. 



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15561 



ATmals of Manchester. 31 



** thou saTest one that will help to bnm thee.** On 15th August, 1553, he was 
arrested on a charge of sedition, and after lingering in prison was brought to 
Smithfleld. wh^re he was burnt at the stake. John Leaf, a tallow chandler's 
apprentice, was burned at the same time. Great influence was exercised by 
the publication of a yolume, entitled Lettera of Maisier John Bradford^ a 
FayihfuU Minister and a syngularpyUar of Christ^ a Church; by tchoae ffreaie 
trauiUs and diligence in preaching and planting the eyncerity of the Gospel^ 
by whoae mast godly and innocent lyfe, and by whose long andpayneful im- 
prisonments for the maintenance of the truth, the Kyngdome of God was not 
a little advanced ; who also cU last most valiantly and cheerfully gaue his 
blood for the same. The 4 day of July. In the year of our Lord 1555. One of 
the ministers who held disputations with Bradford in prison was Warden 
Colliar ; another was Pendleton, *' who,** says HoUinworth, ** was, in King 
Henries dayes, a Papist ; in King Edward's days bee recanted in Manchester 
being one of the preachers there, malnteined out of the revenues of the then 
dissolved ooUedge), and became an earnest assertor and preacher of the 
Gospell : in Queene Maries dayes, meeting with Mr. Saunders in the country 
(about Coventry it's like, where Mr. Saunders lived, and Dr. Pendleton went 
that very way to London), and discoursing of the persecutions then arising, 
Saunders complaining that though his spirit was ready to suffer, his flesh was 
weake, and loth to tast of that bitter cup. Pendleton being a fat bigg man, 
ouer-selfe-confldently sayd, ' I will see the vtmost dropp of this grease of mine 
molten away, and the last gobbet of this flesh consumed to asshes, before I 
will forsake God and his truth.' But the issue prooued otherwise when they 
came to London. Saunders bouldly preached Christ, opposed antichrist, and 
sealed his doctrine with his bloud at Coventry. * Pendleton,* sayth Mr. Fox, 
' changed his tippet, preached popery, and, being learned, was a greate disputer 
for it above ; and was sent, or of his owne accorde came downe to Manchester 
and other places to recant his recantation, and to preach vp popery, which 
occasioned Mr. Bradford to admonish his Christian friends and countrymen to 
beware of hink.* This Mr. Bradford came downe, in King Edward's dayes, into 
the oountrey, preached the word of God (as Dr. Pendleton then allso did, 
in Manchester ; and allso at Eccles, Prestwich, Midleton,'Radcliffe, Assheton 
vnderlyme, Stopport, Mottrime, Wimsley, Boulton, Bury, Wigan, Liverpoole) 
and the City of Westchester. And GoA gave good sucoesse to the ministry of 
the word ; and both raysed vp to himselfe, and preserved a faithful people in 
Lancashire, especially in and about Manchester and Bolton, some names of 
whom wee find in Mr. Fox, his Acts and Monuments. Their minister, I con- 
ceive, was Father Travers, in King Edward's dayes the minister of Blakeley» 
and outed in Queene Maries dayes, and Sir Thomas Hall, who lived near unto, 
and much counselled Mr. Bradford's mother. It is commonly and credibly 
reported that one Ryder, of Smedley, was imprisoned for, that hee, in King 
Edward's dayes, was one that pulled a popish priest out of the pulpit, that a 
preacher might goe vp. It is reported and believed that John Bradford, 
preaching in Manchester in King Edward's dayes, tould the people, as it were, 
by a prophetical spirit, that because they did not readily embrace the Word of 
God, the Masse should bee sayd againe in that church, and the play of * Robin 
Hood ' acted there, which accordingly came to passe in Queene Maries relgne. 



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32 ATmala of Manchester. [use-issr 

The imprisonment of the sayd Bir. Bradford, the oonferenoes hee had, the exa- 
mination of him, and hia being homed for the reformed religion at London 
(though it was at first intended hee should have bin burned at Manehester), 
and how Woodroffe, the Sheriffe of London, struck Roger Bexwiek, his 
brother-in-law, then living in Manchester, as hee was speaking with Mr. Brad- 
ford, and the hand of God vpon the sayd Woodroffe, and many other things are 
fully related by Mr. Fox, to whom I referre the reader." 

Bradford's Writinga have been collected by the Parker Society, with a bio- 
graphical notice by Aubrey Townsend (Cambridge, 18i8^ 2 yoIs.); Fuller's 
Worthies; Fronde's History of England: Bspinasse's Lancashire Worthies 
should also be consulted. 

There are several portraits of John Bradford, some of them dissimilar in 
character— one from a picture in the Chetham Library, Manchester, engraved 
by J. Jenkins, which has no resemblance to the other three ; another from a 
painting in Pembroke College, Cambridge; a third prefixed to his writings, 
as published by the Religious Tract Society ; and a fourth from a painting in 
possession of Mr. Blythe, painted by C. Jansen and engraved by Thos. 
Trotter. There is a portrait of him in the Ueroologia^ which is called by 
Evans the original print, and engraved by S. Pass. 

1656. 

The burgesses were bound to have their com ground at the manorial mill, 
which had been granted to the Free Grammar School, and as some of them 
evaded the monopoly, it was ordered that frequent warning should be given in 
the church, aoth September. (Earwaker's Records,) 

1667. 
George 0>lliar, warden, died, of whom it is stated by Fox, the martjrrologist, 
that although a rigid Catholic, ** he does not appear to have aided persecution.** 
Lawrence Vaux, B.D., appointed warden, but opposing the Reformation 
was deprived by Queen Elixabeth. He was a strenuous Catholic, ** so wonderful,** 
•ays Hollinworth, ** did (jod hide his people in Lancashire.** His example 
and influence appear to have opposed a powerful obstacle to the reception of 
the reformed religion in this county. He was bom at Biackrod, near Chorley, 
and was a laborious, learned, and devout divine ; but for his adherence to the 
Catholic faith was cast into prison, in London, where he is believed to have died 
in great necessity. He was the author of a CcUechisme, published at Antwerp 
in 1973, which has been reprinted by the Chetham Society, with a biographical 
notice by Mr. T. G. Law. The testimony of Hollinworth, who was a hearty hater 
of Rome, is that **he was laborious, learned, and in his way devout and con- 
scientious.** Further, " he was a man well beloved and highly honoured by 
many in Manchester ; yea, by the generality.** 

The bakers having taken their stand to sell bread in a situation that was 
deemed inconvenient, it was ordered that when they appeared In the forbidden 
spot a pennyworth of bread should be taken from each of them and given to 
the poor. dOth September. (Earwaker's Records,) 

Henry Pendleton, D.D., died circa 15o7. He was bom at Manchester about 
1521, and was the author of two of the homilies and other writings. He was 



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Anndla of Manchester. 33 



iMiA of thoM who aUempted to reconcile Bradford to the Church of Bome» 
hATing heen himself a stout Protestant in King Edward's days. 

1558. 

William Bhrch, M.A. (a younger brother of Thomas Birch, of Birch Hall), 
appolntod warden. Resigned at the request of Queen Elizabeth. He died at 
Stanhope, in the bishopric of Durham, 1572. 

1559. 

Thomas Herle, a native of Cornwall, chaplain to Queen Eliaabeth, appointed 
warden. He was deprived in 1578, for mismanagement of the funds of the 
college. His alienations did not deprive him of the favour of the Queen, who 
granted him a pension upon his retirement. Thomas Herle is described as " a 
subservient tool and a selfish man ; who, indeed. If a Protestant, had always 
changed with the princes of these changeable times." He rarely visited 
Manchester, having a dispensation for his absence. 

1560. 

The Court Leet ordered that no one should brew to sell unless they had two 
honest beds for the accommodation of travellers. The sign of a hand was to 
be shown when ale was to be had, and when the tap was dry the hand was 
withdrawn. Those who could provide four beds must have a sign, but were 
left to their own choice in the selection. 2nd October. (Earwaker*s Becords.) 

Numerous libels against Queen Elizabeth, and those who favoured her 
proeeedlngs, were circulated in Manchester and neighbourhood. The Privy 
Goundl issued a proclamation for the suppression of one, called " Leycester's 
Commonwealth.** 

1561. 

The Court Leet ordered that no manner of persons shall sell ale above 4d. 
out and 6d. in the house ; in default, 6s. 8d. fine. AIbo those that brew to sell 
ale and keep no inn, shall have a sign of the hand, which, so long as they have 
ale to sell, shall be put forth ; and when they have none, to be taken in. They 
ahaU deny no person ale for their money if the hand be out, under a fine of 
«s.8d. October 21. 

1562. 

The College became a prison for ** heretics,** Catholics, and ** recusants,** 
Puritans, or those who refused to acknowledge Elizabeth head of the church. 
The condition of the prison and prisoners is described In Peck*s Dtsidtrata 
Curiosa. 

1563. 

Richard Kyrshaw appointed common wayte (minstrel) by the Court Leet. 
This is the first mention we have of waytes as officials of the town. Sep- 
tember 30. It was customary for each place to have its musicians, who some- 
times performed outside their own town. Various instances of this are given 
In the Shutiletcorlh Accounts, published by the Chetham Society. The Man> 
ebeater waits (in the Court Leet Records} attended the wedding parties and 
otherwise discoursed sweet music for the burgesses. Their emoluments were 
c 



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84 Armdls of Mcmcheeter. [isM-uer 

the gifts of those who heard them, and prohaUy most of their income came 
from marriage feasts. The tendency to extravaganoe at the moment of entry 
npon matrimony was severely repressed by the Conrt Leet by orders that not 
more than fonrpenoe a head should be paid at a wedding dinner. In the other 
Ales or *' Drinking in assembly " we may see the survival of still older customs, 
which doubtless were not infrequently detrimental to the peace of the town. 
They were prohibited, but Ales for highways, bridges, and churches were 
allowed. At these social meetings collections were made after the fashion of 
the charity dinners. (Harland's Court Leet,) 

1664. 

Sir Edmund Trafford the third died. He was bom in 1507, and was 
knighted by the Earl of Hertford in Scotland. He was with Henry Vm. at 
the siege of Boulogne* 

1665. 

Ellas, the Manchester Prophet, died 25th February in prison at London. His 
real name was Ellis Hall, and he was bom at Manchester in 1502, where his 
father was a carpenter. Having prospered in business, he began to see visions, 
and in 1502 went to London, where he attempted to have an interview with 
the Queen. He was arrested, condemned to the pillory, and whipped by two 
ministers at Bedlam. His Book of Visions, a MS. in metre, was in the library 
of the son of Archbishop Parker. (Axon's Lancfishire OUaninffs.) 

There was allso an act of parliament concerning the Aulnegers* fees, and 
that hee should have deputies within the seueral townes of Manchester, Bool* 
ton, Blackbume, Bury. <HolUnworth*s Mancunienais,) 

** There was a sore sickness in Manchester and about it, of which very 
many died.** • (Hollinworth's MancuniensU.) 

The keepers of bakehouses were ordered by the Court Leet not to store 
gorse or Uddes for fuel '* within two bays** of the ovens. 2nd Oct. (Earwaker*s 
Becords,) 

The ale-house keepers appeared to have been fined one penny each indiscri- 
minately. (Earwaker's Court Leet Beeords.) 

1666. 

It was enacted at the Court Leet that all manner of weights should be made 
according to the statutes, and sealed with the town seal. October 2. (Harland's 
Court Leet.) 

1667. 

Some leather-dressers, having begun operations in wet-dressing of leather 
near the well and washing-plaoe, are admonished by the Court Leet to remove. 
October 1. (Earwaker*s BeeordeJj 

Randall Lyghe and Bichard Wirrall appointed wettes (minstrels) of Man- 
chester. The Court Leet record states: **They shall play morning and evening 
together, and that they shall not absent themselves without license of the 
steward and twenty of the persons at least.** October 1. 



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B6»-ura] 



Armals of Manchester. 35 



166a 

The watching of the town appears to have been a compnUory service, and 
each watchman was expected to have "a Jack, a sallet, and a bill.*' At the 
opening of the fair every burgess was expected to attend the steward in armour 
or to provide a substitute '* well furnished ** with bill and halbert. October le. 
Earwaker*s Beeords,) 

It was forbidden by the Court Leet jury to cast carrion or anything else 
hurtful into the river Irk. October 16. (Earwaker's Becarda.) 

1669. 

The jury of the Court Leet ordered that there shall not be "any rogg or 
cottons wet openly in the stretes.** (Earwaker^s Court Leet Records^ voL i.) 

1670. 

Flrom a letter written 4th May by the ArchblBhop to Cecil, it appears that 
the warden of Manchester desired to relinquish the trust, " to be converted to 
some college in Cambridge, who might hereafter send out some preachers to 
inhabit that quarter, and also by the rest of the revenues maintain some 
students." It was suggested that the collegiate estates might be annexed to 
St. John's College, Cambridge. (Baker's History of St. John*a^ edit, by Mayor, 
p.5».) 

A search made throughout Lancashire and the other ports of the kingdom 
for vagrants, rogues, gipsies, ftc. The result was the apprehension of 13,000 
**ma8terless men." (Baines's Lancaahire^ 1868, voL t, p. 169l) 

1571. 

There was an enquiry into the state of the Collegiate Church by Archbishop 
Grindal, held 8th June, in the Chapter-house. Some curious evidence was 
given of the habits of the clergy and condition of the church. Two of the 
Collegiate body went about the town with a handbell, moving the people to 
works of mercy ; while the choiristers fetched the dead to the church from 
their houses with handbells and singing. There were pictures in the church 
which the churchwardens had never defaced, and the old shrines were not 
removed. One of the Fellows was accustomed to go to an alehouse in 
sermon time in his surplice, and even kept an alehouse himself. There had 
been no change of churchwardens since the beginning of Queen Elixabeth*s 
reign. {MS. Report^ in the hands of Mr. J. E. BaUey.) 

Sir Richard Hall, one of the Fellows of the Collegiate Church, *' ministered 
a dormatory" to divers persons, who all died after taking the same ; and the 
same fate followed those whose veins he cut. ** When he should serve God, 
he runneth abowte his phisicke and surgerye, and ys altogether unlearned.** 
This individual added to his other employments that of Bursar to the College. 
{MS. in Mr. J. £. BaUey's hands.) 

1672. 

The occupiers of the houses and shops about the Conduit were ordered by 
the Court Leet to keep clean the streets in and about the Conduit, under a fine 
of 6d. 

**By virtue or presence of an act of parliament, in the ilrst yeare of Edward 



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36 Annals of Manchester. [uts-ists 

the Sixth, the Colledge of Manchester was dissolved, and the lands and revenues 
belonging to it were taken into the king^s hands, and were by him demysed to 
Edward, Earle of Derby ; and the honse called the Colledge and some lands in 
Aldport were then or soone after (as it is sayd) sould to the sayd Earle, who 
was carefull, as our fathers have tonld us, to provide very well for three or 
foure ministers officiating in the church. 

*' Anno 1572, by inquisition vppon oath it was allso found, that the Earle 
of Derby had bought of the Prince, Over, Allport, and three burgages in the 
llilnegate and Fenelstreete, being chauntry lands; and, indeede, severall 
chauntries belonged to the parish church of Manchester, which had their 
severall endowments; one wherein Sir William Trafford was last incumbent, 
another called Cheetam's chauntry, wherein Sir James was last incumbent, 
besydes others.** (HoUinworth*s Mancunienns,) 

The Court Leet appoint nine officers to see that the swine in the streets 
were duly sent to CoUyhurst waste. April 10. 

1673. 

The following entry is made in the Court Leet records : '* The most of the 
Jury do think thirty alehouses and inns to be sufficient in Manchester.*' 
March 26. (Haxiajad's Court Leet.) 

The Court Leet direct that alehouse keepers shall not allow any unlawful 
gaming in their houses or gardens. March 20. 

The Jury of the Court Leet " doth present John Skilliekome, plumber, to 
be a common easing-dropper, a naughty person, such a one as doth abound in 
all misorders ; therefore, we desire that he may be avoided the town, and have 
such punishment as unto such doth appertain.** March 20. (Harland's Court 
Leet Recorda, vol. L, p. 131.) 

The first register for the parish of Manchester oonunenced in this year. 
The first entry is the burial of Robert Fisher, August 1. The first baptism was 
Ellen, daughter of William Darby, August 3. And the first marriage between 
Nicholas Cleaton and Ellen Pendleton. 

The Court Leet fixed hours for servants, &c Apprentices, men servants, 
and women servants were not to be out later than nine in summer and eight 
in winter. Servants and children were prohibited from attending the wedding 
feasts. September 20. <Earwaker*s Becorda.) 

The Court Leet records state that '*Mr. Steward (Ralph Hurlestane) 
ordered that any unlucky tippler who was found drunk should pass the night 
in the dungeon and pay 6d. to the poor ; if the drunkard could not pay the fine 
the publican had to pay it for him.** September 2a (Earwaker*s Records.) 

The Court Leet order that if any alehouse keeper, man or woman, be found 
drunken in their own house or elsewhere, he or she shall be punished by 
imprisonment for one night, and from thenceforth discharged from alehouse 
keeping. September 20. (Harland*s Court Leet.) 

"Ii^unctions and orders concerning the Colledge Church of Manchester 
were given to the Blaster or Warden ; and the rest, some by the Archbishop of 
Yorke, and other the Queene Ifi^Jesties commissioners, for causes ecclesias- 
tical, within the province of Torke, anno 1573, about residence of the warden 
and fellowes, diligent and constant preaching every Sunday in the church of 



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10T4-1BT8] Anncds of Manchester. 37 

Manchester, or in one of the chappells of Stretford, Chorlton, Diddesbozy, 
<3orton« Denton, Newton, and Blakeley.** (Hollinworth's Mancuniensitu) 
Newton Heath Chapel built about this time ; enlarged, 1738 ; rebuilt, 181i. 

1674. 

The lord of the manor having endoeed the common of CoUyhurst, the 
endoeure was put downe the same night. As a compromise he " lett to such 
as chose to give for it liiis. the aker by yeares, and twenty shillings fine afore- 
hand.** (Hollinworth's Maneuniensis.) 

From Warden Herle the Traffords of Trafford reeeired, about 1574, some 
amblgnous leases of the tithes of Stretford, Trafford, and half of Chorlton, 
which were ultimately decided to mean possession for ninety-nine years after 
twenty-one years. This transaction is probably the origin of the right of the 
family to nominate one churchwarden and two sidesmen, and to appoint the 
parish derk of Manchester. When Peploe was warden these leases were the 
occasion of much trouble, and it was with great difficulty that the Fellows 
obtained their surrender. 

At a Court Leet held April 15 " the Jury doth present of themselves that 
George BCarshall, the 10th April, made a fray upon Thomas Aspinall, and gave 
him two blood-wipes in the head.** (Harland's Court LeU, voL L, p. 138.) 

1676. 

Twenty-two old *' croste grotes** were found in digging the ground within 
the house of George Bolton, Salf ord. April 7. (See Harland's Court Leet, and 
£arwaker*s Becorda, where a mistake of the former is corrected.) 

1677. 

The Court Leet order James Smith, capper, and William Savage, the catch- 
poll, to attend the Parish Church on Sundays and holidays to note who wore 
hals contrary to law. April 11. (Harland's Court Leet.) 

The town of Manchester gave £40 to the rebuilding of Croesford Bridge 
which was undertaken at their petition. The county assessment for the same 
was £2001 (Hollinworth's Maneuniejisis,) 

167a 
Queen Elisabeth dissolved the foundation of the Collegiate Church, which 
had consisted of one warden, eight fellows, four chaplains, and six choristers; 
and gave the college a new charter of foundation for one warden, four fellows, 
two chaplains, four musicians, two derks, and four choristers. The warden to 
be elected by the Crown, and the others on vacancy, by the warden and fellows. 
The style was changed to the College of Christ, July 28. John Wolton, or 
Woolton, appointed warden ; John Mallayns, Alexander Nowell, Oliver Carter, 
and Thomas Williamson, fellows; Robert Barber and Thomas Richardson, 
chaplains ; and Robert Leigh, Charles Leigh, Philip Gosnett, and John Glover, 
singing men. The salary of the warden was four shillings per day ; each fellow, 
sixteenpence ; each chaplain, sixpence three farthings ; each chorister, four- 
pence halfpenny ; and each singing boy, twopence halfpenny. The warden to 
forfeit 30d. and each fellow 8d. for every day*s absence. 

*' About this time the Bishop of Chester erected, and his successors 



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38 Annals of Manchester, [i679-i5aa 

enoonraged a pabllcke exercise to bee held at Manchester, the second Thursday 
in every month, and nominated some grave, godly, learned ministers to bee 
moderators, and to preach in their courses in the aftemoone ; and commanded 
all parsons, vicars, curates, readers, schoolemasters, within the Deanery of 
Manchester, to bee present at the sayd exercise, and to bee ready in the after- 
noone to bee more privately conferred with, examined, instructed, and directed 
by the sayd nominated moderators ; and to obey and observe their orders and 
directions vppon paine of censure. The names of the moderators were Mr. 
Shaw, of Bury ; Mr. Carter, of Manchester ; Mr. Assheton, of Midleton ; Mr. 
Williamson, of Manchester ; Mr. Langley, of Prestwich.** 

The churchwardens of Manchester demand nine pounds from the inhabi- 
tants " for destroying crowes.'* (Hollinworth.) 

Sir William West, then Lord of the Manor, attempted to wrest the privi- 
lege of the inhabitants of Manchester from choosing the boroughreeve, the 
steward choosing John Gee, and the town Bobert Langley. (Harland*s Court 
Leet.) 

A number of exiles from the Low Countries are believed by some to have 
settled in Manchester about this time, but the evidence is scanty. (Wheeler's 
MancheBter, p. 25.) 

1579. 

Perhaps in anticipation of a water famine, it was ordered in 1579 that no 
vessel larger than a woman o6uld carry full of water should be brought to the 
Conduit, and but one from each house, and that the applicants should "have 
their cale," or wait their torn. It was unlocked at six in the morning and 
locked at nine in the evening. <Harland*8 Court Lett,) 

The manor of Manchester sold by the Wests to John Lacye, a mercer, of 
London, for £3,000, May 15w (See under date 1606.) 

"Description of a moste dreadfull and merudous Monster bom in Man- 
chester, upon Tusdaye, being the fourteenth [18th] of August last past, 1579.' 
This is an account of a sort of Siamese twin which is referred to in the 
reg^ter of burials, 19th of August, as "a mayde child and a monsterous men 
childe wantinge boeth neck, head, and armes.** {PaZatint Kote4>ook, vol. iii, 
p. 280.) 

In an assembly of Ecclesiastical Commissioners (including Henry, Earl of 
Derby ; Henry, Earl of Huntington ; and William, Bishop of Chester) held at 
Manchester, they issued an order against pipers and minstrels making and 
frequenting bear-baiting and bull-baiting on the Sabbath days, or upon any 
other days ; and also against superstitious ringing of bells, wakes, and com- 
mon feasts ; drunkenness, gaming, and other vicious and unprofitable pursuits. 
(Hollinworth.) 

1580. 

In Robert Hitchcock's Politic Plat^ published 1 January, 1580, Rouen is 
said to be **the chiefest vent'* for ** Welsh and Manchester cottons. Northern 
kerseys, whites, lead, and tin." 

The old compulsion of baking at the lord's oven had become obsolete, but 
the Court Leet Jury requested "all loving neghbours" to bake with the tenant 
who rented the disestablished oven. April 7. (Earwaker's Records,) 



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un-ioM) 



Annals of Manchester. 39 



John Wodlton, warden, promoted to the See of Lincoln, and William 
Chadderton, D.D., Bishop of Chester, appointed Warden of the Ck)llege, in 
eammendam, Jane 5. Translated to the bishopric of Lincoln In 1594, and 
resigned his office of warden. 

Lord Burleigh thanks the Earl of Derby for reforming abases in the 
Ifanchester College. 

A commission held in Lancashire for trying Popish recosants. 

A new Jail built in Manchester at Hunt's Bank, called the ** New Fleet,** 
and the expense was for a time supported by fines imposed on the more wealthy 
of the prisoners, and by the proceeds of a iMurochial assessment, amounting to 
eightpence per week on every parish throughoat the diocese of Chester. 

1581. 

Sir John Southworth and others imprisoned in the New Fleet, at Man- 
chester, for *' obstinate adherence to Popery." 

1582. 

A OodLy and Learned Sermon^ containing a charge and instrucHon for 
all unlearned^ thegligeni^ and diasoluie MiniaterSj preached at Mancheeier^ in 
Laneaaierthiret before a great and worehipfvU audience^ by occasion of 
certain paraona there tU the preaent, appointed (aa then) to be made miniatera. 
By Simon Harward. London, 1582. (Axon's Lancashire Oleaninga, p. 219.) 

Mr. Robert Worsley, keeper of the gaol of Manchester, made an offer " that 
on condition of being allowed the proceeds of the * jail tax' for one whole year, 
he woold at his own proper charges build a workhouse, sufficient to afford 
employment to all the rogues, vagabonds, and idlers in the county." Dec. 8. 

1583. 

The number of alehouse keepers and bakers in Manchester was declared 
by the Lord of the Council to be excessive, and orders given for the suppression 
of a number of them. 

1584. 

At the Assises at Lancaster, James Bell, a native of Warrington ; John 
Finch, a native of Eccleston ; and James Leyboume were found guilty of being 
Cathorc recusants. The two former were executed at Lancaster, and their 
head^ exposed on the summit of the Collegiate Church, April 20. The persecu- 
C oi of the Boman Catholics was very bitter. Details are given in Challoner's 
Memoirs ofMiaaionary Prieata, and in Foley's English Province of the Society 
ofJeaus, ii., 143. They were arrested at Manchester and imprisoned in the house 
known as Radcliffes of the Pool— the ancient seat of the Radcliffe family, the 
site of which is indicated by the name of Poolfold. An engraving of BadcUffe 
Hall is given in the Palatine Note-book, vol. iii., p. 265. It has been said that 
Leyboume was executed at Manchester, but this appears to be a mistake. 

" No single women were allowed in the town unless they were under the 
guardianship of their relatives, or in others' employ." May 9. (Harland*s 
Court Leet.) 

The Court Leet ordered that single women should not be allowed to l)e ** at 
their own hand," either to rent a house or exercise a trade, ** to the great hurt 



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40 Armals of Manchester. tuas-isas 

of the poor inhabitants haying wife and children." May 9. (Earwaker*8 
Secords,) 

1585. 

TheCondoit was regarded as a special ornament of the town, and whilst 
snbscriptions were collected for its maintenance and repair, it was forbidden 
in 1585 to wash clothes, scour vessels, or cleanse '* meats of beasts** or calres at 
this, the chief sooroe of the water snpply of the town. 

" The English Benedictine beyond the seas began to bestlrre themselves f cr 
continuation of their order. Abbot Fecknam being dead, and there being but 
one left ; vie, Father Sigebert Buckley, and therefore, before his death, pro- 
trision was made of others to sucoeede. Nine were chosen : five in Valladolid, 
In Spaine, and f oure in Rome ; of which foure, one Father Anselme, of Man- 
chester, was one.** (Fuller's EccUa. Hist.) 

Edward Rishton died at St. Manhew. He was, according to Fuller, bom 
in Lancashire, and fled from Oxford to Douai, where he graduated M.A., and 
then went to the English College at Rome and was ordained in 1583. He came 
to his native country as a mission priest, and was imprisoned for three years. 
He caught the infection of plague in Lorraine, and carried it to St. Manhew, 
where he died. 

1586. 

HolUnworth states that " there was a greate dearth in this country, inso- 
much that in Manchester, a peny white loafe weighed but six or eight ounces, 
one peny boulted bread ten or eleven ounces, ryebread ten ounces, browne 
bread, about foureteene ounces ; and the Bishop of Chester and others pitying 
the condicion of the poore, did order that the peny white bread should weigh 
nine ounces of troy weight; boulted bread, ten; browne bread, fifteene; 
Jannocke, thirteene ; oate cake, fifteene ounces. That euery baker haue his 
marke, according to the statute ; that their bread bee wholesome and wel 
baked ; that they sell but onely twelve to the dosen ; that no loaves bee made, 
but either of Jd., IJd., iiijd., at the farthest; that these orders bee duely 
observed, both by inhabitants and forreiners.**' 

Camden describes Manchester as surpassing the neighbouring towns in 
elegance and populousness. " There is,** says he, **a woollen manufacture, a 
market, a church, and a college.** 

The Court Leet records contain the following memorandum, circa, 1586 :^ 
'* That holle fiftene of the said town of Manchester and the hamell or hameila 
[hamlet] de Bulhangs [f] due to the Queen's majesty, at every holle fiftene 
granted, ys the some of Thre powndes Seyven shyllynges.** (Harland*s Court 
Lett Secorda, vol. i., p. 167.) 

1688. 

A letter was sent 15th March from two Justices at Lancaster Assizes— 
Clenche and Rodes—to the deputy-lieutenants, directing them to inquire as to 
the too great number of bakers and alehouse-keepers in Manchester, and to 
suppress such as were not needed. 

** There died of the parishioners In one moneth of Aprill, neere seventy 
persons.** (HolUnworth.) 

The Court Leet Jury ordered that no person should be allowed to buy any 



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100t-UfO] 



Annals of Manchester. 41 



fmit before nine o*dock in the forenoon ; if any were bongfat they were not to 
•ell the same day under a fine of 2b. October 3. (Harland'e Court Ltet,) 

A great panic in Manchester, caused by a rumour that a large army of 
Papists had actually marched as far as Swinton Moor to attack the town. The 
townspe<^e *' betook themselves to such armes as they had,** and Bishop 
Chaderton, who was then Warden, caused the flesh shambles to be removed 
to Salford Bridge. (Hollinworth's MancuniensU,) 

Printing was introduced into Manchester by itinerant printers, who in 
the interests of Puritanism issued fierce attacks upon the bishops from secret 
presses, first at Kingston in Surrey, then at Fawsley in Northamptonshire, 
and then at Newton Lane, Manchester, where printers and press were seised 
by Fernando, fifth Earl of Derby. The mystery attaching to the Martin Mar- 
prelate tracts has never been fully cleared. " Ha' ye any work for the Cooper t ** 
had appeared, and at Manchester they were printing " Ha' ye any more work 
for the Cooper t" No copies of the sheets actually printed off appear to have 
been preserved. (See Notes and Queries, 4th Series, iiL, 97, and vii., 64 ; and 
Axon's Manchester Libraries,) 

Against the Spanish Armada, Manchester was required to contribute 38 
narquebusiers, 38 archers, and 144 men for bills and pikes. The county 
2,375 men. 

In the charter granted by Queen Elisabeth to the Collegiate Church, the 
lianchester population is stated at 10,000, but whether this means the town or 
the parish is not certain. 

1589. 

Sir John RadclilTe, of Ordsal, buried in the Collegiate Church 11th February, 
aged 63. Five of his sons died on the battlefield^four at an early age. One of 
his two daughters died of grief for the death of her brethren. Sir John was 
suspected of being a secret adherent to the Roman communion. 

Bobert Asnal, of Gorton, slaine with a bull at a stake. (Hollinworth's 
Maneunierhsis, > 

1690. 

A commission held in Manchester for the punishment of Popish recusants. 

Chorlton Hall demised by Edmund Trafford, Esq., to Ralph Sorocold for 
£32fk It was the seat of the Minshulis, or Mynsales, in the reign of Heury L ; 
and in 1544 it was sold by Ellis Hey, of Monk's Hall, in Eccles, to Thomas 
Minshull, apothecary, in Manchester, for £300; but it is reported to have been 
sold at a Uter period for £00,000 or £70,00a 

Sir Edmund Trafford the fourth died. He was bom in 1526. His first wife 
was a sister of Queen Catharine Howard, his second a daughter of Ralph 
Leicester, of Toft He was a staunch Protestant, and is credited with special 
activity against the partisans of the old faith. Sir Edmund was High Sheriff 
of Lancashire in 1506, 1571, and 1580. 

John Piers, Archbishop of York, held a visitation of the diocese of Chester 
in the church of Manchester on the last day of Biay, when the Fellows of tho 
College were admonished for not using the surplice. The correspondence 
which followed is printed in ChetKam MisctUany^ vol. v. 

A document, signed hy Peter Shaw, Oliver Carter, and other preachers* 



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42 AnTuiU of Mcmchester. cim1'169« 

gives an aoooont of the state, civil and eodesiaatlcal, of the connty, in which 
they complain of the presence of Jesuits and priests, daily masses, private 
marriages, old festivals and fasts observed, fairs, markets, mayames, Sec,, held 
on the Sabbath, unruly behaviour in church, "popish superstition used in 
the burial of the dead,** corruption in churchwardens, sidesmen, and parish 
clerks ; inconvenient state of churches and chapels, contentions about seats, 
and other matters. {ChethanCa Miscellany^ voL v.) 

"The Lord visited the town vrith a sore pestilence; there died of the 
parishioners, in one numthe of Aprill, near seventy persons." (HolUnworth's 
Maneuniemis.) 

1591. 

No person was allowed to buy fruit but upon the market day, and in the open 
market ; the Inhabitants not to buy before nine o'clock, strangers at ten, and 
not before ; In default one-half the fruit went to the lord, and the other to the 
officers. (Harland's Cottf^ £eet) 

The Court Leet Jury presented that "greses, or stairs, descending to the 
water of Erwell, Is in great decay." The inhabitants were assessed to repair 
the same. October I. 

1592. 

No meat was allowed to be dressed or eaten within the town or liberties of 
fifanchester on fast days under pain of ten shillings for every householder so 
offending. October 6. (Harland's Court Leet.) 

1593. 

• 

John Wolton, or Woolton, Bishop of Exeter, and late warden of the 
Collegiate Church, died at Exeter, March 13. He was bom at Wigan (others 
say Whalley) about 153S, "and was," says Bishop Goodwin, who had married 
his daughter, " a pious, painful, and skilful divine." His Chrietian Manual^ 
1576, was reprinted by the Parker Society in 1861. Another of his works is 
TJie Caaiell of Christiana^ 1577 ; New Anatomie of the Whole Man^ 157G. 
(Wood's Athen, Oxon., voL L, p. 600 ; Sutton's Lancashire Auihora.) 

1594. 

"The sicknesse" or plague stated to have broken out at Clongh House, 
Failsworth. (HolUnworth.) 

1695. 

John Dee, U. A., installed with great solemnity warden of the Collegiate 
Church, February 20. Dr. Dee had frequent quarrels with the fellows of the 
college, and in 1604 quitted the town, but he held his preferment till his death 
in 1608. 

The Court Leet jury ordered that no person was to be allowed to use butter 
or suet in cakes or bread ; tine 20b. No baker or other person to be allowed to 
bake said cakes, ftc. ; fine 20b. No person to be allowed to sell the same ; fine 
20b. October a (Harland's Courf i>e^) 

William West, Lord la Warr, died 30th December. The story of this noble- 
man's life is a strange one, and there are some difficulties of date not easily to 



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lOM-lOM 



Annals of Manchester, 4*S 



be understood. It U said that, having been adopted by his uncle. Sir Thomas 
West, he was in too great haste to inherit, and prepared poison for the des- 
patch of the old man, who was so incensed that he appealed to parliament, 
which in 1518 debarred William from succeeding to his uncle's honours. This 
Is not easily reconciled with the act of 1552. William West had sufficient 
ability and good fortune as a soldier to be able to live down this accusation, 
whether it were true or false. He served at the siege of St. Quentin, in 
PIcardy, and was knighted at Hampton Court, 1568, and created by patent Lord 
de la Warr. In 1569 an act of parliament granted him full "restitution in 
blood.** 

1696. 

The manor of Manchester sold by John Layce, mercer and citizen of 
London, for £3,500, to Sir Nicholas Mosley, Knt, March 23. Sir Nicholas 
Moeley had been SherifTof London in 1501, and was Lord Mayor in 1509. He 
built Hough End (generally called the Old Hall), near Chorlton, upon a place 
where a tenement occupied by his father had stood, and In which his son was 
bom. This hall became the family seat for several generations, but was finally 
abandoned for Rolleston, in Staffordshire. (See under 1579.) 

Eight officers were appointed to see that no fleshmeat was eaten on 
Fridays and Saturdays, and twelve for the overseeing of them that put butter, 
cream, or suet in their cakes. September 30. (Barland^B Couri LeH Records.) 

1607. 

Dr. Dee, warden, with Sir Ralph Barber and Robert Talsley, clerk of lian- 
Chester Church, with divers of the town, of divers ages, completed the peram- 
bulation to the bounds of Manchester parish. This survey of the town took 
six days to accomplish. Biay 4th. (Dee's Diary,) 

"Manchester town described and measm*ed by Christopher Saxton, July 
10. (Dee's iMary.) Saxton left on the 14th. 

The following entry from the Court Leet records shows the rural character 
of the town : " Richard Nugent hath purchased two messuages or tenements, 
one bam, two gardens, one orchard, one acre of land, one half acre of meadow, 
and one half acre of pasture, ftc., lying by the Mylne Bridge.** October 0. 

The Court Leet Jury order " that no foreigner nor any other stranger shall 
sell or measure any corn upon any other day than the Saturday and Monday, 
and that to be after the bell rings.** (Harland*s Court Lett) 

1608. 

The College gate, towards Hunt*s Hall, fell down, together with part of the 
wall, January 22. (Dee*s IHary,) 

Oiptain William Raddiffe, son of Sir John and brother of Sir Alexander 
Radcliffe, of Ordsal, was slain in the fight at Blackwater, when the English 
were defeated by Tyrone. 

1609. 
In August Sir Alexander Radcliffe, of Ordsal, was slain when Tyrone 
defeated the English forces at Cunley Hills. Sir Alexander was knighted at 
the sack of Cadis, 20th June, 1508. His bravery is mentioned by Sir John 



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44 Annals of Manchester. (leoo-isos 

Harrington. Margaret Radcliffe was a favourite maid of honour of Qaeen 
Eliaabeth, and sorrow for the death of her brother shortened her life, which 
ended 10th Norember. Another sister, Anne, died soon after at the age of 18L 

Edmund and Thomas BadclifTe, twin sons of Sir John BadclifTe, of Ordsal, 
died of fever whilst on military service in Flanders. 

On raising men to suppress the rebellion in Ireland, the magistracy of 
lianehester were cautioned not to send any vagabonds or disorderly persons, 
but young men of good character, who were well skilled in the use of the 
hand-gun* 

1600. 

The Court Leet directed that no person was allowed to weigh any yam or 
other stuff but by the standard weights of the town. October 2. (Harland's 
Court LeeL) 

The principal streets of Manchester appear, from the Court Leet records, 
to have been the Old and New Market Stids or places. Market Stid Lane, and 
Alport Town, Meale Gate, Withingreave, Hanging Ditch, Smithy Door, and 
so to Salford Bridge, Fennel Street, Toad Lane, Hunts Bank, Mylve Gate, and 
the Mylners Lane. October 2. 

leoa 

A letter was addressed to Sir Bobert Cecil by Nicholas Moeley and other 
leading laymen and clergymen, in which they complain that the Warden Dee 
and the Fellows of the College, with one exception, are non>resident, and they 
ask that a fellowship or the wardenship should be conferred upon William 
Bourne, who had a yearly .pension from those "weU-affected to religion.** 
{PalaHne KoU-book. voL 1., p. 48.) 

ieo4. 

In PtuquiTa JeaU there are two stories told of '* Merry Andrew of Man- 
chester.** One of these stories is given in the Palatine Note-book^ vol. ill., p. 102, 
and has since been modernised as a dialogue for school entertainments in the 
Rev. J. A. Atkinson's ** Merry Andrew^of Manchester** (Manchester, 1884). 

1605. 

Oliver Carter, B.D., died in March. He was a native of Richmondshire and 
wrote An Atisicer unto certain Popish QuMtiona^ lo70. HoUiuworth states 
that he fell sick as he was preaching of God*s providing a succession of godly 
ministers. Mr. William Bourne went up into the pulpit and preached on the 
same text. One of Carter's sons was an Irish bishop. 

In consequence of the detection of the Gunpowder Plot, Sir Nicholas 
Mosley and Richard Holland wrote to the Constables of Manchester, Nov. 20, 
enjoining watch and word to be duly kept. All strangers who were suspected 
of complicity were to be examined before the next Justice of peace. {Palatine 
yotc'book, iiL, 257.) 

The plague visited Manchester, and about a thousand died. The chaplain of 
the Collegiate Church, Mr. Kirke, his wife, and four children all perished. The 
Rev. William Bourne continued to preach throughout the visitation, **inthe 
towne,** says HolUnworth, **so long as he durst by reason of the unruliness of 



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1107-1606] AriTiala of Manchester. 45 

Infected persons and want of government, and then he went and preached in a 
field near to Shorter^s Brook, the townspeople being on one side of him and the 
eoontry people on the other.** Six acres of land on Collyhorst were devoted to 
cabins for the reception of plague patients, who were also buried there. This 
appropriation of the land was the compromise of a dispute between the 
burgesses, who regarded it as a common, and the lord of the manor, who had 
begun to enclose it. He also agreed to pay £10 yearly for the benefit of the poor. 
(Axon's Lancaahire Oleanings,) 

1607. 

Anthony Mosley, of Ancoats, died 25th liarch, aged 70. He is buried in 
the Collegiate Church. He refused to serve the office of constable in 1003 for 
fear of the plague. He bought the Ancoats estate from Sir John Byron. 

Thomas Cogan, or Coghan, buried at Manchester Church, 10th June. He iif as 
a native of Chard, and was bom about 1545. He was educated at Oxford, and 
was Fellow of Oriel College, 1563, M.A. in 1560, and M.B. in 1574, and in that 
year he became High Master of Blanchester Grammar School, which position 
he held until about 1600. He married a lady of position, Ellen, widow of 
Thomas Willott, who survived her second husband, and died in 1611. Cogan 
was the author of TJ^e WeU of Wiaedome, 1677, The Haven ofHccUthj 1584, and 
a selection for the use of schoolboys of Cicero*s letters, which appeared in 1602. 
His will, with a biographical notice, is given in The Palatine Note-book^ vol. 
liL,p.77. 

1608. 

William Chadderton, D.D.| Bishop of Lincoln, and late Warden of Man* 
Chester, died at Southoe, Hunts, 11th April. He was bom at Nuthurst, and 
educated at Cambridge, where he was Regius Professor. He was favourable 
to Puritanism, but was placed In power by Queen Elixabeth as a check upon 
the Romanists, who were strong in the north. He removed his residence from 
Chester to Manchester, and with the Earl of Derby, who was then frequently 
resident at Aldport, exercised great authority as Joint commissioners for 
promoting the reformation. The bishop had a sort of council of ministers, and 
daily morning and evening lectures and monthly exercises were set on foot. 
(Woods* Athen,^ Oxon, vol 11., p. 482 ; Peck's Desiderata Curiaea^) 

John Dee, ILA., Warden of the Collegiate Church, died at his residence, 
at Mortlake, in Surrey, in the utmost poverty, aged 81 years. He was bom in 
London, July 13, 1527. He was celebrated for his learning and for his interest 
in the occult sciences. A folio volume published in 1659 by Meric Casaubon 
chronicles his intercourse with the world of spirits. His Diary has been 
printed by the Camden Society, but somewhat inaccurately, and the portions 
relating to Manchester have been carefully re-edlted by Mr. J. E. Bailey. His 
autobiographical tracts have been reprinted by the Chetham Society. His 
mathematical and philosophical tracts are exceedingly rare and sometimes very 
obscure. It is thought that during his continental travels he was in the 
employment of the Queen, and sent home intelligence of what he learned 
abroad. 

Richard Murray, D.D , rector of Stopford (Stockpori) and Dean of St. 



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46 Anruds of Manchester. q^^ 

Buriens, in Cornwall, appointed warden. The story of this remarkable man is 
thus told by Hollinworth :— 

"After the death of Dr. Dee, the sayd William Bourne being as was sayd, 
an approoned divine, and having allso married a kinswoman of the Cecylls 
Lords Borgley, was In a faire llkelyhood of being warden, and had a grant for 
it» bnt hee was hindred, partly by his nonconformity (onely a lease of tythes 
for three lives of about thirty pounds per annum was given him), and partly 
by the potency of some Scottish lords at court, which got the wardenshlp for 
Richard Murray, D.D., who was likeTsise Parson of Stockport, Deane of St. 
Buriens, in Comewail, and had some civill honors descending to him by in- 
heritance from his SootUsh ancestors— one of honorable descent, competently 
learned, sealous for the dignity of his place as warden, but not laudable other- 
wayes. Hee seldome preached— onely twise in Bfanchester—once in Gen. i. 1 
In the beginning, &c Another time in Rev. xrif. 20 ; Come, Lord Jesus, ftc. 
So it was sayd that hee in preaching begunne and ended the bible, nor was hee 
verry skillfull in it. Preaching once before Sling James vppon Rom 1. 16 ; I 
am not ashamed of the gospell of Christ. When hee came to kisse the King's 
hand, his Majesty sayd, Thou art not ashamed of the gospell of Christ, but by 

, the gospell of Christ may bee ashamed of thee I Hee was a greate 

Pluralist, and yet was a mighty hunter of other Ecclesiastlcall dignityes and 
benefices. Hee was very lealous of being poysoned by his servants, if they 
were discontented at him : hee make them tast before he would eate ordiinke. 
When hee was abroad, he lined very obscurely, lodging rarely in the best 
innes, or two Joumeyes together In the same Inne ; but at Manchester hee 
Hued in greater state, accounted hlmselfe (as indeed by his place he was) the 
best man in the parish. Hee required the fellowes, chaplalnes, singing men, 
choristers to goe before him to church, and some gentlemen followed after : 
hee demaunded his seate from the Bishop of Chester when hee was sett 
In it, saying. My Lord, that seate belongs to the warden; and because 
hee would not sitt below the bishop, hee remooued In to the body of the 
church, and In the aftemoone hee came timely enough to take his owne 
seate, and so the bishop was f6rced to seek another seate. In his time 
the Quire part of the church grew very ruinous, the revennues of the Colledge 
were leased out by his meanes. Hee purposely abstained from taking the oath 
mencloned In the Queene*s letters patents, concerning his not receiuing of the 
Colledge revenues, sane for the dayes In which hee did resyde. The fellow- 
ships and other places were either not furnished with men, or the men with 
meanes, herevppon many and grieuous complaints were made by the 
parishioners against him to King Charles, who comitted the whole matter to 
William, Archbishop of Canterbury, Thomas Lord Coventry, of Alsbrough, 
Lord Keeper of the Greate Scale ; Henry, Earle of Manchester, Lord Keeper of 
the Privy Seals, that they might enquire further into the matter. Afterward 
hee comitted It to the examination of Commissioners, In causes ecclesiastically 
which after mature deliberation and examination, proceeding In due forme of 
law, and having summoned the sayd Richard Murray, personally to answer for 
himself e, did not onely remooue the sayd warden from his place, but pronounced 
him to have bin no warden from the first, and that the colledge had either a 
weake foundation or none at all." 



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ieM-i«i6j Armals of Manchester. 47 

1609. 

From a partnership deed dated 4th January, iaOO-10, between George 
Tipping and George Chetham, it appears that the goods sent from Manchester 
to London for sale were Stopport clothe, cotton yame, or cotton wool, friaes, 
whitM, rnggs, and bayea. (PakUine Nate-book^ voL L, p. 127.) 

1612. 

Sir Nicholas Mosley died. He was a prosperona merchant, and managed 
the exportation of goods from London which were manufactured under the 
direction of his brother Anstrey at Manchester. He was Lord Mayor of 
London in 1500, and was knighted by Queen EUaabeth. He became Lord of 
the ICanor of Manchester in 1506, and in 1604 was High Sheriff of Lancashire. 
He is buried in Dldsbury church. His character has been drawn as an energetic 
trader and pious Christian, and also as one careless how his money was gained 
and liying and dying a miser. (Moeley's FamUy MemorieUa; Axon*s Lancet 
Mh^re GUaninga,) His son Rowland succeeded as Lord of the Manor. 

1613. 

William Barlow, D.D., Bishop of Lincoln, died at Buckden, September 7, 
said to have been bom at Barlow Hall, Chorlton-eum-Hardy. He was the 
author of Vita et Obitu Ric?iardi CoHn, 1506; Semum at Pa%da Craaa, 1600; 
Sum of the Conference at Hampton Court, 1604. Baines says that he was 
one of the Barlows of Barlow, but this seems very doubtful. 

1614. 

Dame Alice Caesar died 23rd May. She was a daughter of Christopher 
Grene, of Manchester, and when widow of John Dent, merchant, of London, 
married, 10th AprU, 1506, as his second wife. Sir Julius Ccesar, who was suc- 
cessively Master of the Rolls and Chancellor of the Exchequer. He survived 
her, dying 26th April, 1696. They are both buried in Great St. Helen's, Bishop- 
gate Street, London. (Lodgers Life of Sir Juliua Caear, 1827.) 

1616. 
John White, D.D., died. He was a native of St Neots, and brother of 
Franer^s White, Bishop of Ely. He was Vicar of Eccles, Fellow of the 
Collegiate Church, and author of The Way to the True ChurcJiy 1610; Defence 
of the Way to the True Church, 1614. His works were collected in 1624 by his 
brother. (Wood*8 Athen. Ox., voL iU., p. 238; FuUer's WoHhies.) 

1616. 

Rowland Mosley, Lord of the Manor, died. He had a lawsuit with the 
townsfolk as to the waste of CoUyhurst. (Mosley*8 FamUy MemorieUe.) He 
left a son, Edward, one year old, to succeed him. 

" Anno 1616 was an extraordinary flood, called from the day Lsmbard's 
Fiood, in which the water suddenly rose many yards plnmme above Uie ordi« 
nary course, that men stood upon Salford Bridge, and laded up water with a 
HUle piggln. It is a easy matter with God to drowne a towne ; yea, a world.** 
<HoUinworth*8 Mancunieneie.) 



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48 AniiaU of Manchester. aen-iesa 

1617. 

James L visited Lancashire, and the famons Book of Sports was the answer 
to a petition presented to him at Houghton Tower in August. The proclama- 
tion was drawn up by Bishop Morton at Preston, and the King altered It from 
the style of a bishop to that of a king, and issued it from the court at Green- 
wich. It has several times been printed. (Axon's Laneaahire Gleanings,) 
His BCaJesty, in this memorable document, proceeds to state that *'for his 
good people's lawful recreation, his pleasure is that, after the end of divine 
service, his good people be not disturbed, letted, or discouraged from any law- 
ful recreation, such as dancing, either men or women; archery (for men), 
leaping, vaulting, or any such harmless recreation ; nor from having of May* 
games, Whitson-ales, and morice dances, and the setting up of Blay-poles, and 
other sports therewith used, frc" And he " bars from this benefit and liberty 
all such known recusants, either men or women, as will abstain from coming 
to church.** This proclamation gave great offence to the Puritans. 

1620. 

The fifth Sir Edmund Trafford died. He was thrice High SherifiT of Lanca- 
shire. In laSi there was a levy of 200 men for the service of the Queen in her 
Irish wars, and that the Lancashire lads might not be committed to strange 
captains, who *' for the most part" had not used their soldiers " with the love 
and care that appertained** one of their own shire, Edmund Trafford, eldest 
son of Sir Edmund Trafford, Knight, was appointed their commander. Two 
years later an entry in the Court Leet book shows that the town paid £16 to 
Mr. Trafford and Mr. Edmund Assheton for the "makeing of soldiers into 
Ireland.** In 1603, when James made his progress into England, a number of 
gentlemen were " graced with the honour of knighthood ** at York. Amongst 
these was Edmund Trafford, who, like his father, was a hater of Boman 
Catholics, and employed a spy named Christopher Bayley to ferret them out. 
His first wife was a Booth, of Barton. In a second marriage he espoused a 
Lady liildred Ocil, the second daughter of the Earl of Exeter A daughter 
received the name of Cedlia, and a son the name of Cecil, in honour of the 
mother's family. 

Leonard Smethley, arms painter and deputy herald, resident in Blanchester, 
writes to the College of Heralds letters complaining of those who refused to 
pay the fees, and describing the funds of Sir Alexander Barlow, Sir Edmund 
Trafford, and others. These letters, with others of Bandal Holmes ranging 
1030-22, are printed in the Cheiham Miscdlany, vol. v. 

1622. 

Oswald Mofleley, of the Garret, died. His first wife was adaughter of Rev. 
Richard Gerrard, from one of whose family he bought the Garret Hall estate. 
His daughters married against his wishes, and his two eldest sons died before. 
The estate was inherited by his son Samuel, who, in 1631, sold it and went to 
live in Ireland. His descendants include Dr. Benjamin Moseley, Thomas 
Moseley, Lord Mayor of York in 1687, Rowland Moseley, Sheriff of York in 
17QS. He has had also some notable descendants in America. (Moeley's /amtiy 
Memorials: Axon's Lancashirt Gleanings,) 



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it»-ies7] Anndh of Mamhester. 49 

' J • 

1623. 

The Charter of Manchester, granted In 1901 by Thomas de Gresley, enrolled, 
at the request of the burgesses, in the records of the Chancery of Lancaster, 
September 10. (Harland's Mamoesire, toL it, p. 24a) 

16a4> 

In the Conrt Leet records the Jury find that William Butler had pur- 
chased of Sir John Suckllnge, knight, Anthony Abdye, of London, merchant, 
and William Sparke, gent., certain burgages or tenements in the St. Blarye 
Gate, Deansgate, and Toad fjane, within the town of Manchester ; and Butler 
was ordered to come to do his suit and sendee to the manorial lord. Sir John 
Suckling was the father of the poet. {PcUaHne NaU-hook, toL i., p. 197.) 

Ralph Cudworth, D.D., died this year. He was " the second son of Ralph 
Cudworth, of Wemith Hall, near Manchester, esquire, chief lord of Oldham^ 
was bred Fellow of Emanuel College, in Cambridge, a most excellent preacher, 
who continued and finished some imperfect works of Mr. Perkins, and after 
his decease supplied his place in St. Andrew*s, in Cambridge. He was at last 
preeented by the college to the parish of AUer, in Somersetshire." (Fullei^a 
Worthies.) His more famous son. Dr. Ralph Cudworth, was bom at Aller. 

1625. 

Sir Henry Montague receired from Charles L the title of Earl of Manchester, 
which was altered to that of Duke 1719. The first bearer of the title was the 
author of a once popular devotional volume entitled Manchetiter al Mondo^ 
1633, which went through nine editions. It was reprinted in 1880, with a bio- 
graphical introduction by Mr. J. E. Bailey. The Earl of Manchester had no 
connection with the town from which he took his title, except that of sending 
an occasional present of game. 

1627. 

Sir John Radcliffe, of Ordsal, was slain at the Isle of Rhd 6th November. 
He was then 46 years of age. Some verses addressed to him by Ben Jonaon 
refer to the fatalities that had overtaken his family :— 

How Ilk* a column, fUdeUffe, left alone 
For tho great mark of rirtae, thoee being gone 
Who did, alike with thee, thy hooae upbear, 
Btaad'tt thou, to ahow the timea what you all were. 
Two bravely in the battle fell, and dy'd 
Upbraiding rebel anna and barbarou* pride ; 
And two that would hare fallen, aa graat as thegr, 
The Belglc f erer rariahed away. 
Thoo, that art all their ▼aloor, all their eplrit, 
And thine own goodaan to tncr eaa o thy martt— 
Than thoee I do not know a whiter aoul. 
Nor could I, had I aeen all Nature's roll— 
Thou yet remain'at unhurt, in peace and war, 
Though not unproT'd ; which ahowa thy foctODM are 
WlUing to expUte the fault in thee, 
Wherewith, against thy blood, they offenden be. 

It Is said that Radcliffe had quarrelled with his wife and, when fatally 
wounded, wrote a letter to her, which the Duke of Buckingham kept from her. 
u 



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50 Awmala of Manchester. a«io-iMs 

She was Alice, danghter of Sir John Byron, of Newstead. (Barwaker*s Local 
OUaningSj No. 302.) 

Samuel Bisphani, " Doctor in Phlsicke,** resident in Salford, but apparently 
had another honse at Great Lever when, in 1631, he attended Bishop Brldgman, 
who had sickened during the plague time at Wigan. Bispham was a graduate 
of Leyden and of Oxford. From Salford he went to London, and in 1643 went 
on an embassy to France, Genoa, Florence, and Venice, in which he boasts that 
he spent £7,000 and lost £10,000. In 1600 he was a petitioner as " the only sur- 
Tiving physician of the late Sling.** His son Thomas, also a doctor of medicine, 
was the author of Iter AustraU^ a Latin poem, printed at Oxford in 1658. The 
entries relating to the Bispham family in the Bfanchester registers range from 
l^ntoieSL {PalaHneNoMH)ok,roLm.,pp.^l^.) 

1630. 

Oswald Mosley, of Anooats, died, aged 47. From 1613 to his death he was 
steward of the Court Leet 

163L 

*' The Lord sent his destroying angell into an inne in Manchester, on which 
died Richard lieniott and his wif^ the master and dame of the house, and all 
that were in it^ or went In it for certaine weekes together. At last they 
burned or buried all the goods in the house ; and yet, in midst of judgment, 
did God romember mercy, for no person else was that yeare touched with the 
infection.** (Hollinworth's Maneuniensis.) 

Fair En^ the MiUef'8 Daughter of Manchester^ with the love of William 
the Conqueror. A pleasant comedy, as it was sundry times acted in the 
Honourable City of London by the Right Honourable the Lord Strange*s 
serrants. (London, 1631.) TUs play, which mentions Manchester, Chester, 
and the TralTords, has been wrongfully attributed to Robert Green. It has 
been reprinted by Professor Dellus, 1874; by Richard Simpson (School of 
£7kaJb!pereA 1878; and by DrB.Wamke and Proescholdt, 1883. A ballad on the 
subject was licensed in 1681, and the play, though perhaps not printed, was in 
existence in 1S0L It has even been supposed that Shakspero had some shan 
in the authorship. (Axon's Lancashire Gleanings,) 

1632. 

''Daniel Baker, ILA., rector of Assheton-on-Mercy Banke, and Fellow of 
the CoUedge, having on (3ood Friday (as it is called) administered the Lord*s 
Supper, and being(as it is feared) somewhat OTercharged with drinke, in Salford, 
was found dead in the morning in the water under Salford Bridge. Whether 
bee fell downe of himselfe, being a tall man, and the battlements then but low, 
or whether hee was cast downe or put over the bridge, is not oertainely knowne 
to this day.** (HoUinworth's Maneunicnsis.) 

Sir Cedl Traflbrd abjured the reformed faith, and became a Roman 
Catholic He had been a great persecutor of the recusant (Catholics. In his 
seal for the reformed religion he attempted to convert a kinsman, Francis 
Downes, of Wardley, but the fresh consideration of the controversy between 
the Anglican and Roman Churches led him to Join the communion of the latter. 

A paper fixed upon the south door of the Collegiate Church with shoe- 



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iess-ies6] Annals of Manchester. 51 

makei^s wax. It was taken down by the chnrch wardens, who sent a copy to 
London, which is preserved in the Harleian MS. 2176, f. 7. It is obscurely 
worded, but appears to be a Poritan incitement to insurrection. Mr. J. P. 
Bylands regards it as an evidence that "the idea of taking away the King's 
life ezirted in some minds at least seventeen years before he was brought to 
triaL** (See Baines' LatuxuMre^ old ed., and Palatine Noie-baok, vol. L, p. 89.) 
The MS. was endorsed by some official " A peeoe of Paracelsus Ids plaster, 
or a little melancholike treason extracted from a distracted and simple souL" 

1633. 

**On New-Yeare*s-Day, the Mosse being of a greate breadth, and fonre or 
live yards deepe, rose up out of his place, and trauelled towards the house of 
James Knowles, and environed it about, carried a large stone trough before it, 
and boar downe trees that stood in the way, but being afterward somewhat 
broken with a row of trees before the sayd James Knowles' house, it filled the 
brookes and riuers, slew the fish, blackend the water, made some fruitful land 
barren." 

1634. 

Sacred Trinity Church, Salford, founded by Humphrey Booth, a prosperous 
merchant of Salford. Hollinworth gives the following account :— 

"Humfrey Booth, of Salford, laid the foundation of Trinity chappell, in 
Salford, and of his owne cost (save that about two hundred pounds was giuen 
try seuerall persons :-^ir Alexander RadcliiTe, of Oardsall, twenty pounds; 
Henry Wigley, twenty pounds ; Robert Pendleton, twenty or forty pounds ; 
Charles Haworth, ten pounds ; John Hartley, twelve pounds ; John Gaskell, 
five pounds ; George Scholes, ten pounds ; Ralph Bayley, five pounds ; and 
others lesser sunmies ;) did finish it, and endow it with twenty pounds lands 
per annum : the said Humfrey Booth, being, by (vod's blessing on his trading, 
made rich, gaue aUso to the poore of Salford, the first lands that he bought to 
the value of twenty pounds per annum, and payd it duely all his life time. 
Hee being in greate weakenesse, earnestly desired that hee might line to see 
the chappell finished, which hee did, but immediately after the solemne dedi- 
cation of it, by the Bishop of Chester, hee more apparently weakened, then heo 
earnestly begged that he might partake of the Lord's Supper there, and then 
hee would not wish to line longer. It pleased God to revive him in such a 
measure, as that hee was able to goe to the chappel constantly till hee was 
partaker of the supper (which could not bee done for some moneths after the 
consecration) in the chappell, and was neuer able to goe forth after, nor scarce 
to get home. Hee was a man Just in his trading, generous in entertainment of 
any gentlemen of quality that came to the towne, though meere strangers to 
him, bountif nil to the church and poore, faithfull to his friend, and we hope, 
(xod gaue him both repentance for, and remission of his sinns, in the blood of 
Jesus." 

1635. 

Richard Murray, D.D., removed from the wardenship upon a petition from 
the inhabitants, for destroying the revenues, and allowing the church to fall 
into decay. See under date 1606. 



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62 AnTuds of Manchester. [ies7-i6S» 

Hmnphiey Chetham, high sherifi; waa ordered hy Charlee L to levy 
iS3,600 npon the ooanty for a Tesael of 380 tone, towards which Salf ord Hundred 
paid £480, Liverpool paid £25, Lancaster £25, and Wigan £60. ThesheriiTwaa 
taken sharply to acoonnt for levying more than the specified amoont, in order 
to reimburse himself for the ooat of collection, and was told that it was a 
'' Starre Chamber business." 

The population of the Parish of Manchester in the charter of the Collegiate 
Church at 20,000 persons. 

1637. 

A gallery first erected in the Collegiate Church by Humphrey Booth, mer- 
chant, of Salfordf founder of Sacred Trinity Church, Salf ord. 

163a 

Charles L granted a new charter of foundation to the Collegiate Church, 
September 90. In this charter the salary of the warden was £70 per annum ; 
each fellow, £35 ; each chaplain, £17 lOs. and marriage fees ; each singing man, 
£10; and each singing boy, £5. The foundation members were: Richard 
-Heyrick, warden; William Bourne, Samuel Boardman, Richard Johnson, and 
Peter Shaw, fellows; Edmund Hopwood and B(Tbert Brown, chaplains; 
William Leigh, John Le^gh, Peter Starkey, and Charles Leigh, singing men. 

Sir Edward Mosley died at Rolleston Hall, at the age of 70. He waa 
attorney-general of the Duchy of Lancaster, and bought the Rolleston estates. 
He was succeeded by his nephew Edward, lord of the manor of Manchester 
and son of Rowland Mosley. (See under date 1616w) 

The Collegiate Church, which had been suffered to fall into decay, under- 
went great repairs. 

1639. 

The Transit of Venus over the sun 24th November. It was observed by 
Jeremiah Horrox, at Hoole, who has described it in his Venua in Sole Vitcu 
He communicated his expectation of the circumstance to his friend William 
Crabtree, of Broughton, that he also might look out for a phenomenon which 
would not recur for more than a century. Crabtree looked, but the sky waa 
overcast and he waa unable to see anything. But a little before sunset, 
namely, about thirty-five minutes past three, certainly between thirty and forty 
minutes after three, the sun butet forth from behind the clouds. He at once 
began to observe, and was gratified by beholding the pleasing spectacle of Venus 
upon the sun's disc Rapt In contemplation, he stood for some time motionless, 
Bcarcely trusting his own senses through excess of Joy. He waa bom 1010 and 
baptised SOth June. He was a " clothier **— apparently a prosperous merchant 
of the seventeenth century. He married, in 1633, Eliaabeth, daughter of 
Henry Pendleton. His mathematical and astronomical attainments were 
of a very high order--as Is evidenced by his correspondence with Horrox, and 
by the warm testimony of Sir Edward Sherburne in his annotations npon 
Manilius. There is a translation of Horrox's Latin discourse on the Transit by 
the Rev. A. B. Whatton (London, 1869). A paper by Mr. J. E. Bailey, giving 
biographical and bibliographical particulars, appeared in the Palatine Note- 
book, vol. U.. p. 253 ; vol. ill., p. 17. 



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^g^.XMoi AnTials of Manchester, ' 53 

1641. 

Edward Barlow, Roman Gatholic priest (Father Ambrose, O.S.B.), executed 
as a recusant, at Lancaster, September 10th. He was bom at Manchester in I6861 
and was son of Alexander Barlow of Barlow. He was educated at Douay and 
ValladoUd. He was sent as a mission priest, and for twenty-four years laboured 
chiefly in his native county, where he was revered by those of his own faith 
for the sanctity of his life. He was arrested on Easter day by a minister and 
his congregation who left their own service to hunt the priest. He was tried 
at Tjiufiaitt^r Assises for recusancy, and was executed September 10. Some 
curious extracts from a letter to his brother, Dr. Rudesind Barlow, are given 
in Challoner^s Missionary Priests, 

An interesting reference to vegetable cotton, the soft substance forming tho 
covering or envelope of the seeds of the gossypium, or cotton plant, as an 
article used in manufacture, appears in a small treatise published at London 
in 1041, entitled "The Treasure of Traffic,** written by Lewis Roberts, who says 
that "the town of Manchester buys the linen yam of the Irish in great 
quantity, and, weaving it, returns the same again to Ireland to sell. Neither 
doth her industry rest here, for they buy cotton wool in London, that comes 
from Cyprus and Smyrna, and work the same into fustians, vermilions, 
dimities, and other such stufTs, which they return to London, where they are 
•old ; and thence not seldom are sent into foreign parts, which have means on 
far easier terms to provide themselves of the first material.** 

The news of the so-called Irish Massacre excited almost consternation, and 
the Lancashire Protestants were afraid of similar trouble at home, where the 
Roman Catholics were very numerous. Application was made to Lord St range, 
the lord-lieutenant, for arms and ammunition. Magarines were formed in 
various parts of the county, and at Manchester a room of the college was set 
apart and stocked with ten barrels of gunpowder and a proportionate quantity 
of match. 

1642. 

The struggle between the King and the Parliament was drawing to a point 
when the arbitration of the sword alone was possible. The people of Man- 
chester, led by Heyrick, the warden, made their " Protestation,** 28th Feb., 
in the form drawn up by the Long Parliament in May, 1641. The list of names 
appended is found in the Palatine Note-book^ vol. i., p. 80. The original is 
amongst the MSS. of the House of Lords. The King left London for York, 
where he was joined by many of the nobility. King and Parliament each tried 
to secure the counties to their side. 

The memorable petition in favour of peace was drawn up by Richard 
Heyrick, warden of Manchester, and presented by him and James Bradshawe 
as a deputation to Charles L, at York. It was signed by sixty-four knights 
and esquires, fifty-five divines, seven hundred and forty gentlemen, and about 
sc van thousand freeholders and others. Amongst the deputation was t he after- 
wards celebrated John Bradshaw, president of the High Court of Justice. The 
Ki^, In his reply, given 6th June, declared himself equally opposed to Popish 
superstitions on the one side, and to schismatlcal innovation and confusion on 
the other. Upon this evasive reply the town of Manchester declared iu 



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54 Annals of Manchester, 



ri64> 



favour of the Parliament. The solemn League and Covenant was aubecribed 
to by the Puritans in Manchester, at whose head was Warden Heyrick, who 
was also the head of thirty gentlemen appointed to superintend the fortifica- 
tions of the town against the King's troops. The parties divided themselves at 
the county meeting on Preston Moor. There Sir John Girlington read the 
king*s *' Commission of Array,** addressed to him as High Sheriff of Lancashire. 
James, Lord Strange, son and heir apparent of William, Earl of Derby, was 
by the king appointed one of (he commissioners, and lord-lieutenant of the 
counties of Lancaster and Chester, to put it into execution. Whilst the High 
Sheriff seized the magazine at Preston, Lord Strange did the same at Liverpool. 
Alexander Rigby, as Commissioner for the Parliament, hurried to Manchester 
to prevent the same accident there. The townspeople asked for its removal to 
a place of safety, and when Sir A. Radclifle and Thomas Prestwich came to 
seize for the King the ten barrels of gunpowder, which were stored in 
a room of the college, they found that it had been removed by Assheton, 
of Middleton. Lord Strange marched upon the town and demanded the mili- 
tary stores, which were refused. The train bands turned out to protect them, 
and Lord Strange's proposal that the stores should be placed under the charge 
of magistrates of both parties was refused, and he retired. The king now 
ordered that part of the ammunition should go to Bury, part to Rochdale, and 
that part should remain at Manchester. To allay the feeling of the Protestants 
he announced that no recusants should serve in his army. This proclamation 
waa read at the Cross in Manchester, and Lord Strange then withdrew to 
Bury. At this point there is said to have happened an afflray between his men 
and the townspeople, but the narrative is very confused and doubtful. Th y 
Parliamentarians refused the offered terms, but some of the inhabitants 
offered to purchase an equal amount for the royal service, and invited Lord 
Strange to a banquet. He came with a great retinue as lord-lieutenant and 
accompanied by the high sheriff, who read the king*s proclamation of array. 
The Royalists paraded the streets, exclaiming, **The town's our own.** The Par- 
liamentarians armed the pikemen and musketeers for fear of an attack. Whilst 
Lord Strange was at dinner, Captains Holcrof t and Birch, firm Parliamen- 
tarians, with their forces entered the town, and beat to arms. A skirmish 
ensued, and Richard Perceval, a linen weaver, of E^irkmanshuUne, was slain. 
This is believed to have been the first blood shed in the Civil War, which may 
be said to have begun at Manchester 16th July. Lord Strange withdrew into 
Cheshire. These events, perhaps, decided the king to give up his intention of 
raising his standard in Lancashire, but the selection of Nottingham gave great 
umbrage to our local gentry. Lord Strange*s action at Manchester led to his 
impeachment for high treason 14th September. In spite of the King's pro- 
clamation Lord Strange enlisted many Roman Catholics, and with the men so 
raised intended to revenge himself for his previous defeat at Manchester. The 
burgesses on their side were not idle, but put themselves in a posture of 
defence. The military operations of Manchester were under the direction of 
Lieut.-Colonel John Rosworm, a German soldier of experience, whom Lord 
Strange vainly desired to gain over. The town's forces were under the com- 
mand of Captain Ratcliffe, of Pool Fold, and 150 auxiliaries furnished by the 
Asshetons, of Biiddleton, were commanded by Captain Bradshawe. As early 



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Jilt] AnnaU of Mcuncheeter. 55 

as 22iid September the town waa threatened by the Boyallata, and ManchesteJ 
waa tormally besieged by Lord Strange and Lord Molinenx, on Sunday, Sept. 
2S, with an army consisting of 4,000 foot, 200 dragoons, 100 light horse, and 
seven pieces of cannon. After a straggle of some dajB the besiegers abandoned 
the attempt, with the loss of 200 men, the besieged having lost only four killed 
and f onr wounded. Lord Strange*s varions propoealB for disarming the bor- 
gesses were all rejected by them, and Lord Strange*s artillery was answered 
by galling musketry fire from the Roundheads stationed in and about the 
churchyard. The Bev. William Bourne, the venerable Puritan minister, 
greatly encouraged the defenders. The houses, however, were much damaged, 
and great plunder was said to have been carried away by the Boyalists. The 
town was immediately more completely fortified. Salford remained royalist. 
Alport Lodge was the headquarters of the Earl of Derby during the siege. 
Alport Park and Over Alport contained 06 acres, and comprised all the land 
between Irwell and Tib, and between Medlock and Quay Street. fThere is a 
notice of it by Sir Oswald Mosley in Palatine Note-book^ vol. i., p. 120.) 
Captain Standish, of Duxbury, a Royalist, was killed by a bullet from the 
tower of the Collegiate Church, whilst looking out of the door of Robert 
Widdow's house, in Salford^ Sept. 29, upon which his soldiers ran away. 
Another royalist loss was Colonel Cutbert Clifton " slain at Manchester.** 
<Chailoner*s Missionary Priests.) According to a notice of later date, Law- 
rence Holker, a Royalist, was imprisoned at Manchester during the siege, and 
his estates were sequestered. {Oentleman's Magojdne^ 1703, p. 1060.) Lord 
Strange, by the death of his father, was now Earl of Derby. The resistance of 
Manchester had disheartened him, and he was probably not sure whether his 
Lancashire tenantry, whom he had recruited, would fight against the towns- 
men, with whom they would have many common sympathies. On October 1, 
after an exchange of prisoners, he raised the siege and withdrew. 

Parliament prohibited the feoffees of Manchester Gnunmar School from 
renewing a lease of the town's mills to Mr. Prestwlche, on the ground that he 
was a Royalist. Early in November new fortifications were added to the town. 
Under the Speaker's warrant, four pieces of brass ordnance, commanded by 
Balph Assheton, were ordered for its protection. The garrison was felt as a 
disagreeable tax upon the persons of the Puritans, and it was presently deter- 
mined that the estates of the "delinquents'* were the most proper treasury 
wherefrom to defray the charge of its maintenance. They were taxed 
accordingly. Sir Alexander Raddiffe, knight, of Ordsall, who had been an 
active loyalist at the siege of Manchester, was taken prisoner in Essex, and 
committed to the custody of the Sergeant-at-Arms, November 2, and sent to 
the Tower, November 0. Sir Cecil Trafford, who was styled an Arch-papist, 
fell into the hands of the Parliamentarians at Manchester, December 2. Two 
oompanies of the Manchester Regiment embarked in "foreign** service, and 
marched to Wigan, where they sufTered a defeat by the Royalists. Acting 
upon Rosworm's advice, they determined to recover their reputation, and at 
the battle of Chowbent the Manchester Regiment obtained "a splendid 
victory ** over the Royalists, December 24. 

The siege of Iffanchester was an important event in the great struggle 
between the King and the Parliament. The successful defence made by the 



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£6 Annals of Manchester. aeu 

townspeople eneoaraged the resistance of the Puritans and gave them heart 
for what seemed an unequal contest. The decided adherence of the people 
of Manchester to the parliamentary side caused it to he said—" That had not 
this town stood firmly to the king and parliament, the whole country would 
have heen brought into subjection to the oppression and violence of the 
cavaliers.** Throughout the Civil War the Manchester train bands acted a 
conspicuous part. In a publication bearing the title of Jehova Jireh^ Ood in 
the Mount: or, BngtancCa Parliamentary Ckronide, the Parliamentarians 
of Manchester are eulogised "as the honest-hearted and most courageous 
Manchesterians ; the principal men in the kingdom, next to the most famourf 
and renowned dtie of London, that fight most prosperously for God and true 
.^eligion.** The details of the siege of Manchester, a very small aflUr if Judged 
oy modem military ideas, are given in Dr. George Ormerod's MemoHala of 
the Civil War in Laneaahire^ published by the Chetham Society, which 
includes the narrative of CoL Bosworm, entitled Oood Service lU-retparded ; 
in which he complains with much bitterness that the Manchester Puritans did 
not pay him according to their contract Palmer's Siege of ManeheaUr; 
Hibbert Ware's FoundatUms, and Beamont*s Civil War in Laneaehire, 
published by the Chetham Society, contain many particulars of interest, 
mainly from parliamentary writers. Several curious pamphlets appeared this 
year relating to Manchester. The best known are Manchester's Joy for 
Dtfhjfs Overthrow, and Lanccuhir^s Valley of Achor [by John Angler], 
giving an account of the sieges of Manchester, Bolton, &c A number of 
the contemporary tracts are preserved in the Manchester Free Library, and in 
the Chetham Library, as well as in the Thomasson collection in the British 

1643. 

Manchester was made the headquarters of the Parliamentary army, under 
Sir Thomas Fairfax, January 12, who remained there till the 2l8t, when, with 
2,500 foot and 28 troops of horse, he marched to the relief of Northwich. 

Sir John Seaton, a Scottish knight, m^or-general of the Parliament's 
forces in Lancashire, made Manchester his headquarters, and, attended by 
Colonel Holland, Captain Booth, Sergeant-Majors Birch and Sparrow, with 
three companies of foot, marched from Manchester to besiege Preston, Feb. 
10, which town surrendered alter two hours* fighting. Captain Booth was 
the first to scale the walls, with the cry of "Follow me, or give me up for 
ever.** The three Manchester troope "distinguished themselves eminently.*' 
A ship with supplies for the King was wrecked on the sands and the stores 
seised by the Roundheads. 

The Earl of Newcastle, when at Bradford in July, as the King's general, 
proposed to the town terms of surrender, but the proposal was firmly rejected. 
The Earl, finding that nothing was to be gained, took another route and went 
to Hull, and thus put an end to the military affairs of the place. July. 

William Bourne, B.D., Fellow of the Collegiate Church, died. He was a 
native of Staffordshire and a graduate of St. John's College, Cambridge. Ho 
was an earnest, pious, and learned Puritan, and was exceedingly popular with 
the parishioners, (See Hollinworth's Mancuniensis and Halley's Lanceuhire.) 



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iMft-i6Wi Annals of McmcheHer. 57 

He had a controversy in 1631 with Richard Johnson, another Fellow of the 
Collegiate Church, as to the nature of sin. In consequence, a Roman Catholic 
priest published a tract against both disputants, which was answered by 
Hollinworth. 

Master John Shawe appointed to preach every Friday. The town then con- 
tained many Puritan fugitives. Shawe was promised £50, but "never got a 
penny.** Shawe was at thiSL time vicar of Lymme, and has left a very curious 
autobiography. (MemdrM of Mr, John Shawe^ edited by Rev. J. R. Boyle, 
Hull, 1882 ; Axon's Lancashire Oleaninga.) 

1644. 

The siege of Lathom House commenced February 28th, and was persisted in 
for three months. The besiegers were commanded by Sir Thomas Fairfax, and 
his olBcers were Manchester gentlemen. The heroic defence by Charlotte 
de la Tremoville, Countess of Derby, gives that lady a place amongst the 
heroines of history. 

1646. 

A pestilence visited the town ; and from an ordinance of parliament, July 9, 
it appears that it raged with such violence that for many months none had 
been permitted to come in and go out of the town. The ordinance says : 
** Most of the inhabitants living upon trade are not only ruined in their estates, 
but many families are like to perish for want who cannot be sufficiently 
relieved by that miserably wasted country.** The parliament voted a grant of 
£1,000 "for the relief of Manchester,** and directed a coUection to be made in all 
the churches and chapels of the metropolis for the same purpose. December. 
The proceeds were forwarded hither to John Hartley, of Strangeways Hall. 

Rev. Samuel Byland buried at the Collegiate Church 16th July. He 
was a native of the town, and was baptised 1st January, 1018-19. His will is 
printed in Earwaker*s Local OUaninga, No. 601. The several members of the 
family are known. There is a halfpenny token of the elder brother, who was a 

gtOCCT, 

Walter Balcanquell, D.D., died at Chirk Castle 25th December, and is burled 
in Chirk Church. He was a native of Scotland and chaplain of James L On 
the death of Oliver Carter he was elected Fellow of the Collegiate Church, but 
had ceased to hold that position in 1638, when the new charter was granted. 
He was Dean of Durham in 1639, but was reduced to poverty by his seal for the 
Royalist cause. He wrote The Statutes of HerioVa Hospital; A Sermon 
Precuhed at St. Mary% Spittle^ 1623; The Honour of Christian Churches* 
1633 ; Rise and Progress of the Troubles in Scotland^ 1638. In the curious 
case of Swinneston versus Mosley, in 1647, one of the witnesses testified that 
the plaintiir, Mrs. Anne Swinnerton, had told him that she had received £300 
for withdrawing a charge of rape that she had preferred against Dr. 
Ralcanquell. ** This doctor,** said the witness, ** I knew to be a reverend man, 
and to my knotDledge is long since dead and in heaven.** {Harleian Mis' 
reOany, ed. Park, iii., p. 601.) There is some doubt whether Balcanquell 
resided in Manchester, but as his name passed into a phrase to describe an 
odd-looking man, it may be supposed that he was not entirely unknown here. 
A full notice of Balcanquell is given in the Haines MSS.^ voL xli., p. 179. 



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68 Awnala of Mcmehesler. aMs-iM* 

Bobert Bornell **came to be sexton of Bffanchester Church. The ntes of 
graves in alleys, in the parish part, except middle alley and two cross alleys, 
were five shillings for a man or woman, and two shillings and sixpence for a 
child, and ten groats for a child, and six shillings and eightpenoe for a man or 
woman.** In 1610 they were donUed. 

1646. 

Richard Bradley, a Jesnit priest, arrested and ** committed dose prisoner 
at Manchester, and died of the gaol disease before he was brought to his trial.'* 
(Challoner^s Missionary Priests.) In Gillow's Bibliographical Dictionary the 
date of his death is given as 20th or 80th July, 1045. Bradley was bom at 
Bryning in 1006. 

Lancashire formed into an ecclesiastical province, and its spiritnal aflhirs 
consigned to the several presbyteries. October 2. The '* Presbyterlcal Classis** 
for the connty hold their first meeting at Preston. 

Richard Heyrick, warden of Manchester, was one of the representatiYes 
of lAncashire in the Assembly of Divines at Westminster. 

164T 

George Fox began to preach his doctrine. *' And I heard.** he says, *' of a 
woman in Lancashire that had fasted two and twenty &ajB ; and I travelled to 
see her ; bnt when I came to her I saw that she was under a temptation, and 
when I had spoken to her what I had from the Lord I left her ; her father 
being one high in profession. And passing on I went among the professors at 
Dnckenfleld and Manchester, where I stayed awhile and declared the truth 
among them.** (Fox*s Journal,) 

1648. 

A flood, caused by "a sudden and terrible rain." July. (HoUinworth.) 

The Harmonious Consent of the ministers of Lancashire published. It Is 
a flerce protest against toleration as soul-murther. An address to the parlia- 
ment. This intolerant document was principally levelled against the Indepen- 
dents, who were rising rapidly into religious and political notoriety. (Halley*s 
Lancashire,) 

The Presbyterian divines and Committee of Sequestrators held their county 
meeting at Manchester. In this county 145 persons were flned to the amount 
of £28,1C9 lis. 4d. Among them were John Byrom, of Salford, £201 10s. Od. ; 
Edward Byrom, of Salford, £2 6s. 8d. ; Adam Bowker, of Salfdrd, £16 13s. ; 
Peter Bowker, of Manchester, £12; Sir Edward Mosley, of Hough's End, 
£4,874 ; Nicholas Mosley, of Ancoats, £170; Francis Mosley, and Nicholas, his 
son, of Colly hurst, £200 ; Henry Pendleton, of Manchester, £80 ; Alexander 
Potter, of Bianchester, £4 Os. 5d. ; Sir T. Prestwiche, and Thomas, his son, of 
Hulme, £390 ; Ferdinand Stanley, of Broughton, £150 ; John Bogerson, of 
Manchester, £4 8s. 4d. 

Manchester College selied and converted into a military magasine and 
prison for delinquents. 

1649. 

The Fftrliamenf s proclamation prohibiting any person from being styled 
King of England was read in the Market Place 6th February, at four o'clock in 
the afternoon. (Earwskefn Local Cleanings, 'So, 919.) 



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1MQ>1601] Armah of Mcmchester. 59 

** There were obeeryed by htindredB of people in the Market PlAce of Man- 
chester, three perheli (mock suns), about ten o'clock before noon, which 
vanished away one after another, so that at eleven none were seen« I saw two 
of them myself.** 26th Feb. (Holllnworth's Mancunienais*) 

The Independents having obtained the ascendency over their rivals, the 
Presbyterians, one of their first acts was to appoint a Committee of Sequestra- 
tion, which seiised all the church lands in this parish, dissolved the collegiate 
body, and appropriated its revenues. Heyrick, the warden, who resisted the 
administratora of these resolutions, was brought into subjection by Colonel 
Birch, of Bireh Hall, who f oreiUy entered the chapter house of the Collegiate 
Church* which the warden had barricaded, broke open the chest, and destroyed 
aoany writings. Parliament granted to the warden £100 a year, and £80 per) 
annum to each of the fellows out of the public treasury. The soldiery 
destroyed many deeds, and an effigy of Bishop Oldham, in the Free Grammar 
SchooL The Independents, says Hollinworth, *'set up a meeting in the 
CoUege." November 6. 

The College was taken from the Earl of Derby, and turned into a prison, 
along with the chapel on the Old Bridge. 

A Solemn BabkoriaHon made and published to iKe several Churches of 
Christy viUhin the Province ofLancaMer^ 4to, published by Thomas Smith, of 
Manchester. 

1650. 

The birthday of Charles n. celebrated by the Lancasliire Presbyterian 
ndnisters, who refused to observe the fast ordered l^ Parliament. (Bailey's 
Lanoashire^ p. 270.) 

"The ministera and othen in the towne and parish being assembled to 
fast and pray, for preuenting of a new warre : the towne and country being 
generally non-engagera were disarmed by the gouemor of Liuerpoole.** 

In a description of Manchester and Salford, annexed to apian of the towns, 
as they appeared in this year, it is stated—** The people in and about tne town 
are said to be in general the most industrious in their callings of any in the 
northern parts of the kingdom. The town is a mile in length, the streets open 
and clean kept, and the buildings good. The trade is not inferior to that of 
many cities in the kingdom, chiefly consisting in woollen frieaes, fustians, 
sackcloths, mingled stuflTs, caps. Inkles, tapes, points, &c, whereby not only 
the better sort of men are employed, but also the very children by their own 
labour can maintain themselves ; there are besides all kinds of foreign mer- 
chandise brought and returned by the merchants of the town, amounting to 
the sum of many thousands of pounds weekly.** In this account it is asserted 
the parish contained 27,000 communicants. 

** In Blakeley, neere Manchester, in one John Pendleton's ground, as one 
was reaping, the come being cut, seemed to bleede ; drops fell out of it like to 
bloud : multitudes of people went to see it, and the strawes thereof, though of 
a kindly colour without, were within reddish, and as it were, bloudy.** 

1651. 
James, Earl of Derby, beheaded at Bolton, October 15. When besieging 
Manchester he succeeded to the titles and estates on the death of his father. 



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60 Annals of Manchester. ness-iesa 

September 20, 1642. The character of the "Great Stanley** haa been varioosly 
interpreted, bat hto wannest enlogiat can hardly clear him from the bloody 
ataina of the Bolton massacre. For details of his life the reader should consult 
The Stanley Papers (Chetham Society), and Cmnmlng's Great Stanley. 

Charles IL on his route from the north is sometimes said to have passed 
through Manchester, but Hollinworth, whose memorandum has probably 
caused the mistake, merely says that he passed through the county. 

After the battle of Worcester, when Charles IL was defeated by Cromwell, 
Heyrick, the warden of Manchester, the Bev. Mr. Herle, Rev. Richard Johnson, 
Rev. John Angier, Rev. Richard Hollinworth, Rev. Mr. Harrison, with 
Messrs. Gee, Lathom, Taylor, and Meek, ministers and elders of Presbyterians 
in lianchester, and who had taken an active part in the plots against the 
Commonwealth, were seized and conveyed to London, where they were im 
prisoned. Heyrick with dii&culty escaped a capital punishment; and the 
whole, after many weeks of suspense, were allowed, on paying serious fines, to 
return to their respective homes. 

When the proclamation of the Parliament against Charles Stuart, King of 
Scots, was being read it was torn in pieces by Captain Bexwicke. (Hollln* 
worth's Mancunienais.) 

1652. 

The town was dismantled of its fortifications. (Hollinworth.) 

1663. 

The Council of State ordered, 29th June, on a petition from the Inhabitants, 
that the gathering of the tithes should be forborne till further order. 

Humphrey Chetham, founder of the hospital and library which bears his 
name, died October 12, in his 74th year, and was burled in the Chetham chapel 
of the Collegiate Church. He was bom at Cmmpsall, and baptised at the 
Collegiate Church, July 10, 1580, and Is said to have received his education at 
the Free Grammar School. His wealth was chlefiy derived by supplying the 
London markets with fustians. He thus acquired opulence ; whilst his strict 
integrity, his piety, and works of charity secured him the respect and esteem 
of those around him. ** He was,** says Fuller, ** a diligent reader of the Scrip- 
tures, and of the works of sound divines ; a respecter of such ministers as he 
accounted truly godly, upright, sober, discreet, and sincere. He was High 
Sheriff of the County of Lancaster, anno 1635, discharging that office with great 
honour, insomuch that every good gentleman of birth and estate did wear his 
cloth at the assise, to testify their unfeigned affection for him.*' But some of 
them complained of his assumption of a coat of arms which brought him into 
trouble with the Heralds* College. During his life he had "taken up and 
maintained fourteen boys of the town of Manchester, six of the town of 
Salford, and two of the town of DroyUden, in all twenty-two.*' By his will, 
bearing date December 10, 1651, he directed that the number of boys should be 
increased to forty ; bequeathing the sum of £7,000 for the purchase of an estate, 
the profits of which were to be applied to the support of this establishment. 
The operations of this benevolent institution have been since greatly extended 
by Judicious management, and due attention to the views of the founder. In 
lSi6 the number of boys was augmented to one hundred, namely, Manchester 



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i«5ft] Annale of Manchester, 61 



85^ Salf ord 15, Droyladen 8, CrampeaU 5, Bolton 25, Torton 12. The " Hospital " 
Sa under the direction of twenty-four feoffees, and a resident governor. 

He also bequeathed £1,000 for the purchase of books, and £100 for a building 
as the foundation of a public library, for the augmentation of which he devised 
the residue of his personal estate. The property left by Chetham, for the 
use and augmentation of the library, and for the board, &c., of the librarian, 
amounts to about £700 per annum. Donations have been made from time to 
time (the first of which was in 1604, by the Rev. John Frestwich, Fellow of All 
Souls College, Oxford, of books to the amount of £50), so that the collection 
now amounts to upwards of 90,000 volumes. Any person who chooses, whether 
resident or not, on going to the Chetham library, is at liberty to read in a room 
provided for that purpose. 

Chetham further left two hundred pounds ''to purchase godly English 
books to be chained upon desks in the churches of Manchester, Bolton, Turton, 
Gorton, and Walmersley.** His principal residences were at Clayton Hall, near 
Manchester, and Turton Tower, near Bolton. 

William Crabtree, the astronomer, is believed to have died in 1652 or 1653. 
(See under date 1639.) 

1654. 

Sir Alexander Radcliffe, of Ordsal, K.B., was buried in the Collegiate 
Church 14th April. He was made a Knight of the Bath at the coronation of 
Charles L, when only 17. He was a staunch cavalier, and in 1&I2 was im- 
prisoned in the Tower for assisting the Earl of Derby in the siege of Man- 
chester. He was 46 years old at the time of his death. His son Robert was 
slain on Bowdon Downs in a duel, which he had forced upon Sir Samuel Daniel. 

Charles Worsley, of Piatt, returned as first representative of Manchester 
to the House of Commons. Cromwell had thus the credit of recogpnising the 
B^rowing importance of a town which already far exceeded in wealth and 
populousness many of the places represented in parliament. 10th July. 

William Malone, Rector of Seville, died. "Anno 1502, was borne ip 
Manchester, William, the son of Simon Malloone, a young man of preg 
nant witt; hee was. tempted by some Irish merchants (with whom the 
towne then and long after till the Rebellion broke out, anno 1619, did 
driue a greate and gainefull trade) to goe beyond sea, seduced from 
the reformed to the Romish religion, of which hee became one of the most 
earnest and able assertors ; hee made the reply to Archbishop Vssher*s answer 
to the Jesuites* challenge, but hee was ouermatched, his adversarie being more 
eminently learned, and having evidence of truth on his syde. Mailoune caused 
his reply to bee dispersed in Manchester; hee afterward went to Rome, and 
was Master of the Irish CoUedge there. Dr. Hoyle rejoined to his reply.* 
(Hollinworth's MancunieT^sia.) 

The feoffees of Humphrey Chetham*s charity purchase the "College,** now 
known as "Chetham*s Hospital.** The building, which succeeded to the 
Baron's Hall, was occupied by the clergy of the Collegiate Church till 1647, 
when it fell into the hands of the Earl of Derby, but was again taken from hi(« 
family during the Commonwealth. In 1656 the boys were first lodged there, 
but the purchase was not completed till after the Restoration, from the cele- 
brated Charlotte de la TremouiUe. 



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€2 Annals of Mancheeter. txw^iwt 

Samnel Bolt(m« D.D., died. He was bom at Manchester in 1606 and} 
educated at Cambridge. He was a man of note amongst the Puritans, and 
wrote A Guard of the Tree of Life, 1647, and other works. 

1656. 

Charles Worsley, of Piatt, died 12th Jane, aged 85. He was the son of 
Ralph Worsley, and was bom at Piatt in 1022, and in 1644 became a captain in the 
Parliamentary army. After the execution of Charles L he was promoted to the 
rank of lieat.-ooloneL In 16G0 he went with his regiment into Scotland to help 
Cromwell, but arrived too late to be of service. In 1652 he was appointed to 
the command of Cromwell*s own r^ment of foot, and in October of that year 
he proceeded to London. On the 20th April, 1663, Cromwell forcibly dissolved 
the Bump Parliament, when Worsley, with some soldiers, cleared the House 
and took the maoe away, and caused the House to be locked up. He kept the 
maee in his possession, and on the 8th July, 1663, the Barebone*s Parliament 
ordered the Sergeant-at-Arms to repair to Lieutenant-Colonel Worsley for the 
maoe, And faring it to the House. In September, 1654, when a parliamentary 
representative was first given to Manchester, he was elected, and thus became 
the first member for Manchester. The parliament was dismissed in January, 
166S. In October, 165S, he was appointed Mijor-General, with powers equal to 
those of a viceroy, of a district consisting of Lancashire, Cheshire, and Stafford- 
shire. He was summoned to a conference with Cromwell in Biay, 1666, but 
died soon after his arrival at St. James*s Palace, where apartments had been 
assigned to Us family. He was buried in Henry VII.'s Chapel, in Westminster 
Abbey, Idth June, and his remains escaped the outrages infiicted on the other 
republican leaders. (Espinasse's Lancashire Worthies; Booker's Birch 
Chapels, voL 1.) 

Richard BatclUre, of the Lodge, in Pool Fold, returned a member of 
Parliament for Manchester, August 12. 

** September 11, 1666. Mr. Bichard Heyrick was prisoner in London ; and 
Mr. Herle, Mr. Johnson, Mr. Angier, Mr. Holllnworth, Mr. Harrison, Mr. Gee, 
Mr. Latham, Mr. Taylor, Mr. Meeke.** 

Richard Holllnworth, fellow of the Collegiate Church, and author of 
ManeufUensiSf died November 11, when a fast and prayer was olTered for 
guidance as to his successor, who was the Rev. Henry Newcome. HoUin- 
worth was bom in Manchester in 1607. (See Manchester FoundaHans, vol. L> 

1667. 

The Censures of the Church Revived published. It is signed ** John Har- 
rison, Moderator,** and dated Manchester, January 11, 166& It Is a defence of the 
Presbyterian Classis and its Jurisdiction in the controversy with Bev. Isaac 
Allen, minister of Prestwich, who strenuously ol^ected to the eldership and 
retained as much as he could of the forms of the Episcopai Church. (Halley's 
Lancashire, p. 308; Baker^s MemcriaUy p. 136.) 

George Fox again visited Iffanchester, and as the sessions were being held, 
many country people were in the town. Fox was assailed in the meeting with 
clods and stones, and finally he was taken into custody by the peace officers 
and brought before the magistrates, whom he rebuked, and was allowed to 



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iMa-1699] AiimalB of Mcmchester. 63 

deput on the foUowkig day. "The Lord hath rince raised up a people in the 
town to stand for His Name and truth over those shabby professors." (Fox*s 
Journal,) 

Sir Bdward Mosley, lord of the manor, died. He was bom in 1615, and was 
an ardent Royalist, and in 1640 received a baronetcy from Charles L In 1642 
he was High Sheriff of Staffordshire. During the siege of Manchester his 
honse <Alport Lodge) was burned down. He is said to have spent £20,000 in 
the Cavalier cause. He was one of the Boyalist prisoners captured at Middle- 
wich by Brereton. His estate was sequestered, a fine of a tenth, amounting 
to £4,874^ was levied. He was tried upon a capital charge brought against him 
by a woman, but was acquitted. He was succeeded by his son Sir Edward. 
(Mosley's FamUy Memoirs,) 

1668. 

Rev. Robert Meeke died 17th January. He was a native of Sldpsey, nesr 
BridUngton, and in 1650 became the minister of the Salford Chapel (Sacred 
Trinity), built and endowed by Humphrey Booth. He was an active member 
of the Presbyterian Classis, and was one of the ministers sent prisoner to 
Liverpool by the Independents. Newcome speaks in high terms of his " dear 
friend and brother," the " sincere Meeke." He wrote The FaithfuU Scout, 1645. 

1659. 

The Presbyterians and Independents of Manchester united, and a docu- 
ment showing the terms of agreement was drawn up and signed July 13. This 
** accommodation" was the result of the dissatisfaction with the Rump Parlii- 
ment, the Imprisonment of some members of- the Qassis, and the sale of the 
College and its land to Mr. Wigan, who had turned BapUst and preached in 
its bam. 

The futile *' Cheshire Rising," under Sir George Booth, of Dunham, caused 
great excitement. His tenantry and those of other sympathisers had been 
openly drilled. On July 31, after Henry Newcome had preached, Stockport 
announced that '*the Quakers had risen," and that the trained bands were to 
meet at Warrington on the Tuesday following. Five hundred men left Man- 
chester, where Sir George raised the cry for a free Parliament. August 5 was 
observed as a day of humiliation in Manchester, as they were afraid of 
Lilbume marching on the town, but the imprisonm^t of '*a bloody 
Anabaptist" prevented him from knowing that the trained bands were absent. 
The Royalist rising was entirely unsuccessful, and the final defeat at Winning- 
ton Bridge, 10th August, was fataL Fugitives arrived on the next day, and 
command of the town was taken by Colonel Birch and Colonel lilbume, who 
was offended by He3rrick*s sermon on the Sunday, and ordered Henry Rooth, 
the Independent minister, to oiBciate in the latter part of the day. Although 
the Cheshire Rising failed it showed the Insecurity and unpopularity of the 
Government with Presbyterians and Independents as well as Kp i s c opa li ans. 
(Fuller details of the Cheshire Rising will be found in Raines's Lancashire; 
Halley's Lancashire; Hibbert-Ware's Foundations; Martindale's Autobio- 
graphy; and Newcome*s Diary.) 



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64 AfmaU of Manchester. ueao-iMs 

1660. 

The Presbyterians were greatly elated at the prospect of the Bestoration. 
On May 6 Newoome prayed for the King *' by periphrasis,** but a meeting of the 
congregation resolved that Charles II. should be proclaimed, and May 12 New- 
oome prayed for him without any periphrasis. 

The town lost its right of returning members of Parliament by the 
Bestoration ; it was re-enfranchised in 1832. 

The Lancashirtt '^FresbytericalClassis" was dissolved on the restoration 
of Episcopacy. Its final meeting was held August 14, after an existence of 
fourteen years. 

Richard RaddliTe died October 9. He was elected M.P. for Manchester in 
Cromwell's Parliament of 1656. 

1661. 

Tho coronation of Charles IL celebrated by processions, dinners, A:c, April 
23L The conduit ran claret instead of water. Warden Heyrick preached on 
the dlyine right of kings to govern. ** God *save the king ** was his text, and 
the sermon was printed. A full account of these festivities is given in an 
account written by Mr. William Heawood, who was steward of the manor, 
which was printed in 1841. 

1662. 

The *'Act of Uniformity" passed, August 2. By this act two thousand 
ministers were deprived of their livings in the church. About seventy clergy* 
men were ejected in thU county. Warden Heyrick refused to submit, and also 
resisted every attempt to remove him from the Collegiate Church, which he con- 
sidered as a life-estate given to him in lieu of a debt owing to his family by the 
crown. Charles IL appointed Dr. Woolley to the wardenahip ; but the nomi- 
nation was subsequently revoked at the request of Heyrick*s friend at court, 
the Earl of Manchester. Henry Newcome and Christopher Richardson, fellows 
of the Collegiate Church, retired, and began to preach privately to congrega- 
tions in the town. In this neighbourhood the other sufferers were K. Holbrook, 
Salford; R. Birch, Birch Chapel; T. HoUand, Blackley; E. Jones, vicar of 
Eccles; W. Leigh, Gorton Chapel; P. Aspinall, Heaton; G. Thompson, Hey- 
wood ; and J. Walker, Newton Heath. 

Manchester, on account of its Nonconformist population, was the resort of 
many of the ejected ministers, as is shown by Newcome's JHary. 

1663. 

Some persons in authority in Manchester are said to have tried to hatch a 
pretended conspiracy in order to get into their power the persons and estates of 
the Independents, Presbyterians, Anabaptists, and Fifth-Monatchy men in 
Lancashire and Cheshire. The information on this subject is contained in a 
very rare tract, Eye-Salve far England ; or, t)ie Grand Trappan detected. By 
Evan Price (London, 1667). In this narrative Price states that Nicholas Mosley, 
a magistrate, came to him 22nd February and offered him £1,000, or a tenth of 
the forfeited estates, to swear evidence against those implicated in a conspiracy 
against the Government. Price refused, and was arrested and committed to 



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16M-1M7] Annals of Manchester. 65 

Laneaster Assixea, where the Jndges aUo tried to induce him to turn King's 
evidence. He was said to have been the secret messenger of the conspirators. 
The High Sheriff, he says, renewed Mosley's offer. One of the leaders of the 
alleged plot was Lord Delamere, but Mosley having acknowledged in an 
unguarded moment that the name of that nobleman had been first named to 
Price by the Judges, Lord Delamere began an action against Mosley, which 
was stopped by a letter from London ordering the Justices to apologise. Lord 
Beiamere insisted upon the release of Price, who was accordingly set at liberty 
at the Lent Assises of 1664. In August, 1665, he was again arrested, but alter 
a short imprisonment released. (Earwaker*s Local OUanings, vol. ill., 
pp. 361, 421.) 

1664. 

Sir William Dugdale, Norroy King at Arms, visited Lancashire to hold a 
visitation. He was at Manchester 8th, 9th, and 10th September. The court 
appears to have been held at the King's Head, Salford. 

A book, entitled A Ouide to Heaven from the Word^ said to have been 
" printed at Smithy Door.** The title is given in one of Ford's catalogues, 
but the book is unknown. (Earwaker's Local OUanings^ No. IIS.) 

1665. 

Sir William Dugdale again visited Lancashire to complete his visitation. 
He was at Manchester 10th and 11th March. The court was again held at the 
King's Head, Salford. The VisitcUion has been edited by Rev. F. R. Raines 
for the Chetham Society. 

The feoffees of Chetham's Hospital made a body corporate under a Charter 
granted by Charles II., November 10. 

1666. 
Sir Edward Mosley, second baronet, lord of the manor, died at the age of 
27. In 1661 he was returned M.P. for the borough of St. Bilchael, Cornwall. 
There was a lawsuit about his will, but in the end the Rolleston estates came 
into the possession of the Moeleys of Ancoata. 

The particulars of his rental of his Lancashire estates are thus given : 
Manor of Heaton Norris, £149 ?s. ; Manor of Withlngton and its members, 
£402 Is. ; Berry Lands, £10; old chief rents of Withington, £1 6s. ll^d. ; tithes 
of Withington, £211 2s. dd. ; Alport Lodge ground, £44 17s. ; Alport fields, 
£S3 13s. ; Manor of Manchester, £212. Within Didsbury : Hough or Old Hail 
demesne, £300; Hough's End, £140; tithes of ^Hough. demesne, £10. Total* 
£1,534 8s. 2id. 

1667. 

John Booker died in April of dysentery, and was buried in the Church of St. 
James, Duke's Place, London. He was bom in Manchester, April 23, 1601, and 
apprenticed to a mercer in London ; but. turned his attention to astronomy and 
astrology, in which he became so efficient as to be appointed licenser of all such 
books as related to mathematics or the celestial sciences. It is said by Lilly 
that '* he had a curious fancy in Judging of thefts, and was quite as successful 
in resolving love questions." He wrote The Bloody Irish Almanac^ 1643 ; The 
K 

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66 Armals of Manchester. a669-i67t 

Dutch Fortune-^eUer brought to England^ 1067, and Tarious other almanacs. 

The Bev. Oliver Heywood notes in his Diary that he stayed at Mr. 
Hulton*s, at Manchester. " They have a foolish custom after twelve o'clock to 
rise and ramble abroad, make garlands, strew flowers, &c., which they call 
Bringing in May. I could sleep little that night hj reason of the tumuit ; the 
day after being May the 1st, X went to Denton.** 

Nicholas Stratford, M. A., Fellow of Trinity College, Oxford, at the age of 34, 
appointed warden. In coigunction with the fellows, he framed a new statute 
for the college, which permitted the two chaplains to be absent forty days in 
the year ; the four singing men, twenty days each ; and the four singing boys, 
twelve days each. Biay 0. 

Richard Heyrick, B.D., Warden of the Collegiate Church, died August 8, 
aged 67 years, and was buried near to the altar of the CoUeglate Church, over 
which he had presided during the greater part of the most turbulent periods of 
English history. He was descended from the ancient family of the Herricks, 
at Beaumanor, in Leicestershire, and educated at Oxford. He was appointed 
Warden of Manchester in 1636, obtained for him in reversion by his father, in 
lieu of a debt owing to his family by the Crown. He was a Presbyterian, and 
continued to hold his post during the Commonwealth, but was greatly in 
favour of the Restoration, which proved so disastrous to his party. The King 
granted the wardenship to Dr. John WooUey, but Heyrick*s resistance was so 
effectual that no attempt was made at dispossession, and he remained warden 
until his death. He wrote Qu^en Fsther'a Besolve^ 1640, and other sermons. 
Fuller details of his career are given in Hibbert- Ware's FoundaHons and 
Bailey's LaneoBhire. 

1669. 

A gallery built in Manchester Church for the use of the bo3rs of Chetham's 
Hospital. There Is an engraving and map of the gallery in the Foundationa 
of Manchester, vol. i., pt. IL, pp. 248^ 342, and the bishop's licence for its erection 
is printed in the PaJUUine Note-book, voL iv., p. 83. 

167L 

John Worthington, D.D., died at Hackney aoth November. He was bom 
at Manchester 8th February, 1017, and educated at the Grammar School and at 
Emanuel College, Cambridge, of which he was Fellow ; was created RD. in 
1640 and D.D. in 1066. He was chosen Master of Jesus College in 1057, but 
resigned the appointment, and elected Vica-Chanoellor of ihe University, which 
he held until 1000. He held several livings in succession, and was curate of 
St. Benet Fink during the plague of London. He wrote A Form of Sound 
Words, 1073 ; Great Duty of Setf-Besignation, 1001, and other works. He had 
an extensive correspondence with Samuel Hartleb and other scholars at home 
and abroad. His Diary and Correspondence, published by the Chetham 
Society, a valuable contribution to the history of literature and learning. 

1672, 
On the King's declaration of indulgenoe fifteen Uoeneea were taken oat for 
meetings of Protestant Dissenters. The indulgenoe was can c e Ua d by Farlia* 
ment 7th March. (Barwaker's XocaZ QleaningSt vol. iU., p. 441.) 



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tf7s-i«ie] ATmals of Mcmchester. 67 

Nicholas Moeley died in October, aged 61. He was the eldest son of Oswald 
Moaley, of Ancoats (see nnder date 1690). He was a Boyallst, and paid a iine 
*' for delinqnency." He wrote a Treatise of the Passtons and FacultieB of the 
Soul ofMan^ 1663. Although a strict Episcopalian, he was on friendly terms 
with Newcome, Martindale, and other ejected ministers. (Mosley, Famdy 
Memairs; Axon's Lanaishire Oleanings.) 

1673. 
An act was passed for confirming the sale of the manor of Holme, and 
certain lands in the parish of Manchester, to Sir Edward Mosley, by the Prest- 
wicha family. 

1674. 

A petition, signed hj 341 persons, was presented to Lord Derby for the 
remoyal of John Hartley, of Strangeways, from the commission of the 
peace. The docoment is printed in the PalcUine Note-book, yoI. lit, p. 37, and 
▼ol iy., p. 87, with varioas biographical particulars. The complaints against 
him are for wrongful assessments, withholding 40b. per annum left by his 
father for the repair of the conduit, &c. There had been a previous quarrel 
between Hartley and John Alexander, one of the constables, who had been 
his tenant. 

1676, 

The Bey. John Prestwlch, B.D., died 30th July. He was bom about 1607, 
and was third son of Edmund Prestwich, of Hulme, and younger brother of Sir 
Thomas Frestwich, Bart. He was educated at Oxford, where he entered Brase- 
nose College in 1622^ as a conmioner, migrating to All Souls* College where 
he took his master's degree, and in 1631 became a Fellow. He proceeded as RD. 
and became Senior Fellow early in 1641-2. Some time before April, 1663, there 
was an eflTort made in Manchester to form a public library for the use of the 
town, the suggestion being most probably due to Prestwich, who promised to 
give his own collection to the town, on conditions that a conyenient room 
was found to keep it in. The Jesus Chantry was giyen up by Mr. Henry 
Pendleton for the reception of the books, and a rate was levied in 1666 for fitting 
it up. The books have all long since disappeared. (Palatine NoU-booK 
vol. ii., p. 181.) 

Bev. Joshua Stopford died 3rd November. He was bom in Lancashire about 
the year 1636. He entered Bnuenose College, Oxford, at Michaelmas, 1664, 
being then aged 18; and he matriculated from that college 25th July, 1666, as 
pltb.fU. He took the degree of B.A. 23rd February, 1667-8. He came into 
notice in Manchester on 22nd July, 1658, in connection with the Morning 
Lectureship at the Old Church, which was held at 6 o'clock a.m. Henry New- 
come formed an unfavourable opinion of him, and described him as **a young 
confident man. Just come from the University.'* During some part of the 
following year Stopford was resident in Magdalen College, Oxford, but on the 
31st July he was again in Manchester, when he preached in favour of the 
*' Cheshire Bising," nnder Sir George Booth, and though he escaped from any 
ill consequences on its failure, it gave him a claim to preferment at the Restora- 
tion, and he became prebendary of Dunnington and rector of All Saints*, York* 



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68 Armals of Manchester. (urr-itTs 

He was tho author of The Ways and Methods of Bome*» Advaneementf 1671, 
and Pagano PapUmus^ 1676. {Palatine Note^book, yoL i., p. 157, and p. 219.) 
8topf ord, on one occasion having preached strongly against cock-fighting, was 
boond over by the jostices to keep the peace. 

Richard Johnson, M.A., Fellow of the College, and first librarian of 
Chetham's Library, died aboat 1675. He was bom at Welch Whittle, and was 
sometime Senior fellow of Bang's College, Cambridge. He had a controversy 
with Bev. William Bourne on the nature of sin, and was regarded as a 
Bomanizer by the extreme Puritans. During the Civil War he was imprisoned 
and led through the streets in mock triumph on a ** sorry nag." He was deprived 
of his Fellowship, but returned at the Bestoration. Chetham in his will left 
£00 to his loving friend Blchard Johnson, preacher at the Temple, and he was 
named as a feoiEBe in the charter of 1675. (See note in Worthington*s 
Diary, iL, 23a) 

1677. 

John Angler died 1st September. He was bom at Dedham, Essex, 8th 
October, 1606, and had a boyish ambition to be a preacher. At Emanuel College 
"he fell off to vain company," but under the care of John Bogers and John 
Cotton became a Puritan. He married Ellen Winstanley, of Wigan, and a visit 
to her Lancashire relations induced him to break off an intended emigration to 
New England, and to settle at Ringley Chapel. He was ordained without sub- 
scription, and remained a Nonconformist. After the death of his first wife he 
married Bfargaret Moeley, of Ancoats. He was Presbyterian minister of 
Denton, but on refusing allegiance to the Commonwealth was carried prisoner 
to Liverpool. The universal respect in which the old man was held saved him 
from any great persecution after the Bestoration. His house at Manchester 
was licensed as a dissenting preaching place in 1672. He is buried at Denton. 
He wrote An Helpefor Better Times, 1647, and was the author of the anony- 
mous Lancashire's Valley of Aehor, 1613— an important Ustorical tract. 
{Dictionary of National Biography, vol. L) 

1678. 

Nathaniel Paget, BLD., died in January. He was the son of Bev. Thomas 
Paget, incumbent of Blackley and rector of Stockport, in Cheshire, but was 
bora in Manchester. He was MA. Edinburgh, but proceeded M.D. at Leyden 
3rd August, 1630, and was incorporated at Cambridge on his Leyden degree 3rd 
June, 1642 ; and then settled in London. He was dead on the 21st January, 
167&-0. (Munk's BoU of the Boyal College of Physicians, vol. i., p. 224.) 

Balph Brideoake, D.D., Bishop of Chichester, died. He was bom at Cheet- 
ham Hill in 1614. He was educated at the Grammar School and at Brasenoee 
College, and in 1636 was created M.A. His only writings are some Latin com- 
mendatory verses (Wood*s Athena Oxon, vol. iv., p. 860), but some literary 
help given to Dr. Jackson, President of Corpus ChristI College, procured him the 
Mastership of the Blanchester Grammar School. He was chaplain at Lathom 
House during the siege, and his earnestness in trying to save the life of his 
master, the Earl of Derby, brought him the favour of Lenthall, the Speaker, 
who made him chaplain. On the Bestoration he became Bector of Standish, 



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x«T9-iM4i Aimala of McmehesUr. 69 

and by the Inflnenoe of the KinfifB mietress, the Dachess of Portemouth, he 
was appointed Bishop of Chichester in 1676, where he died, and is bnried in 
St. Geoige's Chapel. His devotion to the Stanleys in their evil fortunes is 
creditable to him, bat otherwise he was a pliant and self-seeking ooortier. 

1679. 

Several pamphlets published abont Charles Bennet, a child three years old, 
who, it is asserted, " did speak Latin, Greek, and Hebrew, though never tanght 
these langnages, and at his own earnest request was taken from Manchester to 
be introduced to the King." Nothing more is known of this infant Mezsofanti. 

Sarah, Duchess of Somerset, appoints by her will sixteen scholarshipe in 
Brasenose College, Oxford, and the same number in St. John's College, Cam- 
bridge, and directed that the scholarships should be elected by turns for ever 
out of Manchester School and the free schools of Hereford and Marlborough. 
She was the second daughter of Sir Edward Alston, Kt. She married, 
firstly, George Grimston, eldest son of Sir Harbottle Grimston, of Bradileld, 
Bssex, Bart. He died in 1665, before his father, and his widow was married 
to John Seymour, fourth Duke of Somerset, who died 1675. The Duchess 
of Somerset then married Henry Hare, Lord Coleraine, by whom she 
was survived. She had no issue, and was buried in Westminster Abbey 
November 2, 1602. She left her property principally in charities. The residue 
went to her eldest sister^s grandson, the Hon. Langham Booth, son of the Earl 
of Warrington. (See Hibbert- Ware's FoundcUiona^ voL iii) Le Neve says 
that she lived apart from Lord Coleraine severall years, being of a covetous 
humour, and left nothing to the Lord Coleraine. 

1680. 

Alms-houses, Millar's Lane, were erected at the eost of £809 10s. Sd. 

Bev. Edward Bichaidson, R A., died. He was a son of Thomas Bichardson, 
of Grindlow, and in 1668, at the age of 24, he was ordained minister of Stretiord 
by the Blanchester Classis. He was also a chaplain of the CoUegiate Church, 
and in 1660 preached the morning (six o'clock) sermon. He was ^ected in 166d, 
and became a Presbyterian teacher at Little Hilton. (Bailey's Old Stretford^ 
pp. 80, 10.) 

1682. 

Balph Thoresby visited Manchester in company with Rev. James filing- 
worth, B.D., President of Bmanuel College, Cambridge, June. (Thoresby's 
I>tary, voL i., p. 119.) See under date 1684. 

1684. 

Richard Wroe, FeUow of the CoUege,^appointed Warden, May 1, being the 
first Fellow so promoted. 

Rev. John Tllaley, M.A., died December 12. He was bom in 1614 and 
educated at Edinburgh University. His first professional employment was at 
Deane Church, as curate to the Rev. Alexander Horrocks. On January 4, 
1642-3, he married Bfargaret, daughter of Ralph Chetham, brother of Humphrey 
the benefactor. Tilsley was with Sir John Seaton when he captured Preston, 
In Amoundemess, and he wrote in a letter, which was published, an account 



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70 Armals of Manchester. a685-i6S7 

of the ci^tare, included in the Civil War Tracts. On the 10th August, 1643, 
he was appointed Vicar of Deane. On December 13, 1044, he was one of twenty- 
one ministers for ordaining ministers in the oonnty of Lancaster. Tilsley took 
the Covenant and became a Presbyterian. In 164B he published A True Copie 
of the Petitum of Twelve Thousand Five Hundred and upwards of the Well- 
affected Gentlemen^ Ministers, Freeholders, and others of the County Pala- 
tine of Lancaster. He was ejected from his benefice for refusing "The 
Engagement** of 1650, but was soon restored. By the will of Humphrey 
Chetham Tilsley was made one of the feoffees of his proposed hospital, and was 
also nominated one of the persons to purchase godly English books. By the 
Act of Uniformity he was ejected from his benefice, but he preached in yarious 
towns occasionally till his death. {Memoir of the Bev. John Tilsley, by J. £. 
Bailey, Leigh, 1884, not published.) 

Ralph Thoresby again risited the town, where his sister Abigail was at 
Madame Frankland's boarding school. {Diary, vol. ii., p. 176.) Her husband's 
academy was for the education of Nonconformist ministers. 

Rev. Jeremiah Marsden, aZios Balphson, died in Newgate. He was the 
second son of Ralph Marsden, and was bom in 1620, and was sent to Man- 
chester Grammar School ; but there he had a too rigid master, and the Civil 
War commencing, we are told that he improved but little. About 1647 he 
became a pensioner at Christ's College* Cambridge. On Ills father's death at 
Neeston, June 30, 1648, Marsden turned schoolmaster for a living, and in 1654 
became a preacher. In 1658 he received a call to Kendal, where he stayed nine 
months, and then went to Hull, and afterwards to Ardsley, near Wakefield. 
He was ejected from thence in 1662. After many removes he was invited to 
Lothbury, and was there seised for preaching and confined in Newgate. He 
was known in and about London by the name of Ralphson, and under that 
name was written against by Richard Baxter in 1684, who did not go to the 
length of his rigorous separatist principles, which regarded the parochial wor- 
ship of the Church of England as idolatrous. He wrote an autobiography, 
which remains unprlnted. (Calamy's Ejected Ministers, vol. ii., p. 796, and 
cont pp. 2, 042.) 

Nicholas Stratford, D.D., Warden of the College, resigned and became 
preacher of Aldermanbury, London. 

An organ was built by the celebrated Father Smyth in the choir of the 
Collegiate Church. 

1686. 

Rev. Jeremiah (or Jeremia) Scholes died 27th April, 1686. He was baptised 
14th June, 1620, and educated at Emanuel College, Cambridge, where he 
graduated M.A. He was appointed curate of Stretford, 1666, and in 1600 wa» 
vicar of Norton, in Derbyshire, but was ejected in 1662. He returned to Man- 
chester, where he died« and was buried in the graveyard of the Collegiate 
Church. There are many references to him in Henry Newoome's Diary. 
There is a notice of him in the Palatine Note-book, vol. iv., p. 30. 

The porch of the Collegiate Church built at the parish charge. 

1687. 
The Dissenters began to hold their meetings ** in the public time,** that iB» 



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iMS-1690] Annals of Manchester. 71 

at the ordinary hours of divine Bervioe on the Sunday. July 81. (Baker's 
Memorials^ p. 12.) 

1688. 

The revolution in favour of William, Prince of Orange, excited no popular 
demonstrations in Manchester, as it did in most other parts of the kingdom ; 
nor did King William visit it on his route to Ireland, when he sailed from 
Liverpool. 

Proposals were issued for publishing a work entitled Briganta Lanccu* 
teriensia Reatauraia, by Richard Kuerden, M.D., a laborious topographer and 
antiquary, who descended from an ancient family at Kuerdon, near Preston. 
The publication was never accomplished ; and the manuscript, written in an 
obscure liand, in five volumes folio, is still in Chetham's Library. The more 
important portions have been transcribed by Palmer and utilised by later 
historians. 

In the reign of William and Mary, the taxable property in Manchester was 
rated at £4,375 ; and the first assessment for the land-tax, at 4s. in the pound, 
produced £876. 

1689. 

John Birtenhead, **a great student,'*ibnried;in tlie|Colleglate Church yard, 
83rd February, 1688-9. 

1600. 

** About the year 1600, the manufacturers and traders having accumulated 
capital, began to build modem brick houses in place of those of wood and 
plaster, which had prevailed so generally since the former era of improve- 
ment, in the reign of Elisabeth. The manufacturers, even those in an extensive 
line of business, who took apprentices from amongst the sonsof the respectable 
families in the neighbourhood, used to be in their warehouses before six o'clock 
in the morning, accompanied by their children of sufficient age, and by their 
apprentices. At seven they returned to breakfast, which consisted of one 
large dish of water-porridge poured into a bowl, at the side of which stood an 
equally capacious bason of milk, and the master and apprentices, each 
with a wooden spoon in his hand, without loss of time, and without ceremony, 
dipped into the bowl, and then into the milk-bason ; and as soon as the mess 
was finished they all returned to their work. Though our ancestors were 
watchful over the expenditure of the living, there was a great deal of cost in 
the interment of the dead. In Warden Wroe's time, these funeral expenses 
were carried to a great extent ; but the warden, by the exercise of his influence, 
prevailed upon the inhabitants to apply the money usually spent in this way 
for the relief of the poor, and in some years there was a sum accumulated to 
the amount of nearly £800.** 

This year is memorable in the annals of the Free Grammar School for a 
Juvenile rebellion which broke out upon some cause of discontent, and lasted 
for a fortnight; during which time the young insurgents, who had taken 
possession of the school, to the exclusion of the masters, were supplied by 
some of the inhabitants with beds and victuals, as well as with firearms and 
ammunition, but in the end were compelled to surrender. 



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72 Annals of McmcheOer. atn-ims 

1692. 

James Chetham died. Be was bom in Manchester, 1610; and was the 
author of The Anglet's Vade Mecum, 1661. 

In Donton's Athenian Mercury, Na 20, toL vL, a question is asked as to 
the value of the MS. Anglia Sanctm et CcUholica, Auctore D. V. Bdwardo 
Bradshaw de Bianoestria, Anglo, Sacr» Theologis Candidato, Catholioo 
Romano. The author was the second son of Boger of Bradshalgh of Hsigh, 
and is sometimes called *' The Deaf." {PalaHne Note-hook, toL L, p. 221.) 

1693. 

Bey. James Dlingworth, B.D., died, August, 1603. He was a Fellow of 
Emanuel College, Cambridge, but was ejected in 1662. He gave the portraits 
of Whitaker, Nowell, Bolton, and Bradford to the Chetham Library. He is 
the author of A Genuine Aeeount of the Man whose Hands and Leas Rotted 
Off, 107a 

Sir Bdward Moaley, of Hulme, died, aged 77. He was one of Cromwell's 
Scotch Justices, and was knighted by William HI. in 1680. The last baronet 
had entailed the family estates upon the son of Edward Moaley, of Hulme, but 
as a compromise, Bolleston and the manor of Manchest<er were secured to 
Nicholas. Sir Edward was unfortunate in his children ; his sons died early 
and his daughter became the wife of the spendthrift Sir John Bland. (Mosley's 
Family Metnoire ; Axon's Lancashire Gleaninge.) 

A prescriptiye claim set up by Oswald Mosley, acting for the lord of the 
manor (Sir Edward Mosley), for a toll of twopence per pack on all goods of the 
description called Manchester wares brought within the manor (not necessarily 
in the markets), except of the burgesses there, was held bad by the Court of 
King's Bench, upon error from a Judgment in the County Palatine of Chester, 
the court holding that every prescription to charge a sul^ect with a duty must 
impart a benefit or recompense to him, or else some reason must be shown 
why a duty is claimed. Warrington v, Mosley (siej, 4 Modem Beports, 310 ; 
1 Holt, 6734. (Mosley's Family Jfemoirs.) 

1694. 

The first religious service was held in the newly-erected CtosB Street 
Chapel 21th June. The building operations occupied twelve m o nths. (Baker's 
Memorials, p. 15.) 

Sir Boland Stanley, Sir Thomas Clifton, and others tried at the Sessions 
House, Manchester, 20th October, on a charge of conspiracy and tr e aso n . The 
assi4Ees were adjourned by special commission from Lancaster for this purpose. 
Sir Giles Byrss was the presiding Judge. The witnesses for the existence of a 
Lancashire plot were shown to be perjured, and the accused were acquitted* 
<Axon*s Lancashire GUanings,) It is nevertheless certain that many of the 
gentry were gravely disaffected. Ainsworth*s novel of JSeo/rice Tyldesfey deals 
with this incident. 

1695. 

Bev. Henry Kewcome, M. A., died 17th September. This learned and pious 
divine was the son of a clergyman in Huntingdonshire. His mother was one 



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ifN-iTim Annals of Mcmcheder. 78 

of the Salford family of WUllaiiiBon. In 1644 he entered St. John's College, 
Cambridge, and after taking his B.A. degree, married, about the age of 20, 
Elisabeth lialnwaring, and through her interest became rector of Gawsworth 
in 1660, and in 1666 was chosen as successor of Hollinworth in the Collegiate 
ChurclL He is often called Fellow, but there was no Chapter, as the church 
revenue was sequestered and the college practically dissolved. He was 
favourable to the Bestoratlon, and preached a sermon U9urp<Ui<m Defeated 
and David Be$ioredy 1660. The new charter of Charles IL did not name him, 
but he was allowed to preach until Slat August, 1608. He continued in Blan* 
Chester until the passing of the infamous Five Mile Act in 1665, when he wa» 
forced to remove to Worsley, but in 1670 again came to live in the town, and, 
after some persecution, obtained a licence in 1678 to preach in his own house or 
adjacent bam in the Cold House. This had to be discontinued In 1676, but he 
still taught in the homes of his adherents, and in 1687 began again to preach 
publicly. Amongst the smaller annoyances was the breaking of the windows 
of the bam chapel by Sir John Bland whilst Newcome was preaching. In 16B8 
the Cross Street Chapel was erected, and the Revolution having given the Non- 
conformists some peace, the last days of Newcome were not made bitter l^ 
persecution. He wrote The Sinner*a Hope, 1660 ; Plain Discourse about Bash 
and Sinful Anger^ 1606, and other works. His Diary has been edited by 
Thomas Heywood, F.S.A., and his Autobiography by Bev. Bichard Parkinson, 
and both published by the Chetham Society. He is buried in the aisle of Cross 
Street ChapeL There is a portrait of this founder of Manchester Noncon- 
formity in the Lancashire Independent College, which is engraved in the 
Manehsster Soeinian Controversy and in Sir Thomas Baker^s Mem/oriats of 
Cross Street Chapel^ where there is a full list of his writings. 

From an indenture made of this year it would appear that the fee with an 
apprentice to a Manchester manufacturer was £60^ the youth serving seven 
years. 

1606. 

Mrs. Shuttleworth's Charity was founded ; by it the interest of £50 was 
to be given to the poor people in Deansgate. 

1607, 

Dame Jane Meriel Mosley died 8th July. She was one of the founders of 
Nonconformity in Manchester, and left £50 for the poor of Cross Street Chapel. 
She was the daughter of Mr. Richard Saltonstall, of Huntwick, and married 
Edward Mosley, who was knighted in 1680, and died in 1606. Her father and 
mother were resident in Manchester, and are buried at Didsbury. (Baker's 
ifemorials, p. 64.) 

The Nonconformist Chapel, Blackley, was built. 

160a 
Thofesby again visited Manchester and laments that his friends, Newcome, 
Tilsley, Martindale, Illingworth, were all dead, and that none remained whom 
ha knew. {Diary, voL ii*, p. 388.) 

1700. 
Tapestry to cover the altar-screen of the Collegiate Church given by Mr. 



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74 Armals of Manchester. aToi-iroe 

Samodl Brooke, Febmary 84. The tapestry represents the offering of the early 
Christlaofl, mentioned in Acts iv., 34, and the death of Ananias and Sapphira. 
The initial letters V. M., H. W., and 6. K. are those of the makers, and the 
date, 1061, indicates the time of its manufacture. 

Nathaniel Edmondson, a woollen draper in Manchester, caused the marble 
pavement in front of the altar 4 the (V>llegiate Church *' to be laid at his own 
expense." 

1701. 

Bey. Francis Mosley, M.A., died at Bowdon 3rd June. He was a son of 
Oswald Mosley, of Ancoat>s, and was educated at Emanuel College, Cambridge. 
He was suooessiyely minister of Stretford and Bector of Wilmalow. (Bailey's 
Old Sire^ard, pp. 40, 41.) 

1702. 

Bey. Nathaniel Scfaoles died of palsy 2nd October, 1708. He was a son of 
the Bey. Jeremia Scholes (see under date 168S). He was minister at Newton 
Heath and at Macclesfield. He was a great friend of Henry Newoome. (Bar- 
waker's£te«IC*«M<r»,yoLiL,p.611; Palalin«JVb<e^ooifc,yoLiy.,p.30.) He 
was one of the belieyers in the Surey impostor. 

In the household book of a respectable tradesman of Manchester there is 
tor the first time a charge of 10a. for tea and coffee. ( Aikin's Cauntnr Bound 
ilaneheeter.) 

170a 

The first calendanr (*'Kalendar") mentioned in the parish registers is 
Timothy Bancroft^ who bad a child baptised 1st March. 

1705. 

Bey. John Chorlton died 10th May. He was bom at Salf ord in 1006, and at 
the age of 22 became the assistant of the Bey. Henry Newoome. Matthew 
Henry testifies to his readiness of expression, great sincerity, and serious piety. 
(Baker's Memorials, p. 1&) He Is buried in the Collegiate Church. At the 
Academy, under his direction, many were educated for the ministry. 
(Ihid., p. 01; 140.) 

Bfr. Samuel Haward died. His funeral sermon was preached at St. Mar- 
garet's» Lothbury, 24th September, bj the Bey. Peter Newcome, M. A., yicar of 
Hackney. Haward was a Lancashire man, and left bequests for a dole of 
bread at Salford, and for a sermon with distribution of twenty Bibles, and 
woollen doth at Oldham. {PakUine Note-book, yoL UL, p. 80.) 

1706. 

Four large silyer flagons presented to the Collegiate (Hiurch, Sunday, April 
4th ; the four old ones of pewter given to Gorton, Stretfoid, Newton, and 
Dldsbury. 

Bey. George Ogden, Vicar of Bibchester and Fellow of the ^>llegiate 
Church, died, aged 7a 

Six bells of the CoU^iiate Church were recast into eight. 



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1T07-1TU] Annals of Manchester. 76 

1707. 
Nicholas Stratford, Bishop of Chester, a former warden of the Collegiate 
Charch, died September 12. Dr. Stratford was Dean of St. Asaph, Prabendary of 
Lincoln, and had the living of Llanroost, in Wales. Haying married a daughter 
of the Bishop of Rochester, he was appointed warden of Manchester at the 
age of 34. The close of his wardenship, in 16dl, was marked by political and 
religious distractions. Persecutions became fierce. Stratford, to his honour, 
alleviated the suffering, and prevented, as far as he could, the persecution of 
the Dissenters in Bianchester. He was the author of A Dissuasive from 
Revenge^ 1684 <this he dedicated to the people of Manchester), A Discourse of 
the Pope*s Supretnacy^ 1688, and other writings. 

i7oa 

An act of Parliament passed for the erection of St. Ann's Church and 
building St. Ann's Square, when it was enacted '* that the square should be 
thirty yards wide, to afford space lor the purpose of holding 'Acres Fair,**' 
then a cornfield. 

1709, 

The foundation stone of St. Ann's Church, St. Ann's Square, was laid by 
Lady Ann Bland, of Hulme Hall, May la It was dedicated to St. Ann in 
compliment to the lady who laid the foundation stone, and who was the 
greatest contributor to its erection. (See under date 17th July, 1712.) 

A Compendious Character of the Cetebrated Beauties of Manchester, 
written in the year 1709, appears in Heywood's Letters and Editions^ 1720. 
The writer says that " many scandalous pamphlets and scurrilous lampoons'* 
bad appeared reflecting upon the ladies. Haywood's notice Is reprinted in 
Earwaker's Local QUanings^ No. 494. 

1710. 
Bev. Peter Birch, D.D., died. He was son of Thomas Bhrch, of Birch, and 
although of a Presbyterian family conformed and graduated at Oxford. He 
was chaplain to the Speaker of the House of Commons. Two of his sermons 
vrere printed. {Boclkxi^% History of Birch.) 

1712* 

St. Ann's Church was consecrated hj Sir William Dawes, Bishop of 
Chester, 12th July. (Bardsley's MemmiaJLs of St. Ann's.) 

Bev. Charles Owen, in his Scetu of Delusion Opened, alludes to the secret 
meeUttgsof some prophets, probably a renmantof the ''French prophets**— 
the refugee Camisards— and '* the providential check** which they had received 

A manuscript containing Bemarkables and ObsenxMes, in the life of 
Edward Harrald, ^perruquier, at barber-surgeon, in the years 1712 to 1718, was 
presented in 188S to Chetham's Library by Mr. Bobert McD. Smith, of St, 
Blary's Gate. Some extracts from it appeared in the first volume of Harlands 
CoUectanea. Harrald's time was mostly passed at church and at the alehouse, 
and he varied his business of curling wigs by dealing in books. Mr. Harland 
omitted the diarist's outlines of the sermons of the Manchester preachers* 



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76 Awnals of ManchesUr. 



[in8-in6 



which appear to be well OTminftrimy!, the pecnUarittei of indivldqal style being 
preeexred. 

1713. 

Bev. Samuel Angler died 8th Novniaber. He was bom at Dedham 28th 
August, 1889, and was a nephew of John Angler, to whom he acted as assistant 
at Denton. He was ordained at the hoose of Robert Eaton, in Deansgate, In 
1872, at what was probably the first Nonconformist ordination In England. On 
the death of his ande, the Warden of Manchester appointed the Rev. John 
Ogden, bat great difficulty was experienced In dispossessing Angler, who retired 
to DuUnfield, where, in 1888, he became minister of a dissenting congregation, 
who, in 1706, built a chapel for him. In his latter years he was almost blind. 
{DieUonary of National Biography, vol. L) 

1714> 

Dr. Nathaniel Banne, physician and f eofRse of Chetham's College, died, and 
was bailed at St Ann's ChnrclL 

1715. 

The Jacobites on the birthday of the Pretender, 10th June, under the lead 
of Tom Syddall, a blacksmith, caused a riot, and damaged the houses of the 
loyal inhabitants, and did much mischief at the Dissenting Chapel (in Cross 
Street) of which they left only the walls standing. There were riots also at 
Monton, Blackley, Stand, Fallsworth, and other places. Some of the deposl- ^ 
tions are printed in the PcdaUne Note-book, toL IL, p. 240. The rioters were 
tried at Lancaster in August. (See under date 11th February, 1716.) Parlia- 
ment granted £1,800 as compensation for the damage done by the mob to Cross 
Street Ch^wl, which was repaired and made ready for use in the spring of 1718. 

1716. 

Thomas Syddall executed 11th February. He was a blacksmith, and 
headed the mob which partially destroyed the Cross Street Chapel In 1716. 
For this, he with others was sentenced to the pillory and imprisonment In 
Lancaster Castle, but was released by the army of the Jacobite rebellion. He 
Joined the forces of the Old CheTslier and was taken prisoner at Preston fight 
He was tried at Liverpool, and sent for the death penalty with flye other rebeU, 
William Harris, Stephen Seager, Joseph Porter, and John Finch, to Man- 
chester. It is traditionally stated that Knott Bflll was the place of execution. 
The Sheriff's "charge at Bianchester on executing Sydall, ftc.,'*wiks £8 IQs. 
{Paiaiine Noie-book, yoL ly., p. 98.) 

Bey. James Cunningham, A.M., died in London, September 1. He was the 
assistant of Mr. Chorlton at Cross Street Chapel, and was associated with 
him in the conduct of a Nonconformist Academy. After Mr. Chorlton*s death 
a prosecution was instituted against him for keeping this academy, and in 1712 
he rsslgned the Manchester pastorate and became minister of a congregation 
In London. (Bakei^s Memorials, p. 20.) He pubUshed The Everlasting High 
Priest, 1706, and other sermons. 

Nathaniel Gaskell died 20th Noyember, aged 88. He was the grandfather 
of Lord Cliye, and left the Interest of £60 for the poor of Cross Street Cliapel, 



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1717-1719] 



Afmais of Manchester, 77 



and £4 per annum for teaching poor children to read the Bible. (Baker's 
Memorials, 70.) 

General Willis passed through Bianchester with the army under his com- 
mand against the Scottish rebels. 

1717. 

Bev. Eliecer Birch died 12th May, 1717. He was a native of Bianchester, 
but had been for twenty years minister of Dean Row, and had also had a charge 
at Yarmouth before he became, in 1712, minister of Cross Street Chapel. 
(Baker's Memorioda, p. 2L) He is buried in the chapel yard. 

i7ia 

Richard Wroe, D.D., Warden of the Collegiate Church, died January 1. 
He was bom at Heaton Gate, in the parish of Prestwich, August 21, 1641, and 
educated at Jesus College, Cambridge, where he proceeded D.D. in 1688. He 
was appointed fellow of the college March 9, 1674. His happy talent of preach- 
ing in the pulpit gave him the distinguishing character of ** Silver-tongued 
Wroe." He had an interest in natural philosophy, and was a correspondent of 
Flamsteed. He wrote The Beauty of Unity, 1682 ; Righteouaneaa Encouraged^ 
1684. There is a portrait, with a biography and bibliography, in the Palatine 
Note-book, toL \L, p. 13&r 

"One of the earliest burials in St. Ann's was that of Jolm Best. His 
epitaph runs thus: 'John, son of Luke Best, of Bianchester, limner, buried 
Noyember y* 7th, 17ia' " (Bardsley's Memorials, p. 31.) 

Stretford Chapel was rebuilt. 

Samuel Peploe, Vicar of Preston, a Whig, was appomted warden by 
George I., but Dr. Francis Gastrell, Bishop of Chester, being a Tory, refused to 
confirm him in his office. The charter directed that the warden should have a 
degree in divinity, and when the Archbishop of Canterbury gave Peploe a Lam- 
beth diploma the bishop still refused on the pretext of the insufficiency of this 
degree. It was not tUl three years after the nomination of Peploe that the 
Court of King^s Bench decided in this matter. The decision was in favour of 
the Crown. (See under 1722.) It is said that Peploe owed his advance in the 
Church to the following circumstance: Being required to perform divine 
service before the Pretender, at Preston, in 1715, he had the courage to pray for 
the reigning family. The clergy, who were chiefly Jacobites, were frequently 
at war with him, and whilst their sermons preached the divine right of kings, 
his were eulogies of the glorious Revolution. (Hlbbert- Ware's FoundaUons ; 
Bailey's Lancashire,) 

1719. 

The first book printed in Bianchester was ** Mathematical Lectures,** read 
to the Mathematical Society, by John Jackson. It was printed by Roger 
Adams, Parsonage, and sold by William Clayton, at the Conduit. 

The first Bianchester newspaper vras the Manchester Weekly Journal, 
containing the freshest advices, both foreign and domestic, to be continued 
weekly, printed and sold by Roger Adams, at the lower end of Smiby (Smithy) 
Door, price Id. No. 825, dated March 15th, 1725, was in the possession of the 



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78 Annals of Mcmchester. cxtso-itm 



late Mr. John Tates, of Bolton. It was discontinued 1728. The printer after- 
wards went to Chester (see 1740). 

1720. 

Oswald Hosley, of Bolleston, in the county of Staflbrd, lord of the manor, 
created a baronet, June 1& 

An Act (7 Greorge L cap. 15) was passed for making the Irwell and Mersey 
navigable to Lirerpool, 8th December. 

1721. 

Bev. Mr. Barrow died 4th March at an advanced age. He was Head Master 
of the Grammar School about 40 years. 

The rivers Irwell and Mersey made navigable to Liverpool for vessels of 60 
tons, June 0. 

A post from Manchester to London and the North three times a week ; 
eight days required to effect the interchange of letters. 

1722. 

Dr Gastrell, Bishop of Chester, having refused to admit Samuel Peploe, RD.,* 
of Lambeth, to the wardenship of Bianchester College, the cause was tried first 
at Lancaster Assises, on the 13th of August, 1722. The argument in favour of 
the Archbishop's right was conducted with great learning and sUlL The 
hearing occupied fifteen hours. A prescriptive right was made out to general 
satisfaction, and a statutable right also as far as there was occasion to go Into 
the Act of Parliament. But the jury of gentlemen gave a verdict to the right 
in general, without fixing it on any single foot. It was then carried by appeal 
before the King's Bench, and there decided in favour of the Archbishop's 
right. May 22, 172S. {Notes and Queries, iiL, 270. Blackstone Comm., L, 381. 
Edit., 1820.) 

1724. 

Rev. Robert Meeke died 31st May. He was bom at Salford 30th Dec, 1660, 
where his father was minister of Sacred Trinity Church. (See under date 17th 
January, 1068.) His mother was Catharine Hyde, of Hyde Hall. Little is 
known of his early life, but in 1685 he was appointed, at the age of twenty-eight, 
minister of the ancient chapelry of Slaithwaite, where he continued nearly forty 
years. The chapel was rebuilt by his exertions in 1719, and in 1721 he founded 
the Sleathwaite Free School. He was buried in Slaithwaite chapel. He kept 
a diary, and extracts from 1680 to 1004 have been printed. (See Extracts from 
the Diary of Rev, Robert Meeke by H. F. Morehouse. London, 1874.) 

11 George L Act for repairing and widening the road from Sherbrook 
Hill, near Buxton and CHiapen in the Frith, to Manchester. 12th November. 

Mrs. Ann Hinde died, aged 7a She was the daughter of William Page, a 
Manchester merchant, and wife of the Rev. John Hinde, Fellow of the 
Collegiate Church. She founded the "Green (vown School" at Bianchester 
and Stretford for clothing and educating poor children. (See Bailey's Old 
Stretford and Clarke's School Candidates, Intro, pp. xiiL-xvL) 

Dr. William Stukeley published his "lUnerarium Curioeum,**in which 
Manchester is described as *' the largest, most rich, populous, and busy village 



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itas-iTSf] ArmaU of McmchesUr. 79 

In England* having about 2,400 families." This must probably include tlte whole 
pariah. He farther says, " They have looms which work 84 laoes at once, which 
were stolen from the Dntch.7 

1726. 

On tha death of Bishop Gastiell, 24Ui November, Dr. Ftoploe, the warden, 
was promoted to the see of Chester, retaining at the same time tha wardenship 
in eomnundam* 

William Bagnley, of Oakenbottom and Kersley, died 81st December, aged 
66. He was the founder of a school for poor children at Brelghtmet and another 
at Manchester. 

1726. 

The living of Didsbory waa vested in Dame Ann Bland, of Holme Hall« 
December 12, for advancing £200 for the Queen Ann's Bounty. 

It was customary to place oak boughs on " the top of the steeple" (tower) 
of the parish church in commemoration of the Bestoration. 

Bishop Gastrell having appointed Mr. Assheton to a vacant chaplalnship in 
the Collegiate Church, the warden (now Bishop of Chester) opposed the 
appointment, and succeeded in obtaining from the (3rown the nomination of 
Mr. Whittaker, who accordingly was sworn in under protest on the part of the 
fellows. Mr. Assheton appealed to the Court of King's Bench and obtained a 
mandamus which overruled the right of the bishop to visit himself as warden. 
Mr. Asshetxm thus succeeded in being appointed. An Act of Parliament was 
afterwards passed, appointing the king as a visitor of the Collegiate Church, 
when the wardenship waa held in eommtndam, 

1727. 

A oolleetlon of curious pikers waa published in this year relating to Bir. 
Assheton, who was Justly suspected of dlsaflbction to the House of Hanover. 
There Is also Mr. Assheton's reply. The writers in this controversy were John 
Byrom and Mr. Kenyon. The clergy of the old church were somewhat 
notorious for their Jacobite sympathies. 

The author of A Tour through the %ohole Island of OretU Briiain^ by a 
Oentleman^ 1727, which has been attributed to Defoe, says that '* within a few • 
years past Manchester has doubled its number of inhabitants, so that^ taking 
in all its suburbs, it contains at least 60,000 people." 

1728. 

3 George IL Act to impower His Msjesty to visit the Coll^ilate Church of 
Manchester, during such time as the wardenship of the said Church, or shall 
be held In oommendam with the Bishopric of Chester. 21st January. 

1 George IL cap. 11. Act to enable Thomas Brown, gentleman, to grant 
building leases of his estate in the town of Manchester. 

1729. 
Bev. William Hudlestone, formerly a Benedictine Missionary, preached a 
recan t a t ion sermon 21st September, before Bishop Peploe, in the ColleKM^ 
Church. The sermon his been printed. He was a native of Cambridgeshire, 



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80 Annals of Manchester. aTJO-iTSS 

bat belonged to a Lancashire family which bad already given eeyeral priests 
to the Church of Rome. Hodleston's sermon is noticed in Barwaker's £oca^ 
Gleanings^ No. 028. 

The old Exchange, Manchester, boilt at the charge of Sir Oswald Moeley. 

The character of the inhabitants of Manchester at this time Is described to 
be "of a good sort, being pretty much of the old English temper, hearty and 
sincere In their aflfections and express io ns , given to hospitality ; very kind and 
civil to their friends, bnt very stiff and resolnte against their enemies." 

The establishment of races on Kersal Moor caused some controversy. The 
project Is strongly oensiDured in a pamphlet attributed to John Byrom. Dr. 
Feploe at the same time denounced assemblies, and prohibited deigymen from 
attending them. 

1730. 

Bev. Thomas Wroe died 21st September, 1780. He was a son of Warden 
Wroe, and was baptised at Manchester SSth January, 1702^ He took his 
degree of IL A. at Bnuenose College, Oxford, and was a Fellow of the Collegiate 
Church. (Fishwlck'siZMoryo/^fislan^, p.183.) 

The Manchester OcueUe published by Henry Whitworth, December 28 ; the 
first number. The title was changed to the Maneheeier Magtuine^ which was 
sold for threehalfpenoe, 1737. The title was again changed by his son Robert 
to the Advartiser and WeMy Mckgazine* Its last number appeared March 
26,1700. 

The small tithes of the Pariah of Manchester amounted to £110 per annum. 

Hugh, twelfth Lord Willoughby de Parham, died, aged 77. He was con- 
nected with Cross Street Chapel, though not apparently resident nearer than 
the Old Hall, Worsley. <Baker^s MemoriaU^ p. 67.) The history of the 
Willoughby peerage is a curious one. 

1731. 
'^An act was passed to prevent the stealing of Unen, fustian, and other wares 
from the fields where they are whitening or drying. It received royal assent 
May 17. 

A proposal for the establishment of a public workhouse for Manchester was 
defteted by the violence of party feeling. The High Churchmen and Jacobites 
were afraid that the control would be in the hands of the Whigs and Presby- 
terians, and so refused to comply. 

1732. 

The first meeting house of the Society of Friends, which was In Jack8on*s 
Row, foil into disuse. 

1733. 

The fly shuttle for the handlorwn weaver Invented by John Kay, of Bury. 
May 26. 

Bev. John Wesley visited Manchester in May to see the Rev. Mr. Clayton. 
He was in the town again in June, and, on the 3rd, preached at the Old 
Church, Salford Chapel, and St. Ann's Church. 

Henry Goce died. He was a native of Manchester, had some reputation 
as a mathematician, and was the author of The Elements of Sound Oeometry* 



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lYM-iTM] Anruila of Manchester. 81 

1734. 
Lady Barban Fitiroy died January L Tha following inBcription is in the 
choir of the Ck>Uegiate Church, where she was interred :— 

ImAj Barbum fltiroy, 
Eldatt Dwighter of tlM Most ITobto Charlai 
Duk« of CtoTdMid and Bouthunpton, 
Di«dJaii.4t]i,178i. 

Nothing is known of the reasons which induced her to select Manchester as 
her place of residence. Her property was left to an adopted child, William 
Dawson. (FaundaiUma of Maneheaier.) 

A charity school for boys and girls, " children of poor Protestant Dissenters, 
not excluding others," founded in connection with Cross Street ChapeL The 
girls* school was given up in 180B, and the boys* school in 1816^ on the foundation 
of the Lancasterian SchooL (Baker's Mcmoriala, p. 99.) 

Lady Ann Bland, lady of the manor, died. She was the daughter of Sir 
Edward Mosley, of Hulme Hall, which she decorated with altars and other 
Roman antiquities. She was a leader of society and the chief founder of St. 
Ann's Church, which was built partly as a protest against the Stuart sympathiea 
of the High Church clergy of the Cathedral. (Moeley's FamUy Memoirs: Axon*a 
Laneaahire OUaninoa*) She was succeeded by her second cousin. Sir Oswald 
Mosley. (See under date 176L) 

1736. 

The south side of St Ann's Square, King Street, and Ridgefleld first built 
upon. 

Bishop Peploe strictly enforced the payment of fines called "absence 
money," much to the discontent of the Fellows of the Collegiate Church, who 
were thus compelled to be punctual in residence. 

** Manchester," says Chamberlayne, "is a town of yery great trade for 
woollen and linen manufacture." 

1736. 

10 George IL cap. 9. Act for making naTlgaUe the river or brook called 
Worsley Brook, from Worsley Mill, in the townshipof Worsley, to theriTcr 
IrweU. 1st February. 

The Ber. Nathaniel Bann died Septembers. He was a natiye of Man- 
cheater, where his father was a physician and fM>flbe of Chetham*s HospitaL 
He was bi^itised at the Collegiate Church 14th December, 1671, and became 
librarian of Chetham's Library in 1608, and was the ihnst rector of St. Ann*a 
Church. Some of his MSS. are preserred in Chetham's Library. (Bardsley's 
iXemoriaU.) 

The register of the baptisms, marriages, and burials of St. Ann's Church 
commenced December IL 

What is known as the ** Manchester Act " passed the Houses of Parliament. 
This statute (9 (3eorge XL, e. 4) says that as great quantities of stuift made of 
linen yam and cotton wool had been manufactured, printed, and painted, and 
the industry was a branch of the ancient fustian manufacture of Great Britain, 
the manufacture was therefore permitted, "provided that the warp thereof be 



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82 AnmalB of Mcmehester. 



aTS7-1740 



/ 



' entirely linen yank*" {/3taiuU$ ai Large^ Beplnaaae's Lancashire Worthiest 
f.,2»;iL,a.) 

Ann Bntterwortb, widow of Thomas Bntterworth, died. Her mother was 
one of the Mosleys of Anooats. She left £600 to the trustees of the Cross Street 
Ghi^pel, the interest to be applied in binding poor Protestant children appren* 
tioe. She was boried in the chapeL (Baker's Jfemoriols.) 
The MancHugUr Jawmai was pabiished by A. Sehoiield. 

1737. 

The existing registers of Chorlton Chapel begin this year. 

The townspeople were bound to have their grain gronnd at the manorial 
poke-mill, which had become the property of the Grammar School. The 
management of the School liills proToked the following epigram, written by 
John Byrom, against two tmstees of the School Mills :— 

Bona and 8ktn, two millan thin. 

Would sterro «m all or now it; 
But bo it known to Skin and Booa^ 

That Vladi and Bkwd oan*t bear it 

''Bone** (Mr. Dawson) was a snigeon, and ^^Skin" (Mr. Yates) an attorney. 
(See ByronCe BemainSt toL L, p. SOB.) 

The title of WhUwarthB Manchester Oasetie was changed to the Man- 
ehesUr Magasine* It was sold at threehalfpence. 

1738. 

BsT. John Wesley in Manchester, March 10-10, and was " refreshed and 
strengthened" by interoonrse with Bst. John Clayton "and the rest of our 
friends here.** Bfr. Wesley preached at Salford Chapel and at St. Ann's. This 
was immediately after his retnm from America. 
^ Lewis Paul's roller spinning machine was patented June 2L 

The Lancashire Journal published weekly by John Berry at the Dial, near 
the Cross. The oontents of several numbers are described in the new edition of 
Bainei^s Lancashire^ L, 880 ; Axon's Manchester Libraries^ p. 165 ; Local Notes 
and Queries of Manchester Guardian, Oth July, 1874 ; PakUine Note-book, 
ToL iL, p. 20S. 

Ber. <3eorge Whitfield preached twice in Manchester, December S (ff 24). 

Samuel Feploe, Bishop of Chester and Warden of Manchester, resigned the 
latter position in favour of his son, Samuel Peploe, Jun., LL.D., Chancellor, and 
Prebendary of Chester, Archdeacon of Bichmond, and Bector of Worthenden 
andTazall; and to which benefices was added, in 174S, the rich Uving of Tatten- 
haU, in Chester. The Bishop Warden had been on bad terms with the Fellows of 
the Collegiate (3iurch, and the iqipointment of his son enabled him to use his 
episcopal power as visitor. An investigation of the aflkirs of the college since 
1718 resulted in the submission and apology of the clergy^ 

1740. 

About this time Manchester merchants began to give out warps and raw 
cotton to the weavers* receiving them back in doth, and paying for the carding, 
roving, spinning, and weaving. The weaving of a piece containing twelve 



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1741-17461 



Anruds of Manchester. 83 



pounds of eighteenpenny weft occupied a weaver about fourteen daye, and he 
received for the weaving 18b, ; spinning the weft, at Od. per Ibu, Os. ; picking, 
carding, and roving, 8b. 

A Baptist Chapel built in Withy Grove. It was rebuUt 1820. 

1741. 

St Thomas's Cliapel, Ardwick, consecrated November 10. It is now a per- 
petual curacy, in the presentation of the Dean and Canons of Manchester. 

A plan of Manchester and Salf ord, surrounded with views of public buildings 
and the principal residences of the town, was published by Caslon and Berry. 

A spinning engine with rollers was constructed by John Wyatt, and 
** turned by two or more asses.** It was in use in the Upper Priory, Birming- "^ 
ham. Another of the like construction, containing 250 spindles, turned by 
water, was at Northampton, the property, in part, of Bdward Cave, the pro- 
jector and proprietor of the OeniUmatCs Moffosine* 

174a 
Hie parish organ in the Collegiate Church built. 

1743. 

The Import of cotton wool amounted to l,182,2881bw The quantity retained ^ 

for home consumption was 1,001,4181b. 

East India yams used in Lancashire up to this time for the finer kinds of . 

goode. _ 

1744. 

The name of Mercy De Foe occurs in the register of burials, 90th April, 1744. 

There is a story that the young Pretender visited Manchester in disguise, 
and stayed at Anooats Hall, in the summer of 1744. It is said that a young 
woman recognised this mysterious guest in the leader of the Highland army of 
the following year. There is no real evidence of the visit (Cf. Aston's 
Metrical Records^ Mosley's Family Memoira^ and Axon's Laneaahire 
GUaninga,) 

1746. 

John Kay and Joseph Stell Invented " a loom for working and weaving of 
tapes, &c" April la 

In Marchanfs flisiory of the JBs5eB«m, he says: "Manchester stands 
near the conflux of the Irk with the Irwell, and la so much Improved In this 
and the last century above Its neighbours, that though it is not a corporation, 
nor sends members to Ptaliament, yet, as an inland town. It has perhaps the 
best trade of any in these north parts, and surpasses all the towns hereabouts 
in buildings and number of people, and its spacious market-place and college. "- 
.... The fustian manufactures, called Manchester cottons, for which it • 
has been famous for almost one hundred and fifty years, have been very much 
Improved of late by some Inventions of dyeing and printing with the great 
variety of other manufactures, known by the name of MancKnter goods, as 
ticking, tapes, filleting, and linen cloth, enrich not only the town but the 
whole parish, and render the people industrious. As the Hague in Holland Is 
deservedly called the most magnificent village in Europe, Manchester, with 



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84 AnTuds of Manchester. 



1T45 



equal propriety, may be styled the greatest mere village in England, for 'tis not 
so much as a town, strictly speaking, the highest magistrate being a constable 
or headborongh ; yet it is more popoloos than York, Norwich, or most cities in 
England, and as big as two or three of the lesser ones put together.** 

The ''rising of the forty-five" was a memorable event in the annals of 
Manchester, where the adherents of the Stuarts were very numerous. It was the 
custom of the leaders to dine together at a small public-house near Didsbury. 
After the cloth was removed a large bowl of water was placed on the table, 
when every gentleman rose, and holding his glass over the water drank **The 
King." "This is not a toast I should have expected to be drunk here,'* said a 
new guest. ** Tush,** said his friend, ** are we not drinking * The King over the 
water r ** On the news of the insurrection in Scotland a subscription amounting 
to £1,900 3s. was ndsed for a troop to be placed at the disposal of Edward Lord 
Derby for resisting the army of the young Pretender. Warden Feploe was the 
only subscriber amongst the clergy of the Collegiate Church. The Stuart 
partisans included some of the leading gentlemen of the town, the clergy of the 
Collegiate Church, nearly all of whom, except Dr. Feploe (who laboured singly 
and unceasingly in defence of George IL), were lealous Jacobites, and took 
every occasion to promote disaffection from the pulpit, and to Jnflnftnee their 
hearers on behalf of the Pretender ; and lastly, Dr. Deacon and his band of 
Nonjurors, who was decidedly the most active in the insurrection, and whoee 
three sons joined the Pretender. Corporal Dickson and his sweethearti with a 
drummer belonging to the Pretender's army, took military poosessJon of Man- 
chester, November 28. A party of the inhabitants resolved apoQ " taking him 
prisoner, dead or alive." A fight ensued, the issue of which was that, the 
Jacobite party defending Dickson and the drummer, the aasailants were 
repulsed, and during the rest of the day they paraded the streets in triumph, 
and obtained about one hundred and eighty recruits, to don white cockades. 
In the evening the vanguard of the army entered the town, and the main body, 
under the command of Prince Charles Edward (the young Pretender), began to 
enter Manchester about ten o'clock in the morning, November 90. The troope 
marched into St. Ann*s Square whilst the funeral service was being performed 
over the grave of the Rev. Joseph Hoole. Some of the officers Joined decorously 
in the service. The Prince arrived about two in the afternoon, and took up his 
residence at the house of Bfr. John Dickenson, in ICarket Street Lane, after* 
wards known as the Palace Inn, and now the Palace Buildings. The Prince, 
in marching through Salf ord, was met by the Rev. John Clayton, who, falling 
on his knees, prayed f6r the divine blessing upon him. The Old Pretender was 
proclaimed as James IIL, and there were public illuminations, November 2^ 
Some of the adherents of the Prince went to the printing office of Bfr. Whit- 
worth, proprietor of the MoffOMinet and compelled Thomas Bradbury, a 
Journeyman (in the absence of his master), to print several manifestoes and 
other papers. The Prince went to service on the Sunday at the Collegiate 
CThurch. The sermon was preached by Thomas Cappock, whom the Prince had 
appointed his chaplain, November 80. After servioe the '* Manchester 
Regiment,** which numbered about 300 men, -was reviewed by the Prince 
Charles Edward in the Churchyard. The rebels left the town on their march 
to the South, 1st December. They marched to Derby, where a retreat was 



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Ttm 



Armals of Manchester. 83 



decided upon, and the rebel army re-entered on their retreat to the North, 
December & The Pretender levied a contribution of £5,000 upon the inhabi- 
tante of Manchester, and took old James Bayley prisoner, but let him go on 
condition that he would raise one-half of the money, or surrender himself 
again a prisoner. He went to the Old Coffee House, and it was arranged that 
he and John Dickenson should give promissory notes, payable in three months, 
to such persons as would advance them money to meet the demand. By this 
method the £2,500 was paid within the specified time, December 10. At the 
surrender of Carlisle to the Duke of Cumberland, December 24, the following 
oflBcers of the Manchester Regiment fell into the hands of the Royalists : Colonel 
Francis Townley ; Captains James Dawson, George Fletcher, John Sanderson, 
Peter Moss, Andrew Blood, David Morgan; Lieutenants T. Deacon, Robert 
Deacon, Thomas Chadwick, John Beswick, John Holker, Thomas Fumival ; 
Knsigns Charles Deacon, Samuel Maddock, Charles Gaylor, James Wilding, 
John Hunter, John Brettagh; Adjutant Syddall, and Thomas Cappock. Of 
the non-commissioned officers and privates there were only ninety-three 
remaining. The officers were sent in waggons to London, and the subordinates 
were thrown into the prisons of Carlisle, Penrith, and KendaL Before they 
were marched to the metropolis the former were confined in the town gaol, and 
the privates in the cathedral of the first-named place. The story of the " forty- 
five * has given rise to a considerable literature. The local details are given in 
Byrom's Diary^ and the FoundaHona of Manchester. Various depositions as 
to the behaviour of the rebels in Manchester and the neighbourhood are printed, 
with annotations by Mr. J. P. Earwaker, in the PcdaHne Xote-book^ voL iv., 
p. 70. See also an article by Sir Thomas Baker in the Palatine Note-book, 
voL iiL, p. 19. There is a MS. diary of a Manchester man who was in the 
Pretender^s army, and taken prisoner at Carlisle. It is in Chetham*s library. 
It is sometimes styled James Miller^s journal, but the question of its author* 
ship is discussed in The Reliquary^ April, 1871. 

Rev. Joseph Hoole, M.A., died November 27. He was educated at Sidney 
Sussex College, Cambridge, and had been vicar of Haxey before his appoint- 
ment as rector of St. Ann's in 1736L He wrote a Guide to Communicants, 1739. 
He was buried at St. Ann's, 20th November, and some of the Jacobite rebel 
officers Joined in the funeral service. Mr. Hoole*s Sermons were published in 
1747. (BaxdaHefB Memoriais.) 

Kersal Moor races were discontinued probably through the influence of 
John Byrom. 

1746. 

Rev. Joshua Bayes died April 24. He was the son of Rev. Samuel Bayes, 
one of the ejected ministers of 1662, who settled in Manchester. Joshua Bayes 
is said by Wilson to have been bom in 1071, but according to his tombstone he 
died in his 62nd year. He was minister of the Lather Lane Church, and the 
author of The Church of Some's Doctrine and Practice trith relation to the 
Worship of Ood in an Unknouna Tongue^ 1736, and several other sermons. 
He contributed the portion on Galatians to the continuation of Henry's Com- 
mentary. There is a portrait of him tn Wilson's Dissenting Churches, iv., 306L 
In Roee*s Biographical Dictionary (vol. ilL, p. 307) be is stated, but on what 
authority is not said, to have been a native of Sbeffleld. 



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86 Avmals of Manchester. 



[1746 



The trial of the ofBcera of the Manchester Regiment commenced at London 
July 16. Captain Fletcher was vainly nrged to turn King^s evidence, but 
Ensign Maddock was leas unbending. The inquiry lasted three days, ter- 
minating in the conviction of all the prisoners. There was, of course, no doubt 
that they were guilty of treason, though their treason had its spring in 
mistaken loyalty. Moss and Holker effected their escape from Newgate. The 
national thanksgiving for the suppression of the rebellion was celebrated 0th 
October, when the mob took vengeance upon the houses of Deacon and Syddall 
because the unhappy father and the hapless widow had not illuminated their 
windows in token of rejoicing. 

Colonel Francis Townley, Captains Thomas Theodorus Deacon, James 
Dawson, John Beswick, George Fletcher, Andrew Blood, David Morgan, 
and Lieutenant Thomas Chadwick and Adjutant Thomas Syddall, officers in 
the Manchester Regiment of rebels, were executed on Kennington Common 
with all the cruel inflictions to which persons guilty of high treason were sub- 
ject, July 30. After the execution the heads of Captain Deacon, Adjutant 
Syddall, and Lieutenant Chadwick were brought down to Manchester and stuck 
upon the Exchange, August 3. Dr. Deacon was the first to gaze upon the 
remains of his son, and, though bowed with age and adversity, he subdued his 
parental sorrow so far as to salute the ghastly head, and to express his rejoicing 
that he had possessed a son who could firmly suffer martyrdom in the Stuart 
cause. On the other hand they were scoffed at as " the gods spiked upon the 
Exchange,** and as "Tyburn gods.** 

The Rev. Thomas Cappock, the reputed Bishop of Carlisle, was brought to 
trial in that city. He was taken into court robed in his gown and cassock ; and 
being found guilty of high treason he was drawn, hanged, and quartered 
October 18. He was a native of Manchester, and received his education at the 
Free Grammar SchooL He received the appointment of chaplain to Prince 
Charles at Manchester. He afterwards turned quartermaster, but again 
assuming the priestly garb is doubtfully said to have been appointed by the 
Pretender to the see of Carlisle. Some particulars of Cappock, or Coppock, 
will be found in Earwaker*s Local Oleaninga, Nos. 304, 317, 325. 

James Bradshaw, lieutenant of the rebel "Manchester Regiment,** was 
' xecuted at Kennington Common, November 28. His speech from the scaffold is 
reported in the PaJUUine Note-book^ toL iii., p. 275. Biographical particulars 
of Captain James Bradshaw are given in Earwaker's Local OUanings^ Nos. 
IttS, 20:2, 210. 

The magistrates held regular sittings at "The Dangerous Comer,** and 
compelled the disaflbded or the doubtful to take oaths of allegiance to the 
reigning monarch. The assembly-room, the private ball, the Exchange, the 
place of worship, were made arenas for exhibition of party rancour. At church 
the Jacobites offered negative allegiance to James HL by refusing to join in the 
church prayers f6r his antagonist, George IL The following verse, since so 
f amedt was penned by John Byrom at this time :-- 

OodblentbtKhigt I meuioar telth'fe daftadtr I 
Ood blm (no hanii la bloidiig) the Pretender I 
Bat who Prettndflr li, or who to King— 
Ood btoM us atl-tlMfs quite KBother thing t 



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1747-lTM] 



Armals of Mcmcheeter. 87 



1747. 

Hr. Fowden, the ConBtable of MancheBter, and Bfr. Ogden, the younger, 
were tried at Lancaster for high treason, bat acquitted, as it was proved that 
they acted under the compulsion of the rebels. April. 

"Bfethodism** now began to take an organised form in the town. Some 
young men " began a society and took a room." The *' room ** was a small 
apartment in a house built upon a rock on the banks of the Irwell, on the north 
side of Blackfriars Bridge, at the bottom of a large yard, known by the name 
of the " Rose and Crown yard,** and which was filled with wood-built thatched 
cottages. The house containing the " preaching room** was three storeys high. 
The ground floor was a Joiner^s shop ; the rooms in the middle storey were the 
residence of a newly-married couple ; the garret was the " room,** and was 
itself also the home of a poor woman, who there plied her spinning wheel, 
while her husband, in the same apartment, flung the shuttle. Such was the 
cradle of Methodism in Manchester. The room being too small to hold all the 
people, Wesley preached at the Cross. Few persons Joined the society at first in 
this town ; its memben were suspected of being emissaries of the Pretender. 
The Rot. John Wesley himself was indecorously treated by the multitude, for, 
preaching at Sallord Cross in this year, he looked with great apprehension on 
the " unbroken spirits** around him, one of whom threatened to '* bring out the 
engine** and play it upon him. The story of the early progress of Methodism is 
told in Everett's Methodism in Manchester and the Neighbowrhoodt p. 58. 

Rev. Thomas Cattell died. He was chaplain and fellow of the Collegiate 
Chureh, and wrote some unpublished poems. He is the supposed author of a 
tract on the Manchester races, 1733, and of Human Laws Obiigaiory ^qwn the 
Canseieneet 1733. There is a long account of him in the Balnea MSS. 

1748. 

Robert Duckinfield died in May, aged 68 years. He was a younger son of 
Sir Robert Duckinfield, and was High Sheriff of Lancashire in 174L {Baker's 
MemariaiSt p. 7&) 

Lewis Paul's catnling machine was patented, August 30. 

The town was still greatly agitated by the political controversy between 
the friends and foes of the Hanoverian Government. This Is shown in 
JaechUe and Non^ring PrineipUs Examined^ in a Letter to the Master 
Tool of the Faction in Manchester^ by J. Owen, ftc., Manchester, 174& The 
writer was a Nonconformist minister at Rochdale. The pamphlet was 
addressed to John Byrom, and ran through two editions. 

1740. 

Bfany of the unfortunate rebel "Manchester Begfanent" removed from 
Sottthwark Gaol for transportation, January 11. 

The heads of Deacon, Syddall, and Chadwick stolen from the top of the 
Exchange. January. 

The Jacobite controversy was further continued in a volume entitled 
Man^sster Vindieaied, A complete collection of the papers published in 
defence of thai town^ in the Chester Courant^ with those on the other side of 
the guesHon^printsd in the Manchester Jfoffosine, or elsewhere^ uhich are 



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88 ATmala of Manchester. 



[1760-1762 



unanswered in the eaid Cheeter Courant, Chester: Printed by and for 
Elizabeth Adams. 324 pages. 24ma The publisher was the widow of Roger 
Adams, and mother of Orion Adams, both well-known printers. The volume 
Itself contains some of Byrom's writing, and is full of curious and interesting 
matter. 

The Import of cotton wool amounted to l,668,a6Sib. ; the quantity retained 
for home consumption, 1,827,9671b. 

1760. 

An attempt was made to introduce hackney coaches in the town, but the 
extremities of the town being within the distance of a few minutes' walk the 
novelty was not eagerly received, and the scheme failed as sedan-chairs were 
generally considered preferable. 

The Methodist Chapel, Birchin Lane, was built. 

1761. 

Hulme Hall sold by the Bland family to 6. Lloyd, Esq. 

Sir Oswald Mosley, lord of the manor, died. He was the eldest son of 
Oswald Mosley of Ancoats and Bolleston, who in 1720 declined a baronetcy, 
which was then accepted by his son. In 1083 he tried, unsuccessfully, to Impose 
a tax upon each pack of Manchester wares brought into the manor. (Moaley's 
Family Memoirs; Axon's Lancashire Oleaninge.) 

A school was endowed by Samuel, Thomas, and George Birch in the town- 
ship of Ardwick. 

1762. 

The Manchester Weekly Jaumalt pubUshed on the first Tuesday in 
January, by Orion Adams. Its exist^ence was short. 

Rev. Adam Banks, ILA., Fellow of the Collegiate Church, died February 
16^ aged 61« He was buried in the church, where there is a monument to his 
memory. 

Right Rev. Samuel Peploe, D.D., Bishop of Chester, died at Chester 2lBt 
February. Bom in Shropshire in 1068, he owed his advancement in the church 
to his steady adherence to the House of Hanover, and to the courage and ability 
he displayed against the Jacobites. His appointment as Warden of Manchester 
was unsuccessfully contested by the local clergy, with whom he was always on 
bad terms. When he resigned in favour of his son the power of the sovereign, 
as temporary visitor of the college, reverted to the bishop, and he exercised his 
authority. He demanded an investigation into the whole affairs of the college 
from the year 1718, and entering the chapter house on a day fixed for a public 
court of inquiry " he denounced the fellows and chaplains as void of honour, 
void of common honesty, and void of grace, and charged them with a wilful 
intention to wrong the college." The fellows and chaplains made submission. 
He was buried in Chester Cathedral, over which he had presided for twenty- 
seven yean, (foundations of Manchester^ voL iL) 

The first number of the Manchester Mercury was published by Joseph 
Harrop, starch 3. It was issued every Tuesday at the sign of the Printing 
Press, opposite the Exchange, at number nine. This paper obtained a good 
drcolation by meeting the mail at Derby and bringing the news express to 



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1763J 



Anruds of Manchester. 89 



this town. The title was changed to Harrop*a Manchester Mercury and 
Oeneral Advertiser, In 1764 he iesaed with it a New History of England^ in 
supplements, ultimately extending to 778 pages, to encourage the sale of his 
newspaper. In an address at the end of the work he says it cost him one 
hundred guineas. Joseph Harrop died 20th January, 1804. The paper was 
carried on by his son James up to his death, February 22, 1823. It was still 
carried on until August 31, 1825, when it was sold to Mr. J. E. Taylor, who 
changed its name to the Manchester Mercury and Tuesday's Oeneral 
Advertiser, The last number issued was 3,672, which appeared on the 28th 
December, 1830, after an existence of 77 years and 10 months. The following 
is the editorial article with which this paper was ushered into existence : '* To 
the Public,— Haying beto greatly encouraged to publish a weekly newspaper, 
I lately advertised that I intended speedily to proceed upon that design ; and 
having now procured a new set of types to print with, I have here begun to 
execute it I shall take care to answer the proposals in my advertisement by 
the contents of the paper, and a favourable reception will, I hope, enable me to 
do it with success. Though in a time of general peace, a great dearth of 
foreign advices may be urged as a discouragement to my undertaking at this 
Juncture ; yet the friendly excitement that I have had, and the honest desire of 
employment in my proper calling, in the place of my nativity, are motives 
excusable, at least for attempting in a private station, to bespeak the encouragei 
ment of the public, to whom I propose to give all the satisfaction that I can, 
and no Just cause of oflbnce whatsoever. Such of my countrymen and others 
who intend me the favour of their subscriptions, shall have the paper delivered 
at their house with all due eare anA expedition by, their obliged humble 
servant* "Jossph Habbop." 

A new market cross was erected from the designs of Oliver Nab. March 6. 

John Wesley visited Manchester March 26. He spent three days in a 
searching examination of the members of the Manchester Society, and found 
reason to believe '* that there was not one disorderly walker therein.** 

The Manchester Infirmary- founded. It owes its origin more particularly 
to Sir. Joseph Bancroft, and Bfr. Charles White, an eminent surgeon. The 
first house to carry on the purpose of the charity was in Garden Street, 
Shudehill, and was opened June 24. 

The time of holding Acres Fair was changed from the 20th and 21st of 
September to the 1st and 2nd of October. 

Sacred Trinity Chapel, Salf ord, taken down and rebuilt as a stone edifice of 
the Doric order» with a Gothic steeple, having six bells, and a clock with four 
fawtt 

1703. 

Dr. Thomas Deaoon died February 16. He lies buried beneath a tomb near 
the north-east comer of St. Ann's churchyard, with the following inscription : 
** Here lie interred the remains (which through mortality are at present corrupt, 
but which shall one day surely be raised again to immortality and put on 
inoorruption) of Thomas Deacon, the greatest of sinners and most unworthy of 
primitive bishops, who died 16th February, 1753, in the 56th year of his age.** 
He was one of the obscure sect of Nonjurors, amongst whom he was a bishop. 



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90 Annals of Manchester. 



[176« 



tmt pnctlaed with saocess as a physiciaiu He founded for himself an episcopal 
chapel in Manchester, which he styled "The True BriUsh Catholic Chorch.**. 
He published a ColitcHon of DevoHona and some writings in defence of the 
Noi^nrors. (Sutton's Notice of Dr. Deacon^ 1879.) His library was sold by 
auction March 10. 

Mr. James Bayley, senior, died April 0. He was taken prisoner by the 
Pretender in 174S. 

The Mersey and Irwell Navigation Company issued the following adTcrtise- 
ment, April 27: "The proprietors of the rivers Mersey and Irwell give notice 
that they will for the future carry goods and merchandise for those persons 
who employ their flats, in summer as well as winter, at the following prices. 
Tie., from Bank Key to the key at Manchester at Od. per hundred, from the 1st 
of May to the 11th of November ; and at 7d. per hundred, from the 11th of 
November to the 1st of May ; and from the key at Manchester to Bank Key at 
id. per hundred at all times. N.B.— There are good convenient warehouses at 
both keys, and great care wUl be taken of all goods that come up or go down 
that river." 

May 8. Coach to be hired by Joseph Barrett, or Bfr. Hanforth. in Market 
Street Lane, Manchester— may constantly be heard of to carry passengers to 
any part of England at the most reasonable rate.— ^arrop'« Mercury, 

The shock of an earthquake was felt at Manchester June 8. 

The foundation stone of St. Mary's Church was laid by the Heva. Messrs. 
Assheton, Moss, and Foxley, July 10. The Act for building the church is 
26 George II. cap. 45. 

The Theatre, in Marsden Street, built, and opened December 3; finally 
closed BCay 12, 1775. The first place employed as a theatre was a temporary 
structure of timber at the bottom of King Street. 

Sir Oswald Moeley executed a deed of conveyanoe of land for the erection 
of the Infirmary. December 4. 

A man named Grindret, or Grindrod, poisoned his wife and two children^ 
September 15 ; executed at Lancaster, and gibbeted at the end of Cross Lane, 
Pendleton. An amusing story of his alleged ** ghost** forms the sulject of one 
of Ainsworth's ballads. 

In a trial at Lancaster between the warden and fellows of the Collegiate 
Church and the weavers, the former demanding 4d. each loom in Ueu of tithes, 
at Easter, a verdict was given for the weavers. 

Rev. John Wesley visited Manchester. 

A cotton reel invented by Mr. Eamshaw was destroyed. 

From this year until the end of 1757 the price of food was unusually high. 

1764. 

The Manchester Journal^ Na 1, issued BCarch 2. It was printed by J. 
Schofield and M. Tumbull (brother to the original publisher of tUs paper in 
1738), Fountain Court, at the back of the Exchange, and was sold at their shop, 
Deansgate, every Saturday morning. No price is mentioned. It was discon- 
tinued in 1750. 

The passing of the Marriage Act led to the disoontlnuanoe of the solemnisa- 
tion of marriage at St. Ann's Church. The last one under the old law was 
celebrated Mareh 10. 



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^vBS-iTsei Awnala of Manoheder. 91 

The flnt stone of the Manchester InflimAry was laid hj ICr. MUes Bower, 
sen^ Kay 20. The Instltatian was opened in 1755. Upwards of £i,QOO was 
expended on the erection. 

The "flying coach** between llanchester end London ooenpied fonr days 
and a half in the Jonzney. 

A school and school-hoose were erected and endowed by Mr. Hios. Fletcher, 
in Le^enshnlme. It was reboUt in 1824. 

A remarkable phenomenon, " resembling a large ball of fire, with a tail to 
it, wasseenhorerlngintheair.'* It waa probably a comet 

1756. 

Mr. Thomas Johnson, of Manchester, was appofaited High Sheriff January 27. 

Mr. James Hflton, sen. (commonly called Captain Hflton), died at hia honse 
in Shndehill, Febmsry 0. 

Mr. Thomas Samnel Mynshnll, of Chorlton Hall, died February 28. 

Bfr. Jeremiah Bowers, a hatter, died, leaving a fortune of £40,000. 

An interesting tract, entitled Friendly Advice to the Poor^ "was written 
and published at the request of the late and present officers of the town of 
Manchester,** by the Rct. John Clayton, AM. It gives some curious informa- 
tion as to the social condition of the town, and especially of the poorer clsswes, 
at this period. A reply to it appeared under the title of Sequei to the Friendly 
Advice to the Poor of Manchester^ by Joseph 8tot, Cobbler. It Ib uncertain 
whether this name indicates a veritable son of St. Crispin or Is only a pseu- 
donym, but the latter seems the more probable. 

1766. 

Bfr. Miles Bower, hatter, and one of the constables of the town, died Feb. 23. 

The war against France was popular, and its proclamation was oslebrated 
by a public procession, June 5. 

Sir Thomas Grey Egerton, M.P. for Newton, died at Heaton House, July 8. 

The effigy of Admiral Byng was cazried through the town with a halter 
about its neck, and an inscription on its back. In the evening it was shot. 
September 17. 

St. Mary's Church, situated between the river Irwell and the hi^ier part 
of Deansgate, was consecrated September 20. It is a Doric edifice, with a spire 
steeple 186 feet high. The ornamental pulpit in tUs church was the gift of the 
congregation to the Bev. John Gatliffe, M.A., fellow of the Collegiate Church, 
the first rector; and the ocgan was the gift of Mr. Holland Ackers. 

Bey. William Shrigley died November 1, aged tt. He was ch^laln of the 
Collegiate Church. 

The Bev. Thomas Fdzley, on the death of the Bev. John Gatliffe, 
feUow of the OoHegiate Church, was presented to the rectory of St. Mary*a, 
November 18. 

By the first attempt at an enumeration of the population of Manchester 
and Salfotd there were estimated to be 19^880 penons in the two towns. 

Cotton velvets are said to have been first made at Bolton by Mr. 
Clarice. 



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92 Anruds of Manchester, iim-rm 

As the result of an action by the warden and fellows of the Collegiate 
Chnrch against the Traffords of Trafford, the chapter recovered certain leases 
which had been improperly granted. 

The Manchester Circnlating Library was instituted. 

1767. 

Mr. Thomas Hooghton, J.F., a feoffee of Chetham*s Hospital, and formerly 
GoTemor of the Isle of Man« died at his house in Deansgate, March 18w 

A serious food riot occurred at ShudehilL Four of the rioters killed 
and fifteen wounded. This disturbance was known as the "Shudehill 
Fight.** Earlier in the day the rioters destroyed a oommill at Clayton. 
November 16. 

Mr. James Bayley, junior, was appointed High SherlA 

Sir Oswald Mosley, second baronet, lord of the manor, died, and was suc- 
ceeded by the Rev. Sir John Mosley. (See under date 1779.) 

Samuel Birch, J.P., diod at Ardwick. 

Rev. Henry Brook, M.A., Fellow of the Collegiate Church, died. He wrote 
on Christian PeaceabUnesa^ 1741. There is a notice of him in the Dictionary 
of National Biography. 

A Celt and Boman bulla of gold found in deepening the canal near the 
econd lock of the Irwell. 

176a 

Mr. Bobert Booth, of Salf ord, died June 21. 

Lewis Paul*s improved spinning machine was patented. June 29. 

Mr. Thomas Newton, bookseller, died. 

Ellen Hayfleld died at the reputed age of 104 years. 

32 George IL cap. CL Act for discharging the inhabitants of the town of 
Manchester from the custom of grinding their com and grain, except malt, at 
certain water oommllls in the said town called the School MiUs, and fbr 
making a proper recompense to the feoffees of such miUs. 

The first carriage set up in Manchester by any person actually in bnsinasf 
was that of Madame Drake, who lived in Long MiUgate. 

1760. 

Mr. Peter Worsley died at Flatt Hall, January 17. 

Mr. Peter Antxobus, governor of Chetham*s Hospital, died June 10. 

The Duke of Bridgewater obtained an act (32 George IL cap. 2) to enable 
him to cut a navigable canal from Worsley to Salford, near Manchester, and 
to carry the same to or near HoUins Ferry, in the County of Lancaster. 

The capture of Quebec was celebrated by public illuminations, ftc, 
October 23. 

Rev. John Wesley visited Manchester. In his diary he says : " Wretched 
magiBtrates, by refusing to suppress, had encouraged the rioters, and had long 
occasioned tumults, but some were now of a better spirit*'* 

In this year oats were 2b. the bushel of 451b., wheat 5s. the bushel of 70ib., 
meal 20s. the load, "Jannock ** 151b. for Is., malt 23s. the load, a goose cost 15d., 
cheese about 3d. the pound, beef 2d. the pound, neck of mutton Od., land 40s. 
or 45s. the Cheshire acre ; a weaver^s cottage, with a two-loom shop, rented at 
4%. or 45*. the vesr. 



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iTM-iTA) ArmdU of Momchester. 93 

1760. 

The flying machines trom Manchester to London oocnpied three days In the 
Joomey, which was *' performed, if God permit, by John Hanforth, Matthew " 
Howe, Samuel Glanyille, and William Richardson. Fare, inside, £2 Ss. ; out- 
side, half price.'* March 3. 

33 George IL cap 2. Act to enable the most noble Frauds Duke of Bridge- 
water to make a navigable cut or canal from or near Worsley Mill, over the »^ 
river Irwell, to the town of Manchester, and to or near Longford Bridge, in the 
township of Stretf ord. 24th March. 

The Rev. Thomas Cronchley, one of the fellows of the Collegiate Church, 
died June 1. 

A musical entertainment was given in the garden of the Infirmary. The 
proceeds were added to the funds of the charity, June 18L 

Bev. Thomas Moss died at Crumpsall, 17th July. He was bom in 1712, and 
was author of a Sermon cU the CoUegicUe Churchy ManehesUrt for the support 
of the In^rmartft 1754. (Manche$ter FoundUUiona, iL, 206.) 
September. Barton Aqueduct commenced. (See 1761.) 
The races on Kersal Moor, after fifteen years' disuse, were renewed Oct. 1. 
(Proeter^s Our Turf dtc.) 

The manufacture and dyeing of ginghams, damasks, moreens, && was 
greatly improved by the inventions of Mr. Mather. -^ 

There was a theatre held at the Biding School, Salford, at this time. 
ICanohester began to be famous for its cotton manufacture. The entire 
value of the cotton goods made was £200,000 per annum. 

About this period, according to Aikin, the manufacturers of this town 
began to treat their apprentices in a somewhat different manner to what they ^ 
had hitherto done. The apprentices had allotted to them the use of a back 
parlour, with a fire, and had tea twice a day. It had been usual for the menu- 
facturer and his apprentloes to be in the warehouse by six in the morning ; at 
seven they had breakfast, which consisted of one large dish of oatmeal porridge 
and another of milk ; each with a wooden spoon in his hand, without loss of 
time dipped into the dish, and thence into the milk pan, and as soon as it was 
finished they all returned to their work. At this period the dinner hour in 
Manchester was twelve o'clock; and ladies paid afternoon visits at two, and 
then repaired to the four o'clock prayers at the Old Church. 

The drop box invented by Bobert Kay, of Bury, son of the inventor of the 
picking peg, or fiy shuttle, about this date. 

1761. 

The first English "Navigation Canal," extending from Worsley to Man- 
chester, was opened, June 17. Its originator, the Duke of Bridgewater, is rightly • 
called ** The Father of Inland Navigation in England.** 

Mrs. Dorothy Byrom died at Kersall Cell in her Slst year. September. 

Bev. Thomas Foxley, M. A., died at Manchester, October 17. He was bom 
In Bfianchester, October, 1714, and was a fellow of the Collegiate Church, and first 
rector at St. Mary's Church. He was the author of a consecration sermon on 
The AnHquity and Importance of Publie Worship, 1790. 



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94 Armala of Manehealer^ 



QTeMTes 



The eoroiiAtlon of George III. was oeletarated with great njolciiigs. He 
WW proclaimed at the liarket Croes, 4th NoTember. 

Edwaxd Ciane was the author of Poetical MUedlanieg^ pabliahed at Man- 
chester this year. Nothing appears to be known of his personal history, and 
the book, though curious—it includes a tragedy on the crime of Miss Blandy 
the parricide -does not possess any merit. 

The first Blackfriars Bridge was built of wood by a company of comedians, 
for the purpose of wiahHng the inhabitants of Manchester the more readily to 
cross the river to the Riding School in Water Street, Salford, which they oocu« 
pied as a theatre. 

Cannon Street Independent Chapel was erected. John Byrom records in 
his Diary that the Bev. John Newton, on the 20th April, 1768, came to Man* 
Chester ** upon account of the opening of the new Meeting (i.e.. Meeting House) 
at the upper end of this Croft to-morrow and to see some Ministers and friends 
with whom he was acquainted.** Byrom*s house was at the comer of Hunter*s 
Lane and Hanging Ditch, near the Old Church. By the "Croft** is meant 
Cannon Street, of which Hunter^s Croft was the old name. The first minister 
was the Rev. Caleb Warhurst. 

Bev. John Wesley visited Manchester. 

1762. 

The Maneheaier Chronicle; or, Anderion's UniverBal Adverttaer, came out 
in June. It was printed and published by Thomas Anderton, at the Shak- 
spere's Head, near the Market Cross. The price was 2d. 

Riots were renewed, in consequence of the high price of com. July. 

The secret of dyeing torkey-red introduced by John Wilson, of Alnsworth. 

Rev. John Wesley visited Manchester. 

The weighing machine at Alport Town erected. 

The declaration of wvr against the King of Spain was proclaimed In the 
Market Plaoe by Thomas Chadwick, the boroughreeve, who was attended by a 
procession of magistrates. 

i7ea 

The perish registers record the baptism of John, son of William Jordan, 
calUque printer, of Little Green, September 4th. This Mr. Jordan Ib said to 
have been the first calico printer in the district. A notice of his house and 
descendants is given In the Palatine Note-bookt voL iv., p. 140. 

John Byrom, ILA., F.R.S., died September 20. He was bom at Kersal in 
160L His father, a linen draper of Manchevier, sent him to Cambridge, where 
he graduated ILA. and became Fellow of Trinity College ; but declining to 
take orders he resigned this provision, and soon after married his cousin. Miss 
Elisabeth Byrom, against the consent of both families. Being without a 
profession, and pressed by the res angueta domi, he repaired to the 
metropolis, and supported himself by tearhing shorthand, of which he had 
Invented the best system then before the public. In 1723 he was elected a 
f cUow of the Royal Society, and in the following year he succeeded, by the death 
of his elder brother, to the family estate, when he returned to Bianchester, where 
heremained till his death. Byrom was a mystic, but a man of wit as well as 



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ITMl 



Annals of Manchester. 95 



▼irtue. Two posthomons editionfl of his Poems ha^e appeared, and they an 
also indodad in Chalmers's collection of the English Poets. Byrom is oompara- 
tiTely nnlmown at the present day, but his Colin a'nd Phabe was once one of 
the most popular pieces in the language, and his carol of ChrUHans^ Awake I is 
still so. His diary, written in his own shorthand, has been deciphered and 
published by the Chetham Society, and is valuable for its local information and 
for the glimpses it gives of the literary life of London and Cambridge in the 
early part of last century. 

The Rev. Charles Downes, fellow of the Collegiate Church, died October 28. 

"Last week a very carious and elegant dock, made by Bfr. Hindley, of 
York, was compleatly finished and affixed in our collegiate church. It is 
allowed, by all Judges, to be the beat constructed thing of the kind ever seen in 
this country, and gives great satisfaction to the whole parish.** (Harrop's 
Mercury^ Dec 18.) 

Mr. Thomas Perdval died at BoytonHalL He was bom at Boyton Hall, 1st 
September, 1719. He was the author of A Letter oeeaaioned by the kUe Disputes 
betuHxt the Check-Makers of Manchester and their Weavers, Halifax^ 1780; 
and was probably the author of A Letter to the Clergy of Manchester occasioned 
by Mr. OwetCs Bemarks on Deacon^ etc., 174& His genealogical and antiquarian 
papers remain in MS. * 

The Lancashire Mctgcuine was published and printed by T. Anderton, at 
the Shakspere's Head, near the Market Cross. 

Buildings were erected as a workhouse in Miller's Lane, and also a prison, 
but were eventually taken down. 

A project which was csUed the "Chorlton Bant** suggested that 
Manchester should be a borough, under a royal charter. It was proposed that 
the corpoiation should consist of one-third of High Churchmen, one-third of 
Low Churchmen, and the other third of Protestant Dissenters. But the High 
Churchmen antidpating a union of the other two-thirds, and *' not liking that 
the mace should be taken on Sunday to a conventide,** opposed the bill, and 
celebrated their success with great exultation. This victory of party spirit was 
a mtsfortune for the town, which had now outgrown its antiquated form of 
local government. 

Bleaching was generally introduced into the district about this date. 

The first spinning Jenny is said to have been constructed by Thomas Highs, 
a reed maker, at Leigh, and so named after his bdoved and favourite daughter, 
Jane. There has been much controversy as to the origin of the various cotton 
machines . (EapLtMne's Lancashire Worthies). 

In this year only eight fiata (vessels so called) were employed in the trada 
between Manchester and LlverpooL 

The trust deed for the Wesleyan Chapel in Manchester provided that 
** during their lifetime Wesley, his brother, and Grimshaw, of Haworth, and 
others should have the use of the said chapel ; and that, after their death, the 
trustees should permit such persons to preach in it as wero appointed by the 
yearly conference, provided always that such persons preach no other doctrine 
than is contained in Wesley's Notes upon the New Testament^ and his four 
volumes of sermons ; and provided also that they preach evenings in the 



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96 Anruxla of Manchester. 



[1764-1760 



week, and at five o'clock on each morning ioUowlng.'* (Tyerman's Life of 
Wealeif, toI. il., p. 47a) 

British mnalinfl, both striped and plain, were Ihrst mannfactured by Mr. 
, Shaw, at Anderton, near Chorley, though with small success, from the deficient 
supply of yam. 

The first cotton qoiltings were made by Joseph Shaw, of Bolton. 

1764. 

Mr. Daniel Bayley, of Hope Hall, died Kay 14. Hewasthe son of James 
Bayley, senior, and was bom October 13, 1699. He was a deputy-lieutenant for 
the county, a trustee of Cross Street Q^pel, and gave £100 for apprenticing 
poor Protestant dissenting children, to be held on the same trust as the money 
given by Ann Butterworth. He married for his first wife Elisabeth, daughter 
of Nathaniel Gaakell. Her sister was the mother of Robert Lord Clive, who in 
his boyhood used to live at Hops and attend the Cross Street Chapel. By his 
second wife Daniel was father of Thomas Butterworth Bayley. 

Bev. Richard Assheton, fellow of the Collegiate Church, died July 0. 

The anniversary meeting of the " ancient and respectable Corporation of 
Ardwick*' was held, when William Clowes was chosen mayor fdr the year 
ensuing, in the i^ace of Thomas Birch, late mayor ; and John Peploe Birch and 
Joshua BCarriott were elected aldermen, October 31. This was something in 
the nature of a social club or mock corporation, of which there were several in 
the county. This survived into the present century, and is perhaps not even 
yet extinct 

Mr. Joseph Harrop, proprietor of the Manehesier Mercury^ gave in weekly 
numbers A New History of England of 778 pages, to encourage the sale of his 
newspaper. In an address at the end of the work, Mr. Harrop says it cost him 
one hundred guineas. 

Calico printing introduced into Lancashire by Messrs. Clayton, of Bamber 
Bridge, near Preston. 

4 George IIL cap. 73. Act to enable the warden and fellows of the College 
of Christ, in Manchester, for the time being, to grant leases of the glebe lands 
belonging to the said college. 

The foreign cotton markets began to be opened. At this time the trade of 
• Manchester was greatly pushed by the practice of sending outriders for orden 
all over the kingdom, carrying with them patterns in bags. 

1766. 

Rev. Bei^Amin NichoUs, M.A., died at Eodes, June. He was curate of 
St. Ann's. His thanksgiving sermon on the suppression of the rebellion was 
printed in 1740, and he was i^ipointed to the vicarage of Bodes in March, 1747. 
Some others of his sermons have been printed. (Bardsley's MemoriaU and 
Harland's Ancient P^triah of EceUs, 1804.) 

The Rev. Richard Clowes, fellow of the Collegiate Church, died June 29, 
aged 29 years, having been a fellow only one month and six days. 

St. Paul's Church, Turner Street, consecrated July 28. It was known as 
SU Paul's Chapel. Considerably enlarged and again consecrated ia 1778. It 
was re-erected at New Cross in 1880. 



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1765-1767] Annals of Manchester. 97 

Rev. Caleb Warhunt dJed 5th November. He was the first miniflter of the 
Congregational Church in Cannon Street, then called Hunter's Croft. He is 
described as "a man of fervent piety, exemplary character, loving spirit, and 
incessant labour.** (Halle/s Lanccuhirey p. 519.) 

A Lunatic Hospital and Asylum was erected adjoining the Infirmary. 

A weaving factory was erected in Manchester by Mr. Gartside. ^ ^ 

6 George III. cap. 81. Act for cleansing and lighting the streets, lanes, and 
passages within the towns of Manchester and Salford, and for providing fire ' 
engines and firemen, and for preventing annoyances within the said towns. 

The Methodist Conference held in Manchester, under the presidency of the 
Eev. John Wesley. 

1766. 

The BCanchester Assembly was held on January 20th, so as not to clash 
with the ** Anniversary of the Martyrdom of Charles the First.'* The assemblies 
were, however, kept up during Lent, "except during Passion Week,** when 
they were postponed until Easter Tuesday. {PakUine Note-book, voL it, 
p. 27(1.) 

Dr. Peploe, warden of Manchester, preached a charity sermon in aid of the 
funds of the Manchester Infirmary, April 21. Sermons were preached simul- 
taneously at the other churches and chapels of the neighbourhood. This 
Hospital Sunday appears to have been confined to the Established Church. 
The collections amounted to £164 Is. l^d. 

St. Thomas's Church, Pendleton, erected at the expense of Mr. Samuel 
Brierley. It was originally occupied by the Wesleyan Methodists, but was 
consecrated July 26. The Rev. Mr. Pedley was appointed minister. 

Sir Balph Assheton, Bart., lord of the manor of Biiddleton, died. The title 
became extinct. The manor of Bfiddleton came into the possession of Lord 
Suifleld, who had married the eldest daughter and co-heir of Sir Ralph. 

The Lunatic Asylum opened for the reception of patients. 

1767. 

Mr. Edward Betts, the organist of the Collegiate Church, Manchester, died 18 
April, 1767. UewTottan Introduction to the Skill of Music, 17^ {Manchester 
FoundoHana, U., 260.) 

Mr. John Wainwright appointed organist of the Collegiate Churchy 
May 12. 

The following advertisement appeared in Hant>p*s Manchester Mercury 
of May 19 : '* Any gentleman, or lady, wanting to purchase a Black Boy, 12 
years of age, with a good character, has had the smallpox and measles. Who- 
ever this will suit, may, by applying to the Higher Swan and Saracen's Head, in 
Market Street Lane, Manchester, meet with a Proper Person to deal with them 
on reasonable terms.** {Palatine Note-book, vol. i., p. 144.) 

The Manchester Mercury, July 6, announces the death, *' on Sunday last ** 
(either July 5 or June 28), of Allen Vigor, an eminent attorney. He was made 
Master Extraordinary in Chancery in 1758. (Ma nchester Guardian Local Notes 
and Queries, 1230.) The lady who is supposed to have been his sister-in-law, 
Mrs. William Vigor, was the writer of Letters from a Lady who Resided many 



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98 Armala of Momcheder. ci7<8-i769 

iftara in Buasta^ 1775^ which are highly commended by Nichols. {Literary 
Anecdotes, toL iii., p. 200.) 

A flood occnrred October 8. 

An additional burial ground was acquired in the place called Back o* th' 
Church. It a4Joined the College garden, and was cloeed in February, 1788. 

The Manchester Agricultural Society was founded. 

The spinning Jenny improved upon by James Hargreaves, of Blackburn. 
He was the inventor of the crank and comb, an engine of singular merit for 
^ facilitating the progress of carding cotton. 

1768. 

Bfr. John Wainwright, who was appointed organist of the Collegiate Church, 
liay 12, 1767, died in January. He composed the tune to Byrom's " Christians, 
Awake r (Manchester Gtuirdian Local Notes, No. 260; City News Notes 
and Queries, L, 231.) 

The shock of an earthquake was felt at Manchester, February 2. 

Tlie first stone of St John's Church laid by Edward Byrom, April 28. This 
church, situated between Higher and Lower Byrom Street, is a modem Gothic 
structure, with a tower steeple, containing a musical peal of eight bells, and a 
clock which faces four ways. The church was founded by Bdward Byrom, and 
consecrated July 7, 1700. By the Act of Parliament for building this church, 
the presentation of the first and second incumbents was vested in the founder 
and his heirs. A petition was signed by many of the inhabitants for presenta- 
tion to the House of Lords in favour of the bill for the erection of St. John's. 
It is printed in the PaUUine Note-book, voL iv., p. 81. 

Christian VIL, King of Denmark, visited Manchester, and lodged at the 
Bull's Head, in the Market Place, September 2. 

Bfr. Thomas Butterworth Bayley, of Hope Hall, appointed high sheriiT. 

1769. 

Comet Roger Aytoun (better known as *' Spanking Roger**), of Inchdamie, 
Fifeshire, was married to Mrs. Barbara Mynshull, of Chorlton Hall, February 
2nd. He died in 1810. The lady, whose estates he thus acquired, was greatly 
his senior. 

Edward Chetham, of Turton, Clayton, and Smedley, and the last direct 
male descendant of that family, died February 10, and was buried in the 
Chetham Chapel in the Collegiate Church. 

Mrs. Elisabeth Byrom, sister to Dr. Byrom, died in her 88th year, Feb. 24. 

Mr. Richard Arkwright took out his first patent for the making of mule 
yam by means of rollers, and erected a mill at Nottingham. Srd July. 

Sir Thomas Egerton, of Heaton, married, at Middleton, to Miss Eleanora 
Assheton, one of the co-heiresses of Sir Ralph Assheton, of Middleton, Sept. 12. 

George in. cap. 00. Act to enable Edward Byrom, Esq., to complete 
a building intended for a new church (St. John's, Deansgate) in the town of 
Manchester, and for making the same a perpetual cure and benefice, and for 
other purposes. 8th November. 

Rev. John Seddon, M.A., died 22nd November. He was bom at Lomaz 
Fold, near Boltoa, and was educated at the University of Glasgow. In 1790 ha 



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1770-1771] 



Annals of Mcmcheater. 99 



became Msiatant-minister at Croes Street Chapel, and was the first to preach 
Unitarian doctrine In that place. He married a daughter of Bev. J. Motters- 
head. He is buried under the vestry. He was the author of JHseowsea <m 
iKe Person of Christ, 1793. (Baker's MemoriaU, p. 143.) 

The Bev. John Clowes was presented to the rectory of St. John's \fj 
Bdward Byrom in December. 

The painted windows of St. John's Church ware executed by William 
Feckett, of York. 

Mr. Doming Basbotham was appointed High SheriiH 

10 George III. cap. 61. Act to enable the trustees of the estates devised by 
William Hulme, Esq., to grant building leases thereof, and to increase the 
number of exhibitioners in Brasennoee College, Oxford, founded hj the said 
testator, and for other purposes therein mentioned. 

1770. 

Sarah Barlow died at the reputed age of 101 years, September 10. 

The peal of bells cast by Lester and Pack, of Whitechapel, for St. John's 
Church, Deansgate, rung for the first time 30th November. 

The health of the district was alTected by an epidemic of ulcerous sore 
throat. 

A day school was attached to St. John's Church, and, besides being 
endowed by Bir. Bdward Byrom, was aided by other gifts, as well as by the 
offertory money. 

The first volume of Whitaker's HiHory of lianehuier was published. 
The second appeared in 1776. 

A "Subscription Library for Promoting General Knowledge** was estab- 
lished. It was revived in 1802. 

The Gentlemen's Concert Club was originated at a tavern in the Market 
Place. (See under dates 1775 and 1831.) 

The manufacture of ginghams, ftc, was greatly improved by the inven* 
tions of Bir. Meadowcroft. 

177L 

Sir Ashton Lever, of Alkrington, appointed high sherlft February. 

The Bev. Badclyffe Bussell, rector of Easingwold, in Yorkshire, died, at his 
house in Manchester, March 21. 

Prescoff a lianehetter Journal^ Na 1, was issued. It was printed and 
published every Saturday by John Preecott, in Old Mlllgate ; price M. Mar.23. 

Bev. Joeeph Mottershead died Nov. 4. He was bom near Stockport, Aug. 
17, 1088, and was ordained as a Nonconformist minister at the age of twenty. 
After preaching at Kingsley and Nantwieh— where Matthew Henry died at his 
house— he succeeded Mr. Birch at Gross Street. He was buried at the chapel 
near Mr. Newcome*s grave. There In a portrait of him in Sir Thomas Baker's 
ifemorials, p. 27. He is the author of BeUgUmg BdueaHon Ugw% and carried 
on tnTAreeCcU<dkimis,1748k and other works. (iWd., 14&) 

In December a notice was issued : ** With the approbation and eoncurrenee 
of the magistrates, we, the boroughreeves and constables, request the shop- 
keepers and innholders of this town, who have not already taken down their 



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100 Annals of Manchester. 



117T2 



signs, to do the same as soon as possible, and place them against the walls of 
their houses, as they have been long and justly complained of as nuisances. 
They obstruct the free passage of the air, annoy the passengers in wet weather^ 
darken the streets, etc., all which inconvenience will be prevented by a com* 
plianoe with our request, and be manifestly productive both of elegance and 
utility. Thomas Scott, Benjamin Bower, John Bell.** The natural result ol 
this request was the entire removal, in most cases, of the obnoxious sign* 
boards, and the adoption of numbered houses. Manchester was the first in 
the country, after London, to fall upon this device. (Bardsley's MetnoricUSt 
p. 402.) 
^ Mr. Richard Arkwiight erected a mill at Cromford, Derbyshire. 

1772. 

Daniel Newton, a native of Oldham, who was apprenticed to a grocer in 
Manchester, made a vow to eat only bread and water from March to October. 
A clergyman having vainly tried to persuade him from this course of action, 
his master, in September, sent the boy to the Lunatic Asylum, then forming 
part of the Infirmary. From thence the clergyman obtained his release, and 
on being taken home he fell into a sleep which lasted for six weeks. In this 
trance he had visions of another world. Such is the narrative given in 
Walker^s Extraordinary Warnings from the Invisible World, which is 
quoted in the Manchester Guardian Local Notes and Queries No. 1237. 

John Wesley visited Manchester April 5. He " drank tea at Am. O.** (pro- 
bably Adam Oldham's), and remarks : ** But how was I shocked 1 The children 
that used to cling about me, and drink in every word, had been at a boarding 
school. There they had unlearned all religion, and even seriousness, and had 
learned pride, vanity, affectation, and whatever could guard them against the 
knowledge and love of God. Methodist parents who would send your girls 
headlong to hell, send them to a fashionable boarding schooL** (Tyerman's 
Life of Wesley^ voL liL, p. 120.) 

Mr. James Brindley died at his house, Tumhurst, near Golden Hill, StafTord- 
shire, in his fifty-sixth year, September 27. The life of this famous engineer 
has been graphically told by Dr. Samuel Smiles in his Livts of the Engineers. 
To his skill and genius was due the successful construction of the Bridge- 
water Canal, which had so important an influence upon the fortunes of 
Lancashire. 

Passage boats were established by the Duke of Bridgewater. They carried 
passengers upon his canal from Bianchester to within two miles of Warrington. 
October 1. 

Mr. Robert Whitworth died Oct 27. He was for many years a well-known 
printer, and was the publisher and proprietor of the Manchester Magazine. 

Mr. Jeremiah Clarke, the inventor of cotton velvet, died at Bolton, 
December 9. 

Mr. John Lees, a Quaker, of Manchester, invented the feeder in the 
manufacture of cotton. 

Mr. John Kay, of Bury, received a present of 200 guineas from the Man- 
chester manufacturers for his invention of a double Jenny, which was exhibited 
in the Exchange. 



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2778) 



Annals of Manchester. 



101 



Mrs. Elizabeth BaflUd, author of The Experienced English Housekeeper^ 
published the first Manchester and Salford Directory, (See under date 1781.) 

A police office was first established at Manchester on the recommendation of 
Sir John Fielding. It was opened at the offices of Messrs. Chippendall and 
MUne, in Bow Street, 

1773. 

The Duke of Brldgewater*s Canal locks at Runcorn opened. The rise from 
the river Mersey was 90 feet. January 10. 

A comedy was performed, entitled The Generous Rival ; or. Beauty in 
Distress, written by a gentleman of Manchester. It was founded upon a story 
which was related at the Debating Society's room, at the Angel Inn, Market 
Place. March 1. 

Philip Astley, the equestrian, paid his first professional visit to Man- 
chester, of which town he claimed to be a native, March 2. Astley is generally 
regarded as a native of Newcastle, but he had relations in BCanchester. 

Helen Hblker abjured the Protestant faith at the Maison des Nouvelles 
Calholiques, Rouen, April 13. She was then 14, and mas the daughter of 
Laurence Holker, of Manchester. {Palati/ie SoU book, vol. Iv., p. 135.) See 
under date 1780 for notice of the Lancashire Holkers wttled in France. 

Mr. Edward Byrom, the founder of St. Johc*s Church, died April 19, aged 49 
years. Mr. Byrom was a zealous Churchman, and much attached to ^11 Its 
ceremonies. He gave a silver mace to be carried before the officiating clergy- 
man, from the vestry to the reading desk, and from the preacher's pew to the 
pulpit. He was the son of John Byrom, F.R.S. 

An enumeration of the houses and Inhabitants of the town and parish of 
Manchester was made from an actual survey, and deposited by Rev. John 
Whitaker, April 27, in the College Library. The total of the enumeration was 
as follows :^ 



Houaaa. I Families. 



Mancheater. 

balfoffd 

Out Towpwhlpa.. 



3,402 
2,871 



6.317 
l.(h>9 
2.52A 



10.548 
2,24M 
6,042 



FeniAlea. I MairlML 



WlT«t. 



11,9X3 . 
2.117 I 
tSS44 I 



7,724 
1.775 



432 

9» 



Widow*. 



1,064 
14^ 



The Russian Princess Csartoriski, Duchess of Oldenburgh, visited Man- 
chester, May 2L 

A stage coach now ran from the Spread Eagle, Salford, to Liverpool, on 
Monday, Wednesday, and Friday, and returned on Tuesday, Thursday, and 
Saturday. May 24. 

Na 1 of a History of Manchester was published. It was announced to be 
completed In twenty-two numbers, 8vo, at 6d. each, and with a supplement. In 
thirty-six numbers, 4to, at 6d. each, and to be sold by Harrop, Newton, and 
Clarke. June. 

Mr. Samuel Clowes, of Broughton Hall, died at Smedley, July 31. 

Francis Reynolds, of Strange ways Hall, M.P. for Lancaster, Clerk of the 
Crown, and Provost Marshal of Barbadoes, died August 8. He was the father 
of the first Lord Dude. 



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102 AnTuda of Manchester, 



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The Bev. John Clayton, fellow of the Collegiate Church, and known as the 
" Jacobite Chorchman," died on the 25th of September. He was the son of 
William Clayton, a bookseller in Manchester, was bom in 1709, and educated 
at the Grammar School and at Brasennose College, Oxford. In 1732 he was 
introduced to Wesley, and became a prominent member of the Oxford 
ACethodists. In 1733 he left Oxford and came to Manchester. In 1740 he was 
appointed one of the chaplains, and in 1700 elected a fellow of the Collegiate 
Chorch. He distinguished himself as the master of a private academy io 
Salford, and his pupils erected in the Cathedral a monument to his memory. 
He was the author of Friendiy Advice to the Poor, published in 1755. 

Bfr. George Williamson, who had been a chorister and singing man for 70 
years at the Collegiate Church, died, aged 84. September. 

Mrs. Bent's Charity was founded December 31. It consists of the interest 
of £50 to be given to poor housekeepers. 

A crank and comb to take wool from the cards in a contiouous fleece was 
invented about this time by either James Hargreaves or Hichard Arkwrlght. 

A considerable amount of annoyance and dllBculty felt in relation to the 
currency of bank notes for small amounts. 

The "Diligence" coach left Manchester for Liverpool at six a.m., and the 
passengers breakfasted at Irlam, dined at Warrington, drank tea at Prescot, 
and reached Liverpool at nightfalL 

Mr. Otho Cooke, one of the feoflbes of Chetham's Hospital, and many years 
treasurer of the Infirmary, died. 

1774. 

A cattle market was established in Salford, and held at the same place as 
the fair. February 28. 

'* On Friday last Bebecea Mee, of BCanchester, single woman, was convicted 
before Thomas Butterworth Bayley, Esq., of embessling and purloining three 
pounds weight of combed wool, the property of Mr. Ottwell Kershaw, and was 
committed to the house of correction, to be kept to hard labour for fourteen 
days, and to be once publicly whipped at the Market Place in BCanchester.** 
(Hamp*s Mereufy, September 0, 1774.) 

Pleasure boats began to ply on the Duke of Bridgewater*s Canal, OctoberQ. 

Sir Jonathan Briggs was buried on the north side of the Collegiate Church, 
December 3. He was the last member of a Middlesex family, and claimed the 
title of baronet. During his residence in Manchester he was an offioer of 

St Chad's Homan Catholic Chapel, Book Street» built. The adherents of 
the Church of Bome had long been obliged to worship in secret, and a dyehouso 
in Blackfriars was used by a priest, who came onoe a month from Maoclesfleld* 
Father Helme then obtained premiies in Boman Entry Church, and these were 
succeeded by the Book Street ChapeL It was disused in 1817. 

Codrus^ a tragedy, by Doming Bamsbottom, J.P., was performed once at 
the Theatre Boyal, and afterwards printed. 

The House of Correction, Hunt's Bank, was rebuilt When John Howard 
visited Manchester he found twenty-one prisoners confined in it 



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Annals of Manchester. 103 



An Act of Pftrllament, by which a daty was Imposed on printed, painted^ 
and stained cottons, declares the manufacture of cotton goods to be lawful. 

1776. 

Bir. Abraham Clarke, bookseller, died ICay 20. 

The Theatre Royal, in Spring Gardens, was built and opened June 6. 

The first stone was laid of the Gentlemen's Concert Room in Fountain 
Street, by Edward Greaves, Esq., of Culcheth^ August 24. 

16 George IIL cap 6S. Act to enable the trustees of certain charity lands 
belonging to the poor of Salford to grant building leases thereof. 0th October. 

Bir. Richard Arkwright took out another patent for carding, drawing, and / 
roTing frames. 

The ducking-stool was still in use. It was an open-bottomed chair of wood, 
placed upon a long pole, balanced on a pivot, and suspended over a sheet of 
water at Pool Fold. It was afterwards suspended over the Ilanb-holes->the 
Infirmary pond— and was used for the purpose of punishing scolds and dis- 
orderly women. 

In the course of a debate in the House of Lords, the Bishop of London 
opposed the passing of the bill for a theatre, on the grounds that Manchester 
was a manufacturing town, and nothing could be more destructive to the wel- 
fare of the place than the introduction of such an institution. On the other 
hand, the Earl of Cariisle supported the project for a theatre, because the town 
had become the seat of Methodism. He said : ** I know not of any way so 
effectual to eradicate that dark, odious, and ridiculous enthusiasm as by giving 
to the people cheerful, rational amusements, which may operate against their 
methodlstical melancholy.** The bill passed. "An Act for enabling His 
MisjMty to license a playhouse in the town of Manchester, in the County 
Palatine of Lancaster** Is reprinted in Earwaker*s Local OUanings^ vol. Hi., 
p. 311. 

A public subscription for the improvement of the town by the widening of 
St, Mary*s Gate, the passage between the Exchange and St. Ann's Square, and 
the making of a street on the easterly side of Old Millgate, realised £10,771 
as.6d. (Earwaker^s Xocai Gleaningv, Na 274.) 

An act (10 George IIL cap. 03) was obtained for widening several streeta 
near the centre of the town and fOr opening new streets. 

Several curious gold and silver coins were dng up in Castle Field. 

1776. 

Mr. Sylvanus Hibbert died in January. He was the author of A Brief 
Inquiry into the State After Death (Manchester, 1771). A portrait, which 
looks like a caricature. Is prefixed. The author was an advocate of cremation, 
and ends his pamphlet— 

Bury mtt not, for htavm't mkm I 

In bopM tbmt I nmy riM : 

If tbftt tlM object of my wlah, 

Why not now moiiBt Cho sklMt 

Partieulan of this able but eccentric man are given in Hibbert-Ware*s Lifg of 
SaimMA HibbeH-Wart. 



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104 AiMials of Manchester, 



a777 



St Thomas's Chapel, Pendleton, erected at the expense of Samuel Brierley 
It had been originally occupied by the Wesleyan Methodists, but was conse- 
crated July 0. It was rebuilt in 1831. 

Dr. Thomas White died July 20th, aged 81 years. A monument to him was 
erected at Sale by his son. Dr. Charles White, In 1790. (PdUOine Note-book, 
vol. L, p. lia) 

James Heywood died in London 23rd July. He was bom at Cheetham 
Hill in 1680, and was a linen draper in London. He was author of Poems and 
Letters on VarUma Subjects, 1726. This volume includes a list of the ladies 
who were most celebrated for their beauty in Manchester. (Drake's Essays on 
tKeTatler, m.,dai.) (See under date 1700.) 

The " Old Bridge '* was made wider by taking down " The Dungeon ** and 
extending the piers and arches. Until that period it was highly dangerous for 
foot passengers to meet a carriage ; and it was often a work of labour, for 
persons not very active, to get over the bridge on a market-day, as they were 
often obliged to take refuge from vehicles in the angular recesses on both sides 
of the bridge. (See also under date 1778.) 

The conduit which was on the western side of the Old Exchange, ceased to 
flow, in consequence of the destraction of the spring (at the upper end of King 
Street), from which it had been supplied. 

The evacuation of New York by the American "Bebels,** as the colonial 
patriots were still called, was celebrated in Manchester by the ringing of bells, 
public processions, fte. 

1777. 

John Phillip Kemble, the actor, made his first appearance at the Theatre 
Royal, January 29th. 

John Bradshaw, for many years an active magistrate in the town, died 
March 4. 

Lady Lever, widow of Sir Darcy Lever, and mother of Sir Ashton Lever, 
died at Culshaw, in her 74th year, August 31. 

The shock of an earthquake was felt at Manchester, Middleton, Macdes* 
fleld, Preston, Wigan, Ashton, Stockport, and other places. The bells of the 
old church and of St. Mary's were set ringing by the force of the shock. Sept. 
14. Bishop Porteous wrote A Letter to the Inhabitants of Manchester, 
MeuxUsfleld, and adja4sent parts on occasion of the laie Earthquake, Chester, 
1777. Another pamphlet appeared, entitled Observations and Reflections on 
the late Earthquake. By a gentleman of this town. Manchester, 1777. (Axon's 
Cheshire Oleanings.) 

A three days' musical festival, held in September, is believed to be the 
earliest of its kind in England. 

Green dye, for cotton, was invented by Mr. R. Williams. 

A grand stand was erected on Kersal Moor. 

A cupola on the tower of St. Ann's Church was taken down and replaced 
by a spire. It was soon after removed. 

Considerable street improvements were effected. Exchange Street was 
formed, by pulling down a pile of old buildings, called the ** Dark Entry,** 
forming a narrow footway which led from Market Place to St. Ann's Square. 



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Annals of Manchester. 105 



The streets, which were improved by the acts of 1776 and 1777, had long been 
felt to be a disgrace to the town. 

The B£anchester people distingoished themselves by their loyal seal In 
a foolish and anavaUing attempt to coerce the American colonies. There was 
a subscription which amounted to £8,075, for the purpose of raising the cele- 
brated " Seventy-Second Regiment,** to serve in America during the war. They 
were sent to Gibraltar inst4Mid, where they fought with great bravery 
during the siege of that place. The regiment consisted of 1,082 men. The 
people of Manchester were much elated at this display of military ardour. In 
an ode, written on this occasion by the Rev. John Whitaker, they are thus 

eulogised:— 

But Britain in this race of fame, 
Whioh of thy daughtor-towns may daim. 
The greatest ahare of glory for the whole t 
Tie Haneheeter that claima the share. 
Tie Maneheiter re-urged the war, 
TIs Xancheater re-awaked the Britlah aouL 

On the return of the regiment in 1783 they were received with enthusiasm, 
and their colours were deposited with much ceremony in the Collegiate Church, 
from whence they were removed to Chetham College. 

The Manchester Free Grammar School, Long Millgate, was rebuilt. 

Samuel Clowes, of Bronghton, was appointed high sheriiT. 

1778. 

Samuel Ogden, D.D., Woodwardian professor in the university of Gam- 
bridge, and vicar of Davenham, in Wiltshire, died March 23, in the 02nd year 
of his age, and was interred in St. Sepulchre*s Church, Cambridge. He was 
bom at Manchester in 1710, and educated at the Free Grammar School, from 
whence he proceeded, in 1733, to Cambridge. In 1744 he became master of the 
Free Grammar School at Halifax, but resigned in 1753 in order to reside at 
Cambridge. In private life Dr. Ogden was greatly beloved, but in his appear- 
ance and outward demeanour there is said to have been something uncouth. 
He was a man of extensive erudition. On the accession of George HI. he 
produced congratulatory poems in Latin, English, and Arabic. This gave rise 
to the following epigram :— 

When Ogden hia proaale vena 
In Latin numben dreat, 

The Roman language proT'd too weak 
To atand the critlc'a teat. 

The English rhyme he next essayed. 

To show he'd some pretence ; 
But, ah I rhyme only would not do— 

Thay attU expected aensei 

Enraged, the Doctor swore he'd place 

On critics no relianoe ; 
Bo wrapt Ms thooghU in Arable, 
laUc 



James Hargreaves, the inventor of the spinning-Jenny, died at Hockleyt 
Nottingham, in ApriL He was originally a weaver, of Stand Hill, near Black* 
bom, and in 1767 invented the spinning-Jenny. In 1788 he went to Nottlnghanit 



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106 Annala of Manclieeter. um-mo 

and in 1770 patented the Jenny. He entered into partnenhip with Mr. 
Thomas James, and they erected a small mill at Hockley, where he died in 
moderate circumstances. 

Ifrs. EUxaheth Byrom, relict of Dr. John Byrom, died at Kersal Cell, 
Deeemhar21. 

Samuel Bayley, of Booth Hall, died March 5, 1778. He was the son of 
**old " James Bayley, and was horn December 31, 1717. 

The old chapel, Salford Bridge, built by Thomas del Booth, and afterwards 
eonverted into a dungeon, was taken down for the purpose of widening the 
bridge. 

1779. 

Mr. Roger Sedgwick, banker, died January 17. 

Mr. Philip Brown, M.D., died at his house in Marsden Square, June 17. 

Mr. Humphrey TralTord, of TralTord, died at York, July 1, and the estates 
passed to the Traffords of Croston. 

The Bev. Sir John Mosley, third baronet, lord of the manor, died 23rd 
September, and with him the baronetcy became extinct. He was a man of 
▼ery eccentric habits, and owing to an early disappointment in love had so great 
an aversion to womankind that his orders to his housekeeper were given 
through a grated partition. (Mosley*s Family Memoira; Axon's Lancashire 
OUaningB,) He was succeeded by John Parker Mosley. (See under date 1788.) 

Serious riots occurred in Manchester, and throughout Lancashire, on the 
^ Introduction of machinery for spinning, October 0. The riots were continued 
during the following year. 

Mr. Samuel Crompton, of Hall -i'th*- Wood, near Bolton, Invented a com* 
ybination of the Jenny and the water-frame, called a mule, for spinning, which 
he gave to the public 

Rev. Bobert Gore died at the age of 31. He was a native of Liverpool, and 
In 1770 became minister of Cross Street Chapel. He was buried in the vestibule 
of the chapel. (Baker's MtmorialB^ p. 47.) 

There was only one stage coach each week from Bfanchester to London, 
and one to Liverpool twice a week. 

Th€ Manchester and Liverpool Museum; or^ The Beauties of all the 
Magasinu Selected^ is the title of a periodical printed by and for T. JefTerson, 
Manchester, and Issned monthly. 

The publication of a satirical work, entitled Characttristie Strictures ; 
OTt Upwards of One Hundred of the Principal Portraits in Manchester, dtc, 
gave offence to many who were lampooned. The book was anonymous, but 
the author was the Rev. Thomas Seddon. (See under date 1798.) 

Sir Thomas Egerton, of Heaton Park, raised, at his own expense, a regiment 
of 400 men, who were called the Royal Lancashire Volunteers. 

1780. 
The following notice was issued 4th July : " The ladles* stand on Kersul Moor 
will be opened on'Wednesday next for the accommodation of ladies and gentle- 
men of the town and neighbourhood of Manchester, where colfee, tea, choco- 
late, strawberries, cream, ftc, will be provided every Wednesday and Friday 



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AnTuda of Manchester. 107 



during the strawbeiry season. By the public's most obliged and hnmble 
aerrant, Elqabsth Ratfald.** (Palatine Note-book^ toL i., p. 143.) 

A riot arose in Jnly owing to the indignation of the people on account of 
some military flogglnga. (See under date 1781.) 

An old man, who died this year, remembered the site of St. Ann's Church 
and Square a cornfield. The old name of the locality was Acres Field. 

The old Chorlton Chapel, taken down in the preceding year, replaced by a 
brick structure, and dedicated to St. Clement. 

Cotton was picked, batted, sinbbed, and wound on one spindle up to this 
period. 

The average import of cotton wool per year at this period was 0,708,G131b.^ 
and the official value of British cotton goods of all kinds exported in this year 
was £366,060. 

The manufacture of muslins was introduced* 

1781. 

Hr. Henry Whittaker, schoolmaster, of Salford, died ICareh 1. 

The Wesleyan Chapel in Oldham Street opened, March 30, by Rev. John 
Wesley, who records in his diary that " the whole congregation behaved with 
the utmost seriousness." 

Birs. RafZUd died of spasms, after an hour^s illness, 19th ApriL Eliaabeth 
Whittaker was bom at Doncaster, and in 1748 entered service as housekeeper, 
and when with Lady Elisabeth Warburton, of Arley Hall, in that capacity, 
met the head gardener, Bir. John RafZUd, to whom she was married at Great 
Budworth, 3rd March, 1703. In eighteen years she had sixteen daughters. 
They came to Manchester, and finally settled at the King's Head, Salford. In 
1700 appeared TKe Experienced Engli$h HouMkeeper, which went through 
many editions. Baldwin, the London publisher. Is said to have paid her £1,400 
f6r the copyright in 1773. In 1772 she issued the first Manchester Directory^ 
and it was n4ssued in 1773, and again in 1781— the year of her death. A work 
on midwifery is said to have been completed in MS., and it is said that her hus- 
band, who did not sharo the business ability of liis wife, sold it in London, but 
whether it was published is not known. At one time she gave lessons to 
young ladies in cookery and other branches of domestic economy. She is also 
said to have helped in the continuance of Harrop*s newspaper and in the com- 
mencement of Prescott's, and that but for her aid Manchester would have been 
left without a newspaper. An account of her busy life is given in Harland*s 
CoUeetanea^ voL i., p. 119 ; vol. it, p. 144 ; PcUaHne Note-book, vol. L, p. 141. 

The first number of the Mancfiester ChronicU was printed and published 
by Charles Wheeler, in Hunter's Lane, Cannon Street, June 23. The paper waa 
conducted by Charles Wheeler and by his son John. It was discontinued June 
23, 1838, but was revived by Josiah Leicester, under the heading of the Man* 
eheeier Chronicle and Salford Standard, January 6, 1839, 4, SUAnn Street. 
It finally ceased December 31. 1812. 

A new market opened 28th July in Pool Fold. It wan discontinued In 1803. 
Under date of 1782 will be found an account of the trial action brought agaimit 
the promoters of this scheme. 



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108 Annals of Manchester. dTSS 

Samuel Feploe, Junior, LL.D., Warden of the Collegiate Church, died 
October 22, aged 82 years, and was buried at Chester. He was much respected 
by the clergy both at Manchester and at Chester, as he resided at both places, 
and was remarkable for his attendance on public worship. He was succeeded 
by the Bev. Richard Assheton, D.D. 

Mr. Robert Thyer died at Manchester 27th October. This learned man was 
bom at Manchester, February, 1708-9, and was Librarian of Chetham*s College. 
Ue is often mentioned in Byrom's Jaumalf and was the editor of Samuel 
Butler*s Bcmaina. {Orammar School Regiater^ 1., d9.) 

There were 2,519 houses in Manchester assessed to the house tax. 

The Manchester and Blackpool diligence set out from the Royal Oak, in the 
Market Place, every morning at six o'clock ; arrived at the Red Lion Inn, in 
Preston, at noon ; met the Lancaster, Penrith, and Carlisle diligence, and went 
to Forshaw*s at Blackpool. Fare to Blackpool, 15s. " The Journey performed 
by Pickford and Ca, D.v.'* 

The foundation of the BCanchester Literary and Philosophical Society 
belongs to this year. It arose'from conversational meetings held at a tavern by 
a number of gentlemen interested in literature and science. The history of the 
society and its labours has been told by Dr. Angus Smith in A Centenary of 
Science in Maneheeter, (London, 1883.) 

Public BaUis were erected near the Infirmary. 

Home patients were admitted to the benefit of the Infirmary. 

James Artingstall, who had been condemned to be hanged at Lancaster for 
his share in the riot at Manchester in July, 1780, received a pardon. 

Mr. Richard Arkwright brought nine actions, in this year, against certain 
manufacturers for the infringement of his patent for the carding, drawing, 
and roving machines. An association of Lancashire spinners was formed to 
defend the actions. 

** Mr. Fildes, in the same year in which Raikes began his work at Glouoester, 
opened a Sunday School in a Manchester cellar, a second in a garret, and a 
third in the first room in Manchester buUt expressly for Sunday School pnr- 
poees, a room erected at Mr. Fildes' own expense, behind his own dwelling- 
house, in the neighbourhood of London Road." (Tyerman's Life of Wedey, voL 
iU.p.350.) 

1782. 

A panic was created in Manchester by the circumstance of 7,012 bags of 
cotton having been imported between the months of December and ApriL 

Sir John Parker Mosley, lord of the manor, brought an action in the Court 
of King's Bench against Bir. T. Chadwick and Bfr. Holland for setting up 144 
meat stalls in Pool Fold, in July, 1781, in violation of his prescriptive rights : 
decided in his favour June 19, after being twice argued at Westminster, upon* 
special verdict found for the plaintiff at Lancaster Assises. Modeif v. 
Chadiffiek^ 3 Douglas's Reports, 117 : 7 Bam. and Cress. 47 (note). 

Bir. Richard Wainwright, Mus. Doc, died, 15th July. 

The inhabitants of Manchester raised a corps of 150 volunteers to serve 
during the war in America. Thomas B. Bayley was the Ueatenant-Colooel 



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1783] Armals of Manchester. 109 



Commandant; George Lloyd wm the Major, and hia wile preaented the 
regiment with oolonrs, worked by the ladlea of Mancheater. The oifioers' 
oommiaaiona, dated September 24, were preaented to them in St. Ann'a Square. 
November 18. 

An Act paaaed for building the New Bailey Prison. (See under datea nd?, 
mo, and 1872.) 

The Mancheater Printing Society, for the publication of the writinga and 
doctrine of Swedenborg, waa instituted. 

Mr. Oswald Moaley, the heir of Sir J. P. Mosley, came of age. The erent 
waa celebrated by a ball given to four hundred of the nobility, gentry, and prin- 
dpal inhAbitanU of the diatrict. 

Lord North viaited Mancheater, and dined with the gentlemen of the town 
at the Bull's Head. 

Particulars of the '* Volunteers of the Manchester MiliUry Aasociation ** 
are given in Earwaker^a Local OUaningat Nos. 150, 165, 187. 

An act (22 (3eo. UL cap. 00), was passed to prevent the seducing of artiflcera 
or workmen employed in printing calicoes, cottons, muslins, and linena, or in 
making or preparing blocks, plates, or other implementa used in that manu- 
factory, to go to parte beyond the seaa; and to prohibit the exporting to foreign 
parte of any auch blocks, platea, or other implementa. This act imposed a pen- 
alty of £100, or twelve months* imprisonment, for enticing any workman 
engaged in calico printing to go beyond the aeas. 

1783. 

Mr. Edward Oreavea, one of the feolfeea of Chatham's Hospital, died at 
Cnlcheth, aged 75. January 28. 

Bev. Joseph Hoole died 4th Feb. He was a son of Bev. Joseph Hoole, rector 
of St. Ann'a, and waa educated at the Grammar School, and at Oxford, where 
he waa Vice-Preaident of Magdaiene College. 

Mra. Boger Aytoun« of Chorlton Hall, died February 20. She was the 
widow of a rich apothecary, Thomaa BiinahuU, and married ** Spanking Boger^ 
Aytoun, of Inchdamie, a man very much younger than herself. 

A fatal duel waa fought with swords between Captain Mouncey of the 79th 
Begiment, and Comet Hamilton, in Spencer's Tavern, in the Market Place, 
March 21. The former waa killed. The quarrel originated in a dispute aa to 
the reapective qualitiea of two doga. Mr. Hamilton waa acquitted by a 
eoroner^a Jury, and Bir. Mouncey had a public funeral at St John's Church. 

The foundation atone of the New Bailey Bridge waa laid May 0; the 
bridge waa opened for paaaengera and carriages in 1785 ; the toll taken off, 
January 81, 1803. It waa owned by subscribers, who, during eighteen years, 
reeeived toll, which repaid them for the capital invested and seven and a half 
per eent. The toll for the last year waa let for UhlSO, 

Bev. John Wealey vlaited Manchester, May 17. Here he had an enormous 
sacramental service, at which thirteen or fourteen hundred communicanta were 
present. " Such a eight,** says he, "aa, I believe, was never seen in Manchester 
before.** ** I believe,** he adds, "there is no place but London where we have so 
many aonls ao deeply devoted to Crod." 

The Description of Manchester^ by a native of the town, price one shilling, 
I printed by Charlea Wheeler, June 21. 



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1 10 Annals of Manchester. 



(17M 



Bir. Thomaa Tipping, of Ardwick, died July 12. 

The Manchester Regiment (the 72nd) returned from Gibraltar, and were 
presented with five shillings each, together with their pay and arrears, »)th 
August, and were disbanded 9th September. 

Birs. Phoebe Byrom, sister to the late Mr. John Byrom, died September 2S, 
aged 85 years. 

An air ballocm ascended from the Infirmary gardens, and alighted at 
CrozElord, Derbyshire. One shilling was the charge for admittance to witness 
the ascent, and the proceeds were devoted to the benefit of the Infirmary. 

Bir. Titus Hibbert, writing to a Prussian correspondent as to the trade of 
the town, says: '*The greatest quantity of foreign yam is imported from 
Hamburg and Bremen, Dantsig and Konisberg, and the greatest part of it, by 
far, is manufactured at Bfanchester, and by the manufacturers who live in the 
country and lesser towns, near enough to come weekly to Manchester, which 
they do, to buy yam and cotton and sell goods ; the rest at Blackburn, Preston, 
Wigan, Walton, Nottingham, etc** (Birs. Hibbert Ware's Lift of Samuel 
BibbeH Ware) 

The river Tib was covered over with a culvert. 

1784. 

Father Thomas Falkner, &J.; died at Plowden Hall, Salop. January 90, 
aged 77. He was bom in Bianchester, where his father was a surgeon. He 
was educated at the Grammar School, and practised as a surgeon in Manches- 
ter. About 1731 he was sent out as surgeon *on a slave-ship to Africa, and 
from thence to Buenos Ayres. Here he was converted to Roman Catholicism 
and entered the Society of Jesus as a noviciate, Biay 5, 1732, and after his 
ordination entered on his missionary labours. In 1788 he was expelled, along 
with the other Jesuits, from South America. He afterwards removed to 
Plowden Hall, Shropshire. He was the author of A Description of Pata- 
goniOj editions of which appeared in German in 1775, in French in 1787, and in 
Spanish in 183S. (Gillow's Bibliographical Dictionary of English Catholies,) 

Samuel Kay, BLD., died 23rd February, aged 1%. He was the first physician 
of the Bianchester Infirmary, and was notable for his benevolence. (Baker's 
Memorials, p. 60.) 

Rev. John Wesley again visited Bianchester, in March. 

Bir. Ralph Biarkland, lieutenant in the 23rd Regiment, died at Chorlton 
Ua)U August 3L 

Bir. Joseph Younger, one of the patentees of the Bianchester theatre, died 
near Liverpool, September 4. 

Ann Lee died at Watervliet, New York, 8th September, aged 48 years and six 
months. She was bom at Toad Lane, Manchester, 20th Febmary, 1736, and was 
daughter of John Lee, a blacksmith. She married in 1702, Abraham Stanley, 
or Standerin, and had several children who died young. She Joined a small 
religious sect, a remnant of the French prophets (see under date 1712), and 
became a leader. She was accepted as "Ann the Word," and with some 
followers emigrated to America, where she was the foundress of the Shakers, 
who adopted a communistic life and the rule of celibacy. Her followers are 
remarkable for their honesty and industry. There is an extensive literature 



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1786] 



Annals of Manchester. Ill 



relating to the Shaken, whose official name is the " United Society of Believers 
In Christ's Second Appearing.** (Axon's Laneaahire OleaningB.) 

The boronghreeve and constables issued an address, August 10th, recom- 
mending the establishment of Sunday schools. A meeting was held 28th 
September, at the Bull's Head, and a committee was formed with Sir John 
Parlcer Mosley as president. Churchmen, Dissenters, and Roman Catholics 
served on this committee, and it was not until 1800 that sectarian disputes 
caused a rupture. This plan of joint management was copied in many other 
parts of the kingdom. Rooms were hired in dwelling-houses and the teachers 
were paid. The first building exclusively appropriated to the purpose of a 
Sunday school Is said to be the cottages in Gun Street, Ancoats, which were 
the gift of Simeon Newton. 

Admiral Lord Hood and his family visited Manchester. 

Fustian tax of one penny per yard imposed upon all Ueached cotton 
manufactures, if under the value of three shillings per yard, and twopence if 
exceeding that value. This tax was in addition to the already existing duty of 
threepence per yard. Deputations were sent from various towns, and the 
manufacturers were heard by counsel at the bar of the House; and in the 
following year Ifr. Pitt brought in a bill which repealed the new duties of 1784 
on linen and cotton manufactures. 

1786. 

Rules were drawn up for the government of Sunday schools in Manchester, 
at a n)eeting in the Manchester Hotel, at which Sir John Mosley presided. 
Januarys. 

The magistrates authorised the constables to prevent cock-fighting and the 
throwing of cocks during Shrove Tide. February 16. 

Bir. Stanley, M.P. for the county, presented a petition to the House of 
Commons from the manufacturers and inhabitants of Manchester against the 
commercial regulations between Great Britain and Ireland. March 11. 

The thermometer was from 1 to 18} degrees below the freezing point from 
October 18, 1781, to March 16, except 26 days. 

Power-loom weaving was invented by the Rev. Dr. Edmund Cartwright, of 
Hollander House, Kent, by whom a patent was taken out on the 4th of April. 
In 1787 he patented an improved invention, and in 1800 he received a Parlia- 
mentary grant of £10,00a He was brother to the celebrated Misjor Cartwright, 
and died at Hastings on the 26th of October, 1832. 

Mr. Garrow, as counsel for the fustian manufacturers, was called to the bar 
of the House of Commons, when he spoke for two hours. April 8. 

Many thousands of weavers from Oldham and its vicinity, who had been ^ 
thrown out of employ owing to the tax on manufactures, visited Manchester. 
April 12. 

Mr. Thomas Walker and Mr. Thomas Richardson, the delegates, arrived 
express with the intelligence that the repeal of the tax upon fustians had been 
moved by Mr. Pitt, seconded by Mr. Fox, and carried without a division. The 
delegates alighted at the Bull's Head, in the Market Place, which was filled 
with people. After a short speech by Mr. Walker they were placed upon two 
chairs and carried through the streets. April 21. 



\ 



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112 Annals of Manche^r. 



[1786 



The gentlemen and ladles appeared with faTonn in token of the repeal of 
the f oBtian tax, April 22. 

Mr. Sadler ascended in his balloon , 12th May, from a garden behind the 
Manchester Arms Inn, Long Millgate. It was then a private house. 

The Fnstian Tax Repeal Act received the royal assent, May 13. 

The fnstian tax repealed through the endeavours of Mr. Thomas Walker 
and Mr. Thomas Richardson, who were presented with a silver cup each. The 
victory was celebrated by public processions. May 17. 

Mr. Sadler made his second baUgpn ascent, but on alighting was obliged to 
let it drive with the wind. May 19. 

Jane Diggle, of Kersal Moor, died June 12. She had her oolfin and suit 
made tliirty years before she died. 

A dinner was given to Thomas Stanley, M.P., at the Manchester Hotel, 
August 27. This was to celebrate his share in the repeal of the Fustian Act. 

A musical festival was held in the Concert Hall, Fountain Street, Sept. 1. 

Thomas Reynolds, second Baron Dude, of Tortworth, died at Woodchester 
Park, September 11. 

Lord Robert Spencer, Sir Frank Standish, Charles James Fox, and Mr. 
Grenvilie visited Manchester, and dined with the local adherents of the Liberal 
party. September 16. 

The Rev. John Bennett preached a sermon in aid of Sunday schools, 2nd 
October. The following is a copy of the title-page :— 

The Advantages of Sunday Schods : A discourse preached for the htntfit 
of thai usefvl and excellent charity, St, Mary's Church, in Manchester^ on 
Sunday, the 2nd of October, 1785 ; to which is prefixed some account of the 
origin, design, and progress of this institution. Published by order of the 
chairman of the committee. By the Bev. John Bennett, secretary to the 
society. Printed by J. Wheeler, and sold by J. Clark and aU the booksellers' 
in Manchester. (4to»pp.2Q.) 

The scholastic session of the College of Arts and Sciences was opened with 
a lecture by Dr. Charles White, October & 

Rev. Abel Ward died, at Neston, 9th October. He was a graduate of 
Queen's College, Cambridge, and in 1745 became Rector of St. Ann's. A strong 
advocate and defender of the Protestant succession, the authorities recognised 
the value of his aid by a succession of preferments. He pieached against' 
Popery and JaooUUsm, and in 1751 became Archdeacon of Chester, after which 
he was only occasionally resident in Manchester. He wrote The Duty of 
rendering to aU their Dues considered, a sermon. (Manchester, 175a) <Ear^ 
waker's Local Oleanings, No. 651.) 

Peter Malnwaring, M.D., died, aged 91. He bequeathed his books to the 
Manchester Infirmary, where they became the nucleus of the present library. 

A German named Baden was tried at Lancaster, and fined £S0O, tor 
having visited Minchester and seduced cotton operatives to go to Germany. 

The privileges of the spinning-Jenny, which had *partly been thrown open 
in 1788, were, in this year, wholly given to the pubUc, when coUon mills began 
to inoease as well as the population. 



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17861 



Annals of Manchester . 113 



It was estimated by Mr. Pitt that the population employed in the cotton 
trade generally was 80,000. 

Cylindrical calico printing was invented by a Scotchman named Bell, and 
was first saooessfolly applied at Masney, near Preston, by Messrs. Livesey, '^ 
HargreaTes, Hall, and Company. 

1786. 

A main of cocks was f ought at the Boyal Exchange betwixt the gentlemen 
of Lancashire and Cheshire for £5 a battle and £200 the main. Cheshire won 
by eight battles. January 8, 6, 7, 8, 9. 

A fire broke out in the New Market Hall, Pool Fold, and entirely consumed 
the upper part of the building, January 10. 

Manchester Academy instituted 22nd February. The first session was 
opened 14th September by an address from Boy. Thomas Barnes. Dr. Thomas 
Percival was the first chairman. In 1803 it was removed, and became Man- 
chester College, York ; in 1840 it returned to its birthplace as Manchester New 
College, and in 1863 was removed to London, stiU retaining the name of Man- 
chester New College. 

John Holker, Chevalier of the Order of St. Louis, and inspector^neral of 
the woollen and cotton manufactures of France, died at Bouen, 28th ApriL He 
was bom at Stretford, and baptised there 14th October, 1719. His parents were 
married at Manchester in 1718, and the name is found frequently at Monton. 
He was a " calendarer,** Joined the rebels in 1745, and was taken prisoner 
at Carlisle. When in Newgate awaiting trial a fellow-prisoner found a means 
of escape from the same cell, but Holker was too bulky to pass through the 
** straightgate." The generous comrade returned, and the two in company 
enlarged the hole and both escaped. Holker was concealed for six weeks by a 
woman who kept a green stall, but eventually escaped to France, where he 
entered the army, and retired on a pension of 000 francs in 175B. He had 
previously, in connection with partners, erected a velvet factory at Bouen, and 
in 1758 he retired with a fortune. He was inspector-general of foreign manu- 
factures from 1756 until his death. In 1706 he established chemical works and 
introduced leaden chambers for the manufacture of sulphuric acid. He is said 
to have visited England secretly to induce RngUsh artisans to settle in fiance. 
He was nominated a Chevalier de St. Louis, 27th September, 1770. This 
remarkable life is given with the fullest detail in communications by Mr. J. G. 
Alger in the PaUUine NoU-hook, vol. Iv., pp. 47, 111. 

John Collier, better known as " Tim Bobbin,** died, at Blilnrow, 14th July. 
He was bom at Urmston, and baptised at Flixton 6th January, 1706-9. The 
greater part of his life was passed at Mllnrow, where he was schoolmaster. In 
1746 he published a View of the Laneaahirt Dialect^ which has since passed 
through almost innumerable editions. It cannot be supposed to represent 
faithfully the folk-speech of any particular district^ but it pteserves many 
uncommon words and idioms which Collier had picked up in various parts. 
There is a great deal of humour in his writings, but he is coarse and sadly 
wanting In refinement. Collier wrote in verse and prose, and dabbled in 
archsDology. His Curitma Bemarka an the History of Manchester and More 
Fruit from the Same Pannier are severe criticisms on Whitaker*s Bistory of 
B 



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114 ATmals of Mcmchester. 



[1T87-1TSS 



Manchester. In these he is thought to have heen aided by Richard Towneley, 
of Belfleld. Collier was also a painter, and published a volume of caricatores, 
entitled Human PoMicna Delineated. He Is buried in Rochdale Churchyard. 

A rule was adopted 6th September by the joint committee of Sunday 
schools that writing should not henceforward be taught in the schoolroom. 
The bigotry and cruelty of such a regulation at a time when the means of 
education were so scanty needs no comment. 

James Holland was hanged at Bolton-le-Moor, for croft breaking, Sept. 12. 

Mr. Josiah Birch, for many years treasurer to the M anchester Infirmary, 
died September 29. 

Sir John Parker Mosley served the office of High Sheriff of the County 
Palatine of Lancaster. He was accompanied from his seat at Ancoats by an 
immense retinue of his friends and neighbours, and the conviviality attending 
it was long celebrated in their private discourse. (Moeley's Mosley Family,) 

A num was tried at Lancaster and fined £200 for having had in his 
^ possession a quantity of machinery with a view to export it to the Emperor of 
Germany, and for also having seduced workmen to go abroad with it. 

1787, 

The foundation stone of the New Bayley, or Prison for the Hundred of 
Salford, laid May 22 by Thomas Butterworth Bayley. It was opened for 
prisoners April, 1790. Large additions were made to it in 1816, but in 1872 it 
was sold to the Lancashire and Yorkshire Railway Company in consequence 
of the erection of the gaol in Strangeways. 

A meeting waa convened at the Bianchester Hotel, by the Boffoughieeve, 
f6r the purpose of establishing fixed market days, June 19. 

The Collegiate Church broken into and two surplices and the poor box 
stolen, June 22. 

The Rev. John Wesley held the annual conference of the ministers in his 
Connexion, at Bianchester, in July. 150 preachers attended. 

Ifr. John Tipping died at his house, Ardwick Green, August 19. 

The Bishop of Chester consecrated a new burial ground in Ashley Lane, 
21st September. It was closed in 1816, and after a period of neglect was 
covered and is now known as St. Mlchaers Flags. 

A flood in the Irwell which lasted for seven days carried away a portion of 
Salford Bridge* 

The Rev. Robert Kenyon, incumbent of Salford Chapel* cme of the tooffeca 
and also librarian of the Chetham College, died, aged 46. 

Muslin manufacture developed rapidly through mule spinning, and GOO^OOO 
pieces were manufactured in Great Britain. 

The value of exported cotton goods, in this year, amounted to £1,101,457. 
This was immediately after Arkwright*s patent had been declared invalid. 

It is stated that only fbrty-two spinning factories existed in Laneaahire. 

178a 

Sir Ashton Lever, Ent., of Alkrington, died at the Bull*s Head Inn, Man- 
chaster, February 1. Having as a young man shot a " white sparrow,** it 
formed the starting point of an important but very miscellaneous ooUection of 



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17881 



AnnalB of Manehester. 115 



objeeto of natural history and archasology, known as the Leverian Muaemn. 
Financial diiBcnlties induced Sir Ashton to part with this collection, and Par- 
liament authoriaed a lottery for the purpose in 1785. The winner afterwards 
disposed of it by public auction in 1806, when the sale occupied 66 days. It has 
been surmised that Sir Ashton's death was due to poison self -administered. 

lir. Thomas Burchell died 18th Harch. He was for seTeral years the con- 
ductor of the Gentlemen's Concert. 

BIr. Aulay Macaulay died Bfarch 19, 1788. He was a tea dealer in St. Ann's 
Square, and was also the author of a system of shorthand which does not 
possess any great merit. (Guardian Notes and Queries^ June 12, 1876.) 

The centenary of the Revolution of 1688 was celebrated in a variety of ways. 
The military fired a feu dejoie in St. Ann's Square. 

'* On the 29th [March] a most daring murder and robbery was committed 
near Bflles Platting, on the York road, on the person of Mr. Worthington, the 
York carrier, who had scarcely left the house where he had stayed to drink 
than be was shot dead, and his watch and purse taken from him, though so near 
three men on the road before him as to be heard to beg for life. A man has 
been apprehended on suspicion, but discharged for want of evidence.** iGefUU" 
man'9 Magasine^ voL Iviii., p. 3S5.) 

Bfr. Henry Sedden died in March. He was buried at the Collegiate Church, 
of which he had been sexton for SO years. 

The Bev. John Wesley preached in Oldham Street Chapel, 13th April. He 
was then in his 86th year. 

St. Michael's Church, Angel Street, was built by the Bev. Humphrey Owen, 
M.A., Chaplain of the Collegiate Church, and consecrated July 23, 1789. The pre- 
sentation was vested in the heirs of the founder for sixty years, and afterwards 
in the warden and fellows of the Collegiate Church. Foundation stone laid 
May 20. 

Heywood's Bank established in St Ann's Street, May 26 ; afterwards known 
as Heywood Brothers and Co. It was amalgamated with the Manchester and 
Salford Bank, of which it is the St Ann's Street Branch. 

Mr. John Wilson, Captain in the 72nd, or Manchester Volunteers, died 
June 21. 

St James's Church, George Street, was built by the Bev. Cornelius Bayley, 
D.D., and consecrated August 18. The presentation was vested in the heirs of 
the founder for sixty years, and then in the warden and fellows of the 
Collegiate Church. 

The total number of scholars in Sunday schools of Manehester and Salford 
was estimated 4,000 in August 

The Congregational Chapel, Mosley Street, was opened 24th September. 
(See under date 1819.) 

The foundation •stone of St Pstei^s Church, Mosley Street, which was 
founded by the Rev. Samuel Hall, M.A., was laid 11th December this year. 
It was consecrated September 0, 17M. The presentation was vested in 
twenty-one trustees for sixty years from the date of the consecration deeds, 
anl afterwards in the wardens and fellows of the Collegiate Church. The 



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• 



116 Annala of Manchester. [i789-i790 

church was built from the design of Mr. James Wyatt. The altar piece is a 
" Descent from the Cross/* attributed to Annibal Carracd. 

From an enumeration made at Christmas it appeared that Manchester had 
6,916 houses, 8,S»70 families, and 48,821 pei^ns. In Salford there were 1,200 
houses, and an estimated population of 7,566. 

A meeting was held in Manchester to consider the great depression of the 
cotton manufacture, arising from the "importation of Indian goods;** and 
Government was solicited to allow a drawback as an encouragement to the 
export of English products. It was estimated that the cotton manufacture 
employed 160,000 men, 00,000 women, and 101 children. 

The art of bleaching with oxymuriatic acid was introduced by Mr. Thomas 
Henry. 

1789. 

The ReT. Richard liUlward, LL.B., one of the chaplains at the Collegiate 
Church, died AprU 16. 

Three boat loads of coal, the first that came from Worsley, arriTed at Bank 
Top, April 20. 

The Theatre Boyal, in Spring Gardens, was burnt down, June 10 ; rebuilt 
and opened, February, 1700. 

Mr. John Wheeler died 10th October. He was formerly of the Manchester 
Theatre, and was the father of Charles Wheeler, the original proprietor of the 
Manchester Chronicle. 

Mr. Duncan Smith died 16th December. He was for more than forty years a 
writing master in Manchester. 

There were great public rejoicings on the recovery of George III. from his 
insanity. 

The Unitarian Chapel in Mosley Street was erected. It was taken down in 
1836. 

Mr. Oswald Mosley, eldest son of Sir J. P. Mosley, died, aged 28. He married 
the daughter of the Rev. Thomas Tonman, and left four orphans, of whom 
Oswald succeeded to the title. (See under date 1706.) 

The Baptist Chapel, St. George's Road (now Rochdale Road), was built. 

The first Tolume of the Memoirs of the Manchester Literary and Philo- 
sophical Society was printed, at Warrington, by W. Eyres. A German 
translation of 4^ appeared. 

The Lancashire Humane Society was established. 

The first steam engine for spinning cotton is said to have been erected in 
Manchester for Mr. Drinkwater. 

1790. 

Mr. James Hall, surgeon, of King Street, died Febmary IL 

The Theatre Royal was rebuilt after the fire of 1780, and reopened in 
February. 

On Easter Sunday, the Rev. John Wesley preached twice, and held a sacra- 
mental serrioe at which there were about sixteen hundred oommunicanta. 
This was his last visit to Manchester. 

Manchester Lying-in Hospital, founded Blay 6, by Charles White, F.R.S., 
and his son. Dr. White, and Messrs. Edward and R. HulL Patients were 



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2790) Annals of Manchester. 1 17 

Attended at their homes until a hoose near Salf ord Bridge was taken in 1705. 
The Bath Inn, Stanley Street, was bought for £1,000, and converted into an 
hospital, 1790. This was sold by aucUon May 5, 1822. The Hospital had then 
remoTed to North Parade, St. Mary's, October 10, 1821. The foundation stone 
of the new hospital was laid by the Bishop of Manchester, September 3, 1835, 
and opened October 10, 1850. 

An Act of Parliament (80 George IIL cap. 81) was obtained for the pur- 
pose of "proTiding a new poorhouse for, and for the better relief and govern- 
ment of, the poor of the township of Manchester, in the county of Lancaster.** 
21st June. 

Oxford Road, from St Peter*s Church, was opened July 12. 

The organ at Trinity Chapel, Salford, was opened, August 0th. It was 
built by Schults, of London. 

Mr. Thomas Taylor, lieutenant in the 72nd, or Manchester Volunteers, died 
August 18. 

James Macnamara hanged 11th September, on Kersal Moor, for a burglary 
committed in the house of Mr. Cheetham, at the sign of the " Dog and Part- 
ridge," Stretford, in January. He was executed on the large hUL 

The "Manchester Constitutional Society ** established, to ^'eiTect a reform 
in the representation of the people in Parliament." October. 

BeT. Humphrey Owen died 14th November. He was bom at Aberystwith 
in 1723, and after graduating at St. John's College, Oxford, became Chaplain of 
the Collegiate Church, but acted as the substitute of Rev. Abel Ward, at $t. 
Ann's, after 1751 until 1780, when he was appointed the first rector of St. 
Michael's, Angel Meadow, in the erection of which he had been largely instru> 
mental. (Bardsley's MemariaXa^ p. 80.) 

A large building, situated near Hanover Street, fell down, owing to the 
springing of an arch in the foundation. The upper part was used as a cotton 
mill, and at the time there were twenty-two persons at work, several of whom 
were killed, and others seriously hurt. December 21. 

The lord of the manor brought an action in the Court of King's Bench, 
claiming by prescription a weekly market on Saturdays f6r the sale of flour and 
4)atmeal and other goods. The case was tried at the Lancaster Summer Assises, 
when the plaintiff was nonsuited, but a rule for a new trial having been obtained 
was made absolute after argument. It does not appear whether the plaintiff 
ultimately succeeded. MoaUy v. PieraoHt 4 Term Beporte (Dumfard t\ East), 
101. 

The Wesleyan Methodist Chapel, Gravel Lane, Salfoid, was built 

The House of Correction, Hunt's Bank, was taken down. 

Manchester paid in postages £11,000, which was a larger amount than any 
other provincial town. 

The Sessions Court, attached to the New Bailey Prison, was erected. 

2fr. Kenrick Price, of Manchester, died at LiverpooL He was a tea dealer, 
and the last Bishop of the Nonjurors in the neighbourhood. 

Power looms were introduced into Manchester by Mr. Grimshaw. (Butter* 
worth.) 

The cotton spinners of Lancashire and Scotland solicited permission of the 



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118 Armala of Manchester. [itw 

Government to incorporate themselves into a '* Company of Traders," with privi- 
leges similar to those eAJoyed by the East India Company, with whom, it 
seems, they considered themselves otherwise unable to compete. 

30 George m. cap. 68. Act for making and maintaining a navigable canal 
from Manchester to or near Presto-lee-Bridge, in the township of Little Lever, 
and from thence by one branch to or near the town of Bolton, and by another 
branch to or near the town of Bnry, and to Weddell Brook, in the parish of 
Bury 

1791. 

A Are in Blakely Street resulted in the death of a woman and four children, 

April ao. 

The first stone of the Manchester Workhouse, Strangeways, was laid by 
Mr. Leaf, a magistrate, July 24. It was opened February 14, 1703. 

Mr. Edward Hall died* at his house in King Street, 25th September. He was 
for 38 years one of the surgeons to the Royal Infirmary, and was an active 
promoter of the Lying-in Hospital. 

Mr. Doming Rasbotham died 7th Nov. He was bom in 1730 and served the 
office of High Sheriif in 1700. His extensive collections for the history of the 
county were written in Byrom*s shorthand. He married Sarah, daughter of 
James Bayley. He vnt>te Codrus, a tragedy, and a variety of pieces in prose 
and verse. He was also an amateur artist. (Baines, new edition, L, 542.) 

The first printed catalogue of Chetham*s Library issued with the title : 
Bibliotheea Chethamenaia : aive BiblioiKecee pvblicct MancunUneea ab Hum^ 
fredo Chetham armigero fundaics CaicUoguSt exhibena libraa in variiu elaases 
pro varietaie argumetUi disiributos. Editit Johannes Haddiffe, biblioiKeect 
mipradieta custos. 2 vols. 8va Continuations have since appeared. 

A PoeUecU Satire on the Times (London, printed for the author, in the 
year 1701) contains many curious references to Manchester men and manners. 
(Axon's XancosAire Gleanings,) 

The lord of the manor brought another action claiming by prescription a 
weekly market on Saturdays for the sale of flour and oatmeal, and succeeded 
in establishing his right. MosUy v. N orris (not reported). 

The Manchester Strangers* Friend Society was established, chiefly by the 
exertions of the Rev. Dr. Adam Clarke. 

The Manchester Humane Society was established. The first meeting held 
August 25th, and was presided over by Lord Grey de Wilton. 

An Act of Parliament was obtained for the purpose of lighting, watching, 
and cleaning the town; and for levying a police tax of Is. 3d. in the pound, 
upon the rent of the houses, to defray the expenses. Under this act the 
commissioners consisted of the boroughreeve and constables for the time 
being, the warden and fellows of the Collep^iate Church, and the owners and 
oocupiera of any buildings of £30 a year value, under whose control the conjoint 
towns of Manchester and Salford were placed. 

An Act was passed for the making of the Bury and Bolton Canal. 

John ImiBSon died. "It may not be amiss to mention the ingenious 
Imisson, who, among other pursuits, made some progress in the art of letter- 



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ITM] 



AnTuUs of Manchester. 119 



foandlng, and actually printed some popular novels at Bfanchester, with wood- 
cuts cut by himself.** (Lemoine's Typographical AniiquUieSt 1797, p. 81.) He 
was also an optician in Manchester, and published there The School of Arts. 

31 George HI. cap. 48. Act for vesting the settled estate of Samuel Clowes 
the younger, Esquire, in the county of Lancaster, in himself, in fee simple, 
and for settling an estate of greater value, in the same county, in lieu thereof, 
and in exchange for the same, and for enabling the said Samuel Clowes to 
grant building leases of the estate hereby settled. 

1792, 

38 George m. cap. 00. Act for cleansing, watching, and regulating the 
streets, lanes, passages, and places within Manchester and Salford, and for 
widening and rendering more commodious several of the said streets, lanes, 
and passages, and for other purposes therein mentioned. January 31. 
Reprinted, 1812. 

Mr. Thomas Walker, upon the expiration of his of&ce of boroughreeve, pub- 
lished the first account which had ever appeared of the different chariUea 
which had been under his official management and distribution, February 15. 

Special services were held in February in various Lancashire churches, when 
the collections in aid of the Manchester Charities amounted to £4,887 18s. IJd. 

The Manchester Herald^ Na 1, March 31, was printed and published by 
Messrs. Faulkner and Birch, in the Biarket Place, price 3id. It ceased Blarch 
23,1783. 

The Police Act for Manchester and Salford came into force, June 84. 

** On Monday, July 30, the morris dancers of Ptodleton paid their annual 
Tisit to Salf onL They were adorned with all the variety of colours that a pro- 
fusion of ribbons could give them, and had a very showy garland." (Bitson*s 
JZoMn JZood.) 

The second Manchester Subscription Library was established aoth August. 

The Assembly Booms, Mosley Street, were opened September 80. There 
were 100 subscribers at £60.* A further call of £20 was made. The Assembly 
Booms were sold by auction for £9,000 in 18S0^ and warehouses built upon the 
site. (See under date 1706). 

The office of the Mancheater Herald^ in the Ifarket Place, was destroyed 
by a political mob, December 10, ITUK^ The Manchester Beratd ceased Ifarch 
23, 1798. The following curious handbill was circulated : *' Violent Dissolution, 
being the Bxit of Mons. Herald, of Manchester, a near relative to Mons. Argus, 
of London, who expired on Saturday last, to the great regret of the Jacobins, 
Painites, ftc., but pcuticularly to the Black Cat.** It advocated Liberal principles, 
and so its publishers became the objects of persecution. They were obliged to 
find refuge in a foreign land. 

Two of the pinnacles of the Collegiate Church tower fell, one into the 
churchyard, and the other through the roof and gallery to the floor of the nave. 

The Antiquary, September, 1884, contains an account of a Journey to 
Manchester and Liverpool made by BIr. William Phillips, of Worcester. He 
was a visitor to his brother, Mr. Tfaomas Phillips, of Manchester, the father of 
Sir Thomas Phillips, of Middle-HUl. The Bridgewater Canal excited his 
admiration. 



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120 Annals of Manchester. 



[ITM 



A FroTindal Confereiioe of the New Church (Swedenborgiaxi) held at 
Salford. (Hindmanh's iNae, <l&c., p. 140.) 

A Dispensary was erected adjoining the Infirmary. 

The Exchange was taken down, and the site marked by a stone pUlar and 
posts. 

An Act (38 George IIL cap. 84) was obtained for cutting a canal from Man* 
chestev to Ashton-nnder-Lyne and Oldham. 

An Independent Chapel erected in Cannon Street- The site is now ooTered 
by warehouses. 

1793. 

The effigy of Paine was burnt by the populace, January. 

33 George IIL Act for more effectually repairing, widening, and improving 
certain roads leading to and from the towns of Salford, Warrington, Bolton, 
and Wigan, and to certain places called the Broad Oak, in Worsley, and Dux* 
y bury Stocks, and also the road from a place called the South Sea, in Pendle* 
bury, to Agecrof t Bridge, and from thence to Hilton Laue to Dawson Lane 
End, and also from Agecroft Bridge over Kersal Moor to Singleton Brook. 
June 17. 

Thomas WMte, M.D., died 10th June. 

Thomas Quinoey, father of Thomas de Quincey, died at Greenheys, 18th 
July. He was bom in 1754 and was the author of an anonymous Short Tour in 
the Midland CounHes, London, 1775 (Axon's Lancashire Oleanings, p. 286). 
He settled in Manchester before 1780, and was a haberdasher who in 1783 gave 
up the retail to confine himself to the wholesale trade. He is also called a 
West India Merchant. (Espinasae's Lancashire Worthies.) There are few 
passages more imprebsive than De Quincey's description of the home-coming of 
the father already dying of consumption in hi«» thirty-ninth year. 

The New Jerusalem Church, Peter Street^ was opened, 11th August, by Rev. 
William Cowherd and Bev. Joseph Proud. 

St. Clement's Church, Lever Street, was built by the Bev. E. Smyth, and 
opened f6r divine service on Christmas Day. 

The Salford Workhouse was built in Greengate. 

An act was obtained for cutting the Haslingden canaL 

33 (aeorge IIL cap. 21. Act to enable the company of proprietors of the 
canal navigation from Manchester to or near Ashton-under-Lyne and Oldham, 
to extend the said canal from a place called Clayton Demesne, in the township 
of Droylsden, to a place on the turnpike road in Heaton Norrls, opposite to the 
house known by the sign of the Three Boars* Heads ; and from or nearly from a 
place called Taylor's Bam, in the township of Reddish, to Denton, at a place 
called Beat Bank, a4Joining the turnpike road leading between Stockport and 
Ashton-under-Lyne, and also from the intended aqueduct, at or near a place 
called Stake Leach, at HoUinwood. 

33 George IIL cap. 50. Act to empower William Churchill Dickenson, 
Esquire, to grant building leases, renewable leases, and to make conveyances 
In fee of and upon all or any part of the estates at Chorlton Row, devised by 
the will of John Dickenson, Esquire, deceased, situate near the town of 
Manchester. 



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iTM-iTW] Anruda of Manchester. 121 

SS G«orge III. cap. 5& Act to enable John TraflTord, Eftqulre, and other 
peiaona after hia death, to grant ieaaea of the eatatea deriaed by the will of the 
late Humphrey Trafford, Ksquire, aitnate in the ooontiea of Lancaater and ' 
Cheater, for bnilding, and also to grant Ieaaea of certain waate moaa landa in 
the aaid ooontiea, other parte of the aaid deviaed eatatea. 

1704. 

Mr. Tate preaented to the tmateea of the Infirmary a portrait of Ifr. Jamea 
ICaaaey, the flrat preaident of that inatitntion, February. 

31 Geoige m. cap. 87. Act for altering an Act, paaaed in the ecTenth year 
of the reign of Hia late Majesty King George L, intituled ** An Act for making 
the rivers Mercy and Irwell naTigable from Liverpool to Blanchester, by 
incorporating the proprietors of the said navigation, and to declare their respec- 
tive aharea therein to be personal estate." ICareh 28. 

84 George in. cap. 78. Act^for making and mainUJning a navigable canal 
from the Calder navigation, at or near Sowerby Bridge wharf, in the pariah of 
Halifax, to Join the canal of his grace the Duke of Bridgewater, in the pariah 
^ Mancheater, and also certain cuta from the said intended canal. April 4. 

The B^^iment of Independent Manchester Volunteers waa incorporated in 
^he 68rd, or Duke of York'a Brigade, at Chatham, AprlL 

St. Stephen's Church, Salford, was built by the Bev. Nicholas Moaley 
Cheek, and conaecrated July 83. 

St. Mark's Church, Cheetham Hill, founded by the Bev. E. Ethelston ; 
finished by his son, the Bev. C. W. Bthelston, fellow of the Collegiate Church, 
and consecrated July 24. 

The coloura of the Boyal Manchester Volunteers were consecrated in St. 
Ann*a Church by the Bev. Thomas Seddon, chaplain to the regiment, August 
21. The corps subaequently became the 104th regiment. 

The Boman Catholics of the district built St. Blary'a Chapel, Mulberry 
Street, from the proceeds of a aubacription. 

The loyal aasociationa in Manchester and Salford formed themselves into a 
oorpa for home defence. 

The poor rate for Manchester, at five ahilHngs in the pound, produced 
£9^270 14a. The poat-horse duty for the district waa let for £7,<Ma 

The buaineaa of the poat-office in Mancheater waa conducted by Miss Willet 
(poat-miatress), with the assistance of two clerks. 

An act obtained for cutting the Manchester and Hudderafield canal. 

S4 George in. cap. 00. Act to enable the trustees of certain landa in Man- 
cheater, called Mayea' Charity Landa, to convey in fee, or grant Ieaaea under 
reaerved yearly rente. 

1705. 

Ann Bayley, widow of Daniel Bayley, and daughter of Thomaa Butter* 
worth, died March 9th, aged 82. 

The JfafidUfter GoMtiU waa printed and published by T. Bowden and 
WUliamCowdroy, in St Mary's Gate. March. 



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122 ArmdU of Mcmcheder, 



(17t9 



BeT. Rowland Sandford, A.B., died at Harrogate, 24th Jane. He was 
Jtinior cnrate of St. Ann's, but on the death of Archdeacon Ward in 1785 
became rector. He was an earnest promoter of Sunday schools. (Bardsley's 
Memariala.) (See under date 1817.) 

There was some rioting from the scarcity of com. In view of farther 
anticipated distorbances an order was given that all pabllc-hoases be closed by 
^x seven in the evening. Persons appearing In the streets after nine o'clock were 
liable to be called upon to give account of themselves. July 31. 

Timothy Wood died a9th September. He was the keeper of the Hare and 
Hounds public-house, and was well known as the huntsman of the llanchester 
hounds. 

The Manchester Billiard Club was formed in the Assembly Rooms, Mosley 
Stnet, December 11. It was discontinued December 13, 1850. 

As a protest against the conduct of the authorities in putting down public 
meetings for the discussion of political grievances, it is said that a *' Thinking 
Club** was formed at the Coopers' Arms, and that at the first meeting there 
were 300 present, and " silence preyalled for one hour." December 28. 
The shock of an earthquake was felt at Manchester In December. 
The Duke of Bridgewater^s canal completed at a cost of £230,000. James 
Brindley was the engineer of this remarkable undertaking, the story of wMch 
y has been told by Dr. Smiles in his Lives of the Engineers. 

The Friends' Meeting house in Mount Street was built. The locality was 
then practically suburban, St. Peter^s Fields, the site of Peter Street and the 
Free Trade Hall, being an open space. The meeting house was rebuilt in 1828. 
A pamphlet entitled an Appeal to the Inhabitants of Manchester and Us 
Neighbourhood^ was published. It was a protest against the Convention Bills 
for limiting the freedom of the press and the right of public meeting, and was 
signed by George Uoyd, George Philips, Samuel Greg, Dr. John Mitchell, and 
others. (Hibbert-Ware'sZi/eo/5.^t6&ere-Trare,p.242.) 

Mr. Bobert Peel, the founder of the fortunes of the Ftoel famllyi died at 
Ardwick Green, aged 79. He is buried in St. John's Church. 

35 George in. cap. 63. Act to enable the trustees of certain lands In Man- 
chester, Crumpsall, and Tetlow, called Clarke's Charity Lands, to make leases 
for years upon rack rents, and also to grant building leases and make convey- 
ances in fee of and upon all or any part of the said lands under reserved yearly 
rents, 

35 George m. cap. 62. Act for amending an Act passed in the tenth year 
of the reign of His present M^esty, intituled an ** Act to enable the trustees 
of the estates devised by William Hulme, Esquire, to grant building leases 
thereof, and to increase the number of Exhibitioners to Brasennose College, in 
Oxford, founded by the said testator, and for other purposes therein men- « 
tioned ;** and to enable the trustees to convey in fee or grant leases for lives or 
for long terms of years with or without covenants for renewal, under reserved 
yearly rents, the said Trust Estates, and to enable the trustees to apply the 
trust monies in making such allowance to the Exhibitioners as may be thought 
proper, and for other purposes therein mentioned. 



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ITW 



AnTials of Mcmcheeter. 128 



1796. 

Mr. Jamea Massey, many years president of the Inflnnary, died at 
Boetheme, Cheshire, January 2. 

Mr, Thomas Battye published A IHaclaeure of Parochial Abuae^ Artifice^ 
Ac, in the Totcn of Manchester, January 26. This is one of several tracts in 
which the author gives some curious particulars as to the management of the 
aflkirs of the town. 

Bfr. John Shaw, master of the punch house in Smithy Door, died January 
28, aged 83. He was well known for his eccentricities, one of which was to 
turn out all his customers at eight o'clock in the evening ; if any of them were 
obstinate his servant Molly, with her mop and pail, would come, and if this 
did not serve he would order a servant to bring him a whip. He had occupied 
the above house upwards of fifty-eight years. There is an interesting notice of 
him in Harland's Collectanea. 

Mr. George Swindells, printer and publisher, died March 1, aged 36. 

A riot took place in the Theatre Boyal during the singing of ** God save the 
King,*' March 7. The day after the playbills had the following heading : 
'* * God save the King* will be sung at the end of the farce, to give the Non. 
Cons, time to retire.'* 

Mr. John Chadwick, sen., patron and supporter of Sunday schools, died at 
Longsight, March 26. 

Mrs. Mary Peel, widow of Bobert Peel, of Ardwick, and daughter of 
Edmund Haworth, of Blackburn, died, March. 

2fr. William Clowes, son of Samuel Clowes, Bronghton, died at Glandon, 
Derbyshire, May 15. 

Bev. Thomas Seddon died, 17th BCay, on his passage to the West Indies as 
chaplain of the 104th Begiment. He was bom at Ecdes in 1753» and matricu- 
lated at Oxford, but did not take any degree, although he styled himself M.A. 
From 1777 until his death he was curate of Stretford, and In 1779 published, 
anonymously, a work entitled Characteriatie Strictures^ which, in the form of a 
criticism upon a supposed exhibition of portraits, contains satirical remarks 
upon the public personages of the district. Like some other satirists, he was 
not remarkable for good conduct, and whether at Stretford, Wlgan, or Lydgate, 
seems to have been in constant trouble. Another work, Lettrrs to an Officer in 
the Army (Warrington, 1786) is of some Interest. 

Mr. Alexander Eason died 27th May, aged 61. He was bom In 1738, and in 
early life he travelled with Lord Moira, and afterwards was surgeon to the 
Marquis of DroghedaTs dragoons. He gave much of his time to the poor of 
Manchester, and a tablet to his memory, the proceeds of a penny subscription, 
was placed in the CoUegiate Church, where he is buried. He died of paralysis 
resulting from dislocation of the spine, caused by the st^imbling of his horse 
when riding to see a patient, Miss Tates, of Clugh, an aunt of Sir Bobert Peel. 
(Smith's Centenary, p. 12a) 

Bobert Darby, M.D., physician to the Infirmary, died July 30. 

Sir John Prestwlch, of Prestwich and Hulme, died at Dublin, August 16. 
His dalm to the baronetcy was not universally allowed. He was the author of 
A Dissertation on Mineral, Animal^ and VegetaJble Poisons^ 1775^ and of 



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124 AnTudB of Manchester. \xwt 

Bupubliea, 1777. He left a IfS. History of Liverpool which has never been 
printed. He was the son of Sir Eliae Prestwich who died in 1786. (OerUUmans 
Magazine, Izr., 870, 967.) There is a mde portrait of Sir John amongst 
Barritt*s MSa at Chethain*s Library. 

The Stockport, Bolton, and Rochdale Volunteers were reviewed on Kersal 
Moor, Angnst 2S. 

A constable, sent to serve a warrant in the neighbourhood of Newton, was 
compelled by the people to eat the offensive document. 

Two well-known dwarfs, Thomas Allen and ''Lady" Morgan, exhibited 
themselves here. She was 30 years old, and weighed 181b. 

The gentry, clergy, and tradesmen pledged themselves, in a series of 
resolutions, advertised in the newspapers, to reduce the use of wheat flour at 
least one-third. Pies and puddings ceased to appear on the tables of some of 
the middle classes. The working classes were already on the verge of 
starvation. 

1707. 

The formation of the Manchester and Salford Volunteers decided at a 
meeting at the Bull's Head, February 28. 

John Drinkwater, M.D., died 16th March. This physician was the father 
of General Drinkwater, the author of the History of the Siege ofOibraUar. 

The Ist and 2nd battalions of Manchester and Salford Volunteer Infantry 
drawn out for the first time. March. 

In Trinity Church, Salford, there is a white marble monument, with the 
following inscription — 

*' Sacred to the memory of Thomas Drinkwater, Msjor of His hUie»ty*B 
62nd Begiment of Foot, who perished at sea, on his return from the West 
Indies, the 23rd of April, 1707, aged 32 years. 

** Thrioe had bla foot DomSago'k itiand prest, 

'Midst honld wan and fierce barbarian wUm ; 
ThriM bad Ida blood npaU'd Om yaUow peat 

Tliat atalka, gl^antie, through tha Woatero Idas 
Ratomlng to hia natiTS ahorea again. 

la hopea f ambnoe a fathei^brothar— friands, 
Alaa 1 tha faiUileas ntlin anaps In twain. 
Ha falla, and to a watary grave deaoenda.* 

** MiSJor Drinkwater was the second son of John Drinkwater, M.D., and 
Klis. Andrews, his wife, who are buried in the centre aisle of this chapel ; and 
this monument was erected by his only surviving brother, Lientenant^Colonel 
Drinkwater, as an affectionate tribute to his memory." 

The Bfanchester and Salford Volunteers completely equipped and incor^ 
porated, June 3. 

Mr. John Tippingi son of Joseph Tipping, died at Claxby, Linoolnshirs, 
July 3. 

Mr. Jeremiah Bardsley died, aged 00 years, July 5. He is described as the 
oldest Methodist in the town. 

The volunteers, in St. Ann's Square, fired a salute on the anniversary of 
the Kini^s birthday. July 5. 



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ifffi Aumals of Manche^er, 125 

Margaret Redmay, wife of Thomas Redmay, sexton of St. Mary's Church, 
was killed by falling from the belfry of the steeple of that church, September 
16. She was 66 years of age, and was assistant sexton over forty years. 

There were riots owing to the high price of com and flour in November. 

Mr. Orion Adams died in great poverty near Chester. He was the son of 
Roger Adams, and was bom in 1717, and in 1752 started the Manchester WeeJdy 
Journal^ bat was not a successful man of business. Little is known of his 
adventurous career. He is said to have " walked from London to Chester in 
his 70th year, with a heart as light as his pocket.** At the finish his employ- 
ment was that of distributing playblUs for a company of strollers. 

Mr. River Jordan, when a boy attending the school kept by Henry Clarke 
in Salford, used to ride on a pony past the top of Cross Lane, where Grind- 
rod's body still hung on the gibbet. {PalaMne htote-book, iv., p. 140.) 

The Instructions to the consta b l e s as to the licensing of alehouse-keepers 
set forth that the licences are forftited if the holders allow mountebanks or 
quack doctors to perform on their premises, if there is bull-baiting or horse- 
racing, if there is tippling on the Lord*8 day, if there is drinking after nine at 
night, or if there is any *' club or society " for money, docks, watches, or furni- 
ture. (Axon*s Laneaahire OUanings^ p. 72.) 

Mrs. Dorothy Byrom, daughter of Mr. John Byrom, died. 

The Amphitheatre, In Chatham Street, was opened by Mr. Handy, whose 
numerous company of equestrians (except himself and two or three who went 
by Holyhead) were lost on their passage from Liverpool to Dublin. 

A House of Recovery for sick and fever patients was opened in Aytoun 
Street. 

Admiral Lord Duncan's victory over the Dutch was celebrated with great 
rejoicings. 

2fr. Thomas Battye published The Bed Basil Book ; or. Parish Begister of 
Arrears for the Maintenance of the Offspring of JUicit ATnours, in which 
there are some curious revelations of the management of local aflkirs. 

87 George IIL cap. 71. Act for enlarging the permanent powers of Act 
passed in the twenty-fourth year of His late Misjesty King George XL for 
repairing the road from Crossford Bridge to the town of Manchester, and for 
mending the road from Crossford Bridge aforesaid to a certain place in 
Altrincham, in the county of Chester. 

179a 

Colonel Ackers* Regiment of Manchester and Salford Volunteers were 
drawn out at Piccadilly, and presented with their colours by Mrs. Hartley, 
February 14. 

Rev. Bianrice Griffiths, D.D., died 25th February, aged 77. He was rural 
dean, rector of St. Mary*s, and fellow of the Collegiate Church. Rev. John 
GatlUlb was appointed to the vacant fellowship, March 12. 

St. George's Church, St. George*s Road, was opened for divine service 
April 1. It was subsequently occupied by ministers of Lady Huntingdon's 
eonnectlon. Itwasnotconsecrateduntil January 17, 1818. The site was taken 
by the Lancashire and Yorkshire Railway Company and the church was 
rebuilt In Oldham Road. 



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12t) Annals of Manchester, 



imt 



38 George IH. cap. 32. Act to enable the Company of Proprieton of the 
Canal Navigation from Manchester to or near Aehton-under-Lyne and Oldham, 
to flniah and complete the same, and the several cuts and other works author- 
ised to be made and done by them by the several Acts passed for that purpose, 
and for amending the said Acts and granting to the said company further and 
other powers. May 26. 

Colonel Ford's Manchester and Salford Light Horse Volunteers assembled 
opposite the house of Thomas Johnson, in High Street, to receive their colours, 
which were the gift of Mr. Johnson, and presented by Mrs. Ford. October 25. 

There were riots owing to a failure in the crops of corzu December 16. The 
authorities offered premiums to such persons as brought each day the largest 
quantity of wheaten flour or oatmeal to the Manchester market. 

Sir John Pteker Mosley, baronet, lord of the manor, died, aged 67. He was 
the youngest son of Nicholas, the third son of Nicholas Mosley, of Ancoats. 
When a young man he was a hatter, and was assisted by his relatives out of 
flnandal difficulties arising from a passion for cock-flghting. He was after^ 
wards equally remarkable for his steady and upright conduct. In later life he 
was esteemed **a Methodist.'* In 1781 he received a baronetcy— the third 
granted to the fsmily. He was high sheriff in 1786, and soon after ceased to 
reside at Ancoats HalL (Mosley*s Family Memoira, Ax<m*B Lanotuhire 
Oleanings,) He was succeeded by his grandson. Sir Oswald Mosley. (See 
under date 1871.) 

Lord Nelson's victory at th^ Battle of the Nile was celebrated by a proces- 
sion of the authorities and military, and by public dinners and illuminations. 

Seven persons were standing in a wooden shed which projected over the 
river near the New Bailey, and were looking at a coach and horses which had 
been lost at Stannyhurst Old Bridge the previous night, and on their passage 
down the flood had stuck fast between an arch of New Bailey Bridge, when* 
the floor gave way, and those who were upon it were precipitated into the 
river. A boy and girl were saved, but a man and five women were drowned. 

A Ust of the members of the Royal Manchester and Salford I4ght Horse 
Volunteers is printec^ in Earwaker^s Local Oleanings^ No. 631 

1799. 

Mr. John Markland, of Ardwick, died I7th January. He was the father of 
Ifr. Markland, high sheriff; of a Lancashire family. 

99 George IIL cap. 25. Act for more effectually repairing and improving 
the roads from Manchester, through Oldham to Austerlands, in the parish of 
Saddlewoith, and from Oldham to Ashton-nnder-Lyne, and from Oldham to 
the village of Boyton. May la 

The officers of CoL Ackers*s regiment of volunteers presented their Colone* 
with a large silver vase and four goblets. May 29, 

Colours were presented to the first battalion of the Manchester and Salford 
Volunteers, of which Thomas Butterwotth Bayley was the Colonel. On this 
occasion a sermon was preached by the Rev. Samuel Hall, who was the <*i>^pi^<n 
of the corps. June 4. 

St. Andrew's Presbyterian Chiqiel, Lloyd Street, was built, and opened for 
worship, June IS. 



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Anncds of Ma/achester. 127 



89 G«orge HI. cap. 64. Act for cQntinning for iwenty-one years, and from 
thence to the end of the then next Session of Parliament, the term and 
enlarging the powers of an Act passed in the thirty-third year of the reign of 
His present Majesty, intituled an Act for repairing, widening, altering, 
diverting, and taming the road from Ardwick Green to the Bridge at the 
Cornmills at Wilmslow. Julyl. 

Mr. Peter Clare died 90th July. He was an ingenious clock-maker and 
mechanic, and was the father of Peter Clare, the friend of Dalton. 

Mr. Matthew Wilkinson, steward to the trustees of the Free Grammar 
School, died in August. 

Mr. Samuel Clowes, Jun., of Broughton, died Oct. 5. He was Iieut.-Colonel 
of the Royal Lancashire Volunteers. 

The authorities of the town entertained at dinner Colonel Stanley and the 
officers of the First Lancashire Militia, on their return from Ireland. Nov. 23. 

Messrs. Robinsons* factory, opposite the New Bailey, was burned down, 
resulting In damage estimated at £12,000. 

Soup shops were opened owing to the high price of provisions and the 
destitute condition of the operatives. 

A general fast was proclaimed. The first and second battalions of Man* 
cheater and Salford Volunteers were drawn out for the first time, and marched 
to church. Colonel Bayley commanded the first battalion, and Colonel Silvester 
the second. 

The following volunteer corps were reviewed by Iffsjor-General Nichols, 
vis.. Colonel Ford's Light Horse, Colonel Ackers's Infantry, Colonel Thomas B. 
Bayley's First Battalion, and Colonel Silvester's Second Battalion. 

1800. 

Salisbury's factory, at Knot Mill, was destroyed by fire. A young woman 
lost her life by this disaster. January 29. 

Mr. Jonathan Pollard's factory, in Ancoats, burnt down, February S. ^ 

Mr. Alexander Gllbody died 31st March, aged 7a He was for 64 years boat- 
bnilder to the Mersey and Irwell Navigation Company. 

At a meeting, 5th May, of the General Committee of Sunday Schools it was 
decided that a certain number of the rooms should be henceforth called Church 
of England schools, and to be governed by the clergy and their friends, and that 
the same right belong to the Dissenters with respect to the other schools. Dr. 
Cornelius Bayley is regarded as the chief author of this separation. (Bardsley's 
MemoriaU^ pp. 124-6.) 

39 and 40 George IIL cap. 24. Act for amending the several Acts passed for 
making, finishing, and completing the Canal Navigation from Manchester to or 
near Ashton-nnder-Lyne and Oldham, and the several cuts and other works 
authorised to be made and done by the company of proprietors of the said 
Canal Navigation, and for granting to the said company further and other 
powers. Maylfi. 

39 and 40 George III. cap. 30. Act for better enabling the Company of 
Proprietors of the Rochdale Canal to raise money for completing the said 
canal, and to vary the line of the said Canal, and to alter, explain, and amend 



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128 Awials of Manchester. asoi 

the Act passed in the thirty-fourth year of the reign of His present Majesty, 
for making the said canal. May 30. 

Richard Assheton, D.D., died 6th June. He was warden of the Collegiate 
Church, Manchester, and rector of Mlddleton. He was bom at Middleton, 
August 16, 1727. 

The Bible Christian Church, King Street, Salford, was opened 28th Sept. 

A fire, by which warehouses in Hodson Square were burnt down Decem- 
ber 10, caused damages to the extent of £50,000, exclusive of the buildings. 

Dean's cotton factory, Oxford Road, was destroyed by fire, December 30. 
The damage was estimated at £13,000. 

Wesleyan Methodist Chapel, Great Bridgewater Street, built. 

Dr. John Mitchell published The First of the New Exposition of the Reve- 
lation of the ApoatU John, by J. M., M.D. (London, 1800). He was a believer 
in the millennium. (Hibbert Ware's Life of S. Hibbert Ware^ p. 241.) 

Thomas Blackbume, LL.D., appointed warden. 

Mr. James Ackers, of Lark Hill, Salford, having been appointed high 
sheriff, was escorted from his residence by the whole corps of volunteers and a 
numerous assemblage of gentry, &c, of the town and neighbourhood, forming 
a procession of upwards of a mile in length. 

Margaret Macaulay, a well-known beggar, died at the reputed age of 101. 

180L 

Isaac Perrins died 6th January, In consequence of ii^juries received whilst 
trying to save life and property at a fire. He was noted for his success in the 
prij:e-ring, but was defeated by Thomas Johnson in 1780. At one time he was 
leader of a country choir, at another manager of a Birmingham manufactory, 
and at still another period was a publican in Manchester. At the close of his 
career he was the conductor of the fire engines in IdUmchester. This son of 
Anak was of a mild disposition, and when challenged to flsticuib by 6. F. 
Cooke, the actor, calmly picked him up in his arms like a child, and carried 
him into the street. (Procter^s Turf, p. 74.) 

Littlewood and Kirby's cotton mill, which stood on the banks of the Med- 
lock, was destroyed by fire, when twenty-three persons lost their lives. 
January 27. 

Mr. Holland Ackers, of Lark HiU, Salford, died, 17th April, aged 66. 

The children attending the Church of England Sunday schools walked in 
procession, Whit Monday, May 6, to the Collegiate Church, where Warden 
Blackbume preached a special sermon. This was the beginning of the popular 
Whit- week procession. (Bardsley's MemoriaU, p. 126.) 

Union Public Com Mills founded May 14 by John Tetlow, borooghreeve of 
Manchester. 

The cotton factory of Wareham and Company, Bury Street, Salford, was 
destroyed by fire May 20. The damage was estimated at £2,000. 

Mr. Richard Hall died 1st June. He was surgeon to the IdUmehester and 
Silford Volunteers, and was buried with military honours in the family vaolt 
in the Ducie Chapel, in the Collegiate Church. 

Mr. Samuel Clowes, of Broughton Old Hall, died June 17, aged 34. 



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2i09] AuTials of Manchester. 129 

41 George IIL cap. 00. Act for conttnnlng for twenty-one years, and from 
thence to the end of the then next Session of Parliament, the term and 
altering and enlarging the powers of an Act passed in the thirty-third year of 
the reign of His present Majesty, intituled, an Act for repairing, widening, 
altering, diverting, and turning the road from Hnrdlow House, through 
Buxton, in the county of Derby, and Stockport, in the county of Chester, to 
Manchester. June 20. 

The Court Leet Jury presented eleven owners of factories for not consuming 
the smoke in the mill chimneys. They were fined respectively £100, but the 
fines were respited to allow time for the chimneys to be altered. June. 

The Peace of Amiens was celebrated in Manchester by illuminations, pro- 
cessions, &c., October 4. 

Miss Elisabeth Byrom, of Kersal Cell, daughter of John Byrom, F.RS., died 
December 2. 

Mr. Peter Drinkwater, of Irwell House, Agecroft, died on his Journey to 
London, December 2. 

The Presbyterian Chapel, New Windsor, Salford, was erected. It was 
rebuilt 1817. 

Bolton and Bury Canal opened to Salford. 

Colonel Silvester's regiment of Manchester and Salford Volunteers were 
presented with colours. They were consecrated in the Collegiate Church by 
the Rev. C. W. Ethelston, chaplain of the regiment. 

The Scramble Club formed at "Old Froggart^** the Unicom Inn, Church 
Street. It was removed successively to the Garrick*s Head Inn, Fountain 
Street ; the Spread Eagle, Hanging Ditch ; and the Blackfriars Inn, where it 
remained till 1848, when it migrated to the Clarence HoteL Jonathan PeeU 
cousin of the first Sir Robert Peel, gave the name in a Joke to this club^ which 
included many well-known citizens. 

The Independent Chapel, Jackson's Lane (now Great Jackson Street), 
Hulme, was built. 

The population of Blanchester, including Ardwick, Cheetham, Chorlton, 
and Hulme, at the first c ensj is. was 75,275. That of Salford Including Brough- 
ton, 14,477. 

1802. 

A great storm caused great destruction of p ro p e rty ; a cotton factory was 
blown down at Pendleton, and one of the dial plates of St. Ann's clock was 
forced out. January 21. 

Colonel Ackers'a Regiment of Manchester and Salford Volunteers was dis- 
banded ; the colours were deposited in the Collegiate Church, March 10. 

Lord Wilton's Regiment of Lancashire Vdnnteers returned from Ireland* 
where they had been stationed for five years, liay 13. 

The non-commissioned officers and privates of Lord Wilton's Regiment 
were entertained at dinner by their colonel, in the College YanL After dinner 
they *' chaired" him several times round the yard, and from thence into Su 
Ann's Square. May 22. 

The first and second battalions of the Manchester and Salford Volunteers 

) disbanded. They were drawn up in Camp Field, when the thanks of the 
I 



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130 Anncda of Mcmchester. oaos 

House of Commoiia and the inhabitants of the town, for their serrioes, were 
read to them. The oolonis were deposited at the house of Colonel J. L. 
PhilUps, at Mayfleld, June 1. 

Thomas Sowler died 6th Jane. He was a printer and bookseller, and 
grandfather of Thomas Sowler, the founder of the Manchester Courier, 

Mr. Thomas Butterworth Bayley, F.R.S. , died at Buxton, June 2L He was 
son of Daniel Bayley, and was bom at Manchester in 1744. Almost as soon as 
he attained his minority he was appointed a JnsUoe of the Peace, and became 
perpetual Chairman of Quarter Sessions. In 1768 he was High SherilL He 
was one of the founders of the Manchester Agricultural Society, Manchester 
Literary and Philosophical Society, and of a Society for the purpose of effecting 
the Abolition of the Slave Trade. He laid the first stone of the New Bailey 
Prison, which is said to have been so named in his honour by the unanimous 
vote of the Bench of Magistrates, but tliis has been denied. Mr. Bayley was 
author of ObaervatUma on the Oeneral Highway and Turnpike Acts, 1773; 
Charge delivered to the Orand Jury on the Opening of the New Bayley Court 
Houae^ at the Quarter Sessions at Manchester ^ April 22nd, 1790 ; Thoughts on 
the necessity and advaiUage of Care and (Economy in CoUeeHng and Prtser- 
ring different substances for Manure, 1796, 2nd edition, 1796, third, 1790, and 
an essay On a cheap and expeditious method of draining land, which was 
printed in Hunter^s Oeorgical Essays, Bayley was colonel of the regiment 
of Manchester and Salford Volunteers ; he was a trustee of Cross Street Cluqiel, 
and of St. John's Church, Deansgate. 

Dame Frances Lever, relict of Sir Ashton Lever, died at Alkrington, 
July 21. 

Col. Thomas Stanley and Mr. John Ireland Blackbume, representatives of 
the county, were entertained at a public dinner by the inhabitants of Man- 
chester, July 22nd. 

Mr. James Ogden, *' Poet Ogden," died 17th Aug. He was bom at IdUmchester 
in 1718, and was by trade a fustian shearer, but afterwards became master of a 
school connected with the Collegiate Church. He wrote The British Lion 
Soused, Manchester, 1762; The Revoluiion, Manchester, 1790; Emanuel; or. 
Paradise Regained, Manchester, 1707; Sans Culotte and Jacdnne, Msn" 
Chester, 1800. None of these writings possess merit. He was the father 
of William Ogden the Radical reformer. (Procter^s Literary Reminiscences*) 

Shawcross and Bames*s factory, in Portland Street, was burned down, 
September 7. The damage was estimated at £20,000. 

The Rev. John Pope died, 28th Oct. He was minister of a Dissenting 
congregation at Blackley. 

Mr. William Sudlow died in October. He was a music-seller in Hanging 
Ditch, and the father of John Sudlow, organist of the Collegiate Church. 

48 George IIL cap. S. Act for continuing the term and altering and 
enlarging the powers of an Act passed in the thirty-eighth year of the reign of 
His present Mi^Jesty, intituled. An Act for more effectually repairing, 
widening, altering, and improving the road from the town of Manchester, by a 
place called the White Smithy, in the township of Crumpsall, to the town of 
Rochdale, and also the road from the said plaoe called the White Smithy, by a 



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uoi] Armals of Mcmchester. 181 



place called Betaee-of -the-Barn, to the town of Bury, and alao from the aald 
place called Beaaea-of-the-Barn to RadcUffe Bridge, and alao the lane called the 
Sbeeptoot Lane, in the townahip of Preatwich, ao far aa the aame relatea to a 
certain diatrict of road therein deacribed, called the Uancheater diatrict. 
December 291 

The Philanthropic Society waa founded. 

Colonel Ford'a Regiment of Light Horae Volnnteera were djabapded, and 
the colonra depoaited at Claremont. 

The Lancaahire Commercial Clerha' Society waa eatabliahed. 

42 George IIL cap. 86. Act for enabling the guardian of EUxabeth 
Henrietta Fhilllpa, Spinater, an infant, to aell and convey in fee farm her 
undivided loorth part» or J<^ with the ownera of the other ahaiea, in aelling 
and conveying in fee farm the entirety of aeveral plota or parcela of land in 
ICancfaeater, under yearly reaerved rente, for the puxpoae of building upon. 

1803. 

The Manchester Tdegraph and Weekly AdverHeer, Na 1, January 1, 
price aixpence, waa printed and publiahed by Jamea Edmonda and Co., Bow 
Lane. 

The laat toll at the New Bailey Bridge waa paid off, January 31. 

Francia Bgerton, Duke of Bridgewater, died 8th March. He waa bom 20th 
May, 1730, and aucceeded to the title on the death of hia brother in 174a An 
early disappointment in love ia said to have led him to retire to hia Lancaahire 
eatate, where he conceived the idea of a canal navigation. In the carrying out 
of thia enterpriae he had the advantage of the help of Jamea Brindley, an engi* 
neering geniua of the first daaa. The story of the conatruction of the 
Bridgewater Canal ia told in Dr. Smilea^a Lives of the Engineers^ and in 
Eapinaaae'a Lancashire Worthies, The Duke of Bridgewater contributed 
£100,000 to the "loyalty loan.** Hia canal property and coalminea at the 
time of hia death were realising from £50,000 to £80,000 a year. The title 
became extinct, but the canal property waa entailed on Lord I^randa Sgerton, 
the aecond aon of the Marquis of Stafford. 

lir. Robert Walker died at Little Moaa, Hay 8. He waa bom at Carrington 
Bam, Audenahaw, July 27, 1728, and waa a handloom weaver. Like many 
othera of that calling he waa a keen politician, and Burke'a reference to tbe 
**awiniah multitude*' excited hia indignation, and aome piecea in the dialect, 
flrat written on a alate hanging by the aide of his loom, appeared in the Jfafi- 
chester Ocuette^ and were reprinted in 1796 under the title of Pl^peian Politics. 
Hia portrait Is prefixed to a later edition of thia witty little book. He ia 
buried in Aahton Churchyard. 

The Philological Society, instituted by Dr. Adam Clarke for the cultivation 
of literature in general, and the dlflbaion of useful knowledge, September 23. 

The Townsman^ No. 1, appeared December 7. The editor of this theatrical 
paper waa the eccentric Jamea Watson, better known aa *' The Doctor.** 

Colonel Joseph Hanaon waa presented at court, and waa, it is said, com- 
manded by George III. to appear with his hat on, and in the regimentals of the 
Maneheater Rifle Regiment, of which he waa the commander, December 21. 

The Argust No. 1, published by Joaeph Aaton. 



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132 Armals of MtmcheOer. 0^04 

The following yolaxiteer corps were raised in Manchester in the ootvse of 
this year : Manchester Light Horse Volunteers, Shakspeare Philips, Colonel; 
Ackers's Volunteers, James Ackers, Colonel; Silvester's Volunteers, John 
Silvester, Colonel; St. George's Corps, John Cross, Colonel; Fourth Class 
Volunteers, 6. Philips, Colonel ; Hulme Volunteers, Mi^or Pooley; Pendleton 
Volunteers, Captain Abhot ; Trafford Volunteers, Lieutenant-Colonel Cooke ; 
Loyal Masonic Volunteer Rifle Corps, Joseph Hanson, Colonel. 

Kennedy's factory in German Street was burned down, and one at the 
firemen killed. 

A market opened in Bridge Street. 

The officers of the Manchester and Saltord Volunteer Regiments were each 
presented with a gold medal, as a testimony of gratitude from their fellow- 
townsmen for their patriotic services. 

Pickfords, the carriers, oifered to place at the disposal of Government, 
should they be required, 400 horses, 50 wagons, and 28 boats. 

The cost of equipping a Manchester Light Horse Volunteer was £25 8s. 6d. 

1804. 

Mr. Joseph Harrop died 20th January, aged 67. He was a native of 
Manchester, and a printer and bookseller, as well as proprietor of the 
Manchester Mercury. He was succeeded in business by his son, James 
Harrop. 

High floods in the Irwell did considerable damage in January. 

James Robinson was married to Ann Hilton, at St. John's Church, by the 
Rev. John Clowes, February 6. This was the flrst marriage celebrated in that 
church, notwithstanding the right granted and conflrmed thirty-flve years 
before, by the Act of Parliament on which the church was founded. 

Mr. Thomas Fumival died 22nd February, aged 66. He was the governor of 
the House of Correction, Hunt's Bank. 

44 George lU. cap. 9. Act for enabling the Company of Proprietors of the 
Rochdale Canal more eflTectually to provide for the discharge of their debts, 
and to complete the whole of the works to be executed by them in pursuance 
of the several Acts passed for making and maintaining the said canal. March 23. 

The Hay Biarket was flxed in Bridgewater Street, and the Shudehill Potato 
Market removed to St. John's Market, March 24. The last was afterwards 
established in Smithfield Market and Oldham Road, adjoining the Lancashire 
and Yorkshire Goods Station. 

The Rev. John Clowes preached a sermon on the ooeaslon of the presenta- 
tion of colours to the First Battalion, Fourth Class, of IdUmchester and Salford 
Volunteers, April 2. 

There was a grand review of the local Volunteer Corps, consisting of S,816 
men, on Sale Moor, in Cheshire, by the Duke of Gloucester and his son. Prince 
William, April 12. The stand fell, and one person was kUled. This is referred 
to in ICrs. Linnasus Banks's Mancheater Man, 

Bir. Nathaniel Wood died 1st June, aged 60. He was a patten maker ic 
TTAwgtng Bridge, and was known by the nickname of *' Patten Nat.** A wag 



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iflM] Annals of Manchester. 133 

wrote the following doggerel apon him at the puhllc-hoiue he need to frequent 
in Salford :^ 

**FftttflnNat.heUM>fat, 
That he can hardly walk, 
With dtting here, and dzinldng hear, 
And hearing pnpplea talk." 

There ie a portrait of Nat in the Scrap Alhnm at Chetham's College. 

There was a public prooeselon to Ardwick Green, to celebrate the birthday 
of George IIL, Jane 4. 

44 George HI. cap. 49. Act for mote effoctnally amending the road leading 
from the New Wall, on the Parade, in the township of Castleton, in the parish 
of Bochdale, through Middleton, to the Mere Stone, in the townahip'of Great 
Heaton, and to the town of Manchester, Jnne 6. 

Mr. Balph Whitehead died lOth June. He was the leader of the band of 
the Fourth Class of lianchester and Salford Volunteers. 

The British Volunteer^ No. 1, June 30, was printed and published bj 
James Harrop, in the Biarket Place, price 6d« 

A duel was fought on Kersal Moor between Major Phillips, commander of 
the Manchester and Salford Cavalrj,- and Mr. Jones, a private in the same 
corps, July 9. 

Bev. Doming Basbotham died 18th July. He was a fellow of the Collegiate 
Church. 

Colonel John Leigh Philips and Colonel Joseph Hanson met upon Kersal 
Moor, to fight a duel, but were arrested and bound over to keep the peace, 
July 26. 

The roof of the Bible Christian Church, King Street, Salford, fell in, 
August 23. 

Beverend John Johnson died 22nd September. He was ixjxn near Norwich 
and after hearing a sermon preached in one of the chapels of the Countess of 
Huntingdon he was one of the first six students ordained in the plan of 
secession. He settled at Wigan, and preached at Chorley and Bretherton 
where there was a riotous disturbance which led to a trial at the Quarter 
Sessions. He next moved to Tyldesley, and then visited America, and had a 
stiff legal contest, in which he was worsted, as to the Orphan House founded 
by Whitfield. Betuming to England he was imprisoned for debts contracted 
in erecting the chapel at Tyldesley. He came to Manchester and secured St. 
George's Church, which had been built for Anglican services, but had not been 
consecrated, and the builder having become insolvent it passed into the hands 
of the creditors. Here he gathered an appreciative audience. On one occasion 
he preached three sermons in Hebrew to the Jews of Manchester. He left 
various MS. works, some in shorthand, and published The Zevite's Journal; 
and a prospectus of a universal language. The Bev. Wilham Boby preached 
his funeral sermon, which was printed. 

The Duke of Gloucester, accompanied by his son. Prince William, inspected 
the whole volunteer force of the town at Ardwick ; after which they paid a 
visit to Chetham's Hospital, September 80. 

Colonel Cross's Begiment, known as the St. George's Corps of Manchester 
and Salfbrd Volunteer Infantry, was disbanded in September. 



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134i Armals of MaiMhester. dSM 

Mr. George Lloyd, barrister, died October 12. 

Mr. Griffith Cheeee died 10th November. He was organist of the CoUegfate 

Church, and a musical composer. He is buried in the Collegiate Church. 

Mr. Gerard Bancks died in November. He was a printer and bookseller, 

and an officer in the volunteers. 

The Bochdale and Halifax Canal to Knot Mill was opened December 20. 
The Rochdale Canal was opened. The committee came from Bochdale to 

Manchester in two boats, accompanied by the band of the Ist battalion of the 

Manchester and Salford Volunteers, and on the same evening a boat loaded 

with goods came from Bochdale to Bianchester, and proceeded through to 

Liverpool next morning. December 21. 

The Manchester Guide^ price 6d., by Joseph Aston. It gives a oondse 

view of the state of the town at this date. 

The Bev. B. H. Whitelocke was appointed postmaster in the place of Mr. 

James Harrop, printer. 

St. Luke*s Chapsl, Bedford Street, Chorlton-upon-Medlock, was built by 

the Bev. E. Smyth. It was consecrated 1858, and rebuilt 1866. It is now a 

parish and rectory. 

From returns it appears that in Manchester and Salford there were the 

following volunteer companies :— 

Men. 

Volunteer Cavalry, Mi^or Shakespeare Phillips 138 

Volunteer ArtiUery, Colonel Earl WUton 113 

Boyal Manchester and Salford Volunteers, Colonel Ackers 1,017 

2nd Battalion Boyal M. & S., Lieut.-Colonel Sylvester l,(Xn 

St. George's Volunteers, Colonel Cross 300 

Hulme Volunteers, Major Pooley 100 

Swinton, Captain Bullock 88 

Pendleton, Captain Ablett 110 

Fourth-class IdUmch. and Salf. Volunteers, Lieut.-Col. G. Philips.. 889 

Trafford Volunteers, lieutenant-Colonel Cooke 816 

First Begt Manch. and Salf. Volunteers, Lieut.-CoL Phillips... 1 

Beaton Norris Volunteers, Captain Dale j ' 

Failsworth Pikemen, Captain Birch 192 

Manchester, Salford, Bury, and Stockport Bifle and Pikemen, 

Lieutenant-Colonel Hanson 020 

There is a list of the companies and officers in Earwakei's Local OieaningSt 

where the numbers of the men are in some cases slightly dilTerent. 

The order-book of the Boyal IdUmchester and Salford Volunteers during 

their march from Bolton to Preston and return is printed in Earwaker^s £oco/ 

Gleanings, Nos. 182, 180, lOa 

1805. 

The Mail was printed and published by Joseph Aston, No. 1, January 1. 
Price sixpence. 

The factory of G. OUivant, in Bury Street, Salford, was destroyed by flie, 
January?. 

The factory of T. Bowley and Ca, Oldfleld Lane, destroyed by fire, Feb. 26. 



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ii06i AnnaU of McmchuUr. 135 

The faetory of Jolm Bead, at laUngton, Ancnatu, waa deatroyed by fire 
FebniAryatt. 

The factory of Wood and Foater, at Oamtt, deatroyed by fixe, ICarch 1« 
The damage waa eatlmated at iB80,000. 

45 George IIL capw 4. Act to enable the Company of Proprletora of the 
Canal Navigation from Mancheater to Bolton and to Bury to ralae money to 
complete the aame. Ifareh 12. 

45 George IIL cap. !!• Act for enabHng the Company of Proprietora of the 
Canal Navigation from Mancheater to or near Aahton-under*Lyne and Oldham, 
more effectually to provide f6r the diacharge of their debts and to complete 
the aaid canal and the cnta and works thereto belonging. March 18. 

45 George m. cap. 8& Act for enabling Thomaa Barrow, Esquire, and the 
person and persons for the time being respectively entitled to the freehold in 
possession of and in the moiety of certain estates In Manchester, under the 
will of William Barrow, deoeaaed, to grant and convey the same moiety in fee 
simple for building upon, or otherwise improving the same, reserving rents, or 
to make building leases thereof, or to Join with the owner or owners, for the 
time being, of the other moiety thereof, in making such grants and convey- 
ances or leases respectively. May 17. 

Ann Smith, a woman 80 years old, waa murdered In Oak Street, liay 81. 
Mary Jackson was tried at Lancaster f6r the crime, but acquitted. 

Two cousins of the name of Faulkner, belonging to Colonel Hanson's Rifle 
Corps, were practising at the target, in the gronnda attached to Strangeways 
Hall, when one of them going behind the mark was shot through the body by 
the other. June 7. 

45 George m. cap. SQL Act to empower the Justices of the Peace within 
the Division or Hundred of Salford to raise a sum of money to be paid by way 
of salary to the Chairman of the Quarter Sessions for the said Hundred. 
JuneS7. 

The factory of Messrs. Buchan and Shaw, at Higher Ardwick, destroyed 
l^flre. July 14. 

Bev. Moeley Cheek died 18th July. He waa the founder of St. Stephen*! 
^urch, and chaplain of the New Bailey. 

There were great pnbUo njolclngs on Ardwick Green for the victory of 
Trafalgar. Subscription was made for the relief of thoee who had lost 
relatives In the engsgement. November 21. The volunteers attended the 
thanksgiving services 5th December. 

Hindley's cotton ftetory, George Leigh Street, Ancoata, waa burned down 
December 20. 

Thackary and Son's ootton factory, at Garratt, destroyed by fire Dec 88. 

The ofllcera of the Manchester and Salford Rifle Corpa prsaented to Joseph 
Hanson, their colonel, a sword, a brace of pistols, and a pike. 

Mr. Charlea Gough, of Mancheater, died upon the mountain of Helvellyn. 
Hia remains were not discovered till three months afterwards, when they were 
found guarded by a faithful terrier bitch, hia constant attendant during fre* 
quent solitary rambles through the wilds of Cumberland and Westmoreland. 



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136 AmiialB of Manchestef. fiaoa 

This melancholy incident was made the subject of a poem by Sir Walter Scott, 
ending with the yeraes }— 

" When & prince to the f&te of the peeaent hM yielded, 

The tapeetiry wftvee dark round the dim-Ughtod hall 
With eouteheoiM of aUyer the oofBn is ehiftlded, 

▲nd pegee stand mute by the canoplal pall : 
Ihrough the oourta, at deep midnight, the torehea are gl^mlnc. 
In the proodly-arehed ehepel the bannera are beaming, 
fkr adown the long aiale aacred made la atrcaming, 

lamwiting e chief of the people ahoold bSL 

Bat neeter for thee, gentle lorer of netura^ 

lo lay down thy head like the meek mountain lamb^ 
When, 'wilder'd, he dropa from aome cliff huge In stature 

And dimwa hla bat aob by the side of hia dam. 
And mora atately thy oooeh by thla desert lake lying. 
Thy obaeqnlea aong by the gray plover flying, 
With one faithful friend but to witneaa thy dying, 

In the arma of HelTellyn and C&thedicem.** 

Mr. W. IL Craig attempted the formation of a Manchester Academy for the 
Promotion of Fine Arts, bat the attempt failed. 

The f^ustory of Messrs. Lee and Phillips, SaUord, was lighted with gas. This 
was the ilrst use of the new light in this district. 

1806. 

The Portico, Mosley Street, was opened January 20. Cost £7,000. 

In the case of Mosley v. Stonehoose and Bailton, which was tried in the 
King's Bench 11th Febmary, the lord of the manor, as plaintiff, sooght to com* 
pel defendants to serve the office of constable, to which they had been 
appointed. They claimed exemption as the holders of certificates known as 
Tyburn tickets, and their claim was allowed. By 10 and 11 William m., c. 23, 
those who obtained the oonyiction of a person charged with a capital offence 
were entitled to exemption from parochial offices. This was repealed 68 Geo. 
m. C.70. 

40 George in. cap. 2. Act for making and maintaining a road from Great 
Bridgewater Street, in Manchester, across the River Irwell, through Salford, 
to Eocles, and several branches of road to communicate therewith. March 22. 

In TWi^ving the new road from Manchester to Middleton the workmen 
discovered a number of bones and a lead coffin in Colly hurst Clough. They are 
supposed to be the remains of persons who died of the plague in 1006, when a 
piece of land containing six acres was given by Mr. Bowland Mosley, lord of 
the manor, as a burial-place for those who died of this disease. It was also 
Intended to erect cabins and build upon for the relief and harbour of infteted 
persons whenever the plague should appear in the town« March. 

Mr. Joseph Barlow, governor of Chetham's Hospital, died April 0, aged 72. 

Mr. Charles Lawson, M.A., died 19th April, aged 78 years. He was for 
Afty-elght years master of the Free Grammar School. A monument^ designed 
by Bacon, is placed over the entrance into the chapter-house of the Collegiate 
Church, with an inscription expressive of the estimation in which he was held. 
There Is a notice of him In Smith's Orammar School Brgisttr. De Quincey 
has left a vivid account of the state of the school under Lawson*s management* 



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280ii Aniuds of Manchester. 137 

The lint stone of the Exchange was laid by Mr. George PhillJpe, July 21. 
<See alao under dates 180O and 1872.) 

46 George in. cap. 20. Act for enabling the Company of Proprietors of the 
Rochdale Canal more eifectnally to provide for the discharge of their debte, and 
to amend the several Acta passed for making and maintaining the said canaL 
April 21. 

Mr. William Tate, an eminent portrait painter of this town, died at Bath, 
Jane 2. He is said to have been bom at either Manchester or Liverpool, was a 
pupil of Wright, of Derby, and exhibited twelve portraits at the Society of 
Artists, London, between 1771 and 1801. 

46 George IIL cap. 63. Act for more efTectQally improving the roads from 
Manchester, through Oldham, to Ansterlaa^ in the parish of Saddle worth, and 
from Oldham to Ashton-nnder-Lyne, and from Oldham to the village of Royton. 
June 9. 

46 George in. cap. 88. Act to extend the powers given to and vested in the 
Trustees of certain lands in Manchester, Cmmpsall, and Tetlow, in the county 
of Lancaster, called Clarke's Charity Lands, by an Act made in the thirty*flfth 
year of the reign of His present Mi^esty, intituled, An Act to enable the 
Trustees of certain lands in Manchester, Cmmpsall, and Tetlow, called Clarke's 
Charity Lands, to make leases for years upon rack rents, and also to grant 
building leases, and make conveyances in fee of and upon all or any part of the 
said Lands, under reserved yearly rents. June 20. 

46 George III. cap. 84. Act for enabling the Guardians of Francis Outram, 
an infant, or of the persons, for the time being, entitled to the freehold in pos- 
session of the moiety of certain estates situate in or near Ancoats Lane, Man- 
Chester, during their minorities, to carry into execution certain contracts 
entered into with the several persons therein named for sale of part thereof, 
and also for enabling such guardians to convey the residue in fee simple for 
building upon, reserving rents, or to make building leases thereof; or to join 
with the owners, for the time being, of the other moiety of the same estates in 
carrying into execution such contracts, and in making such conveyances or 
leases respectively, and for other purposes therein mentioned. June 20. 

Mrs. Julia Young, wife of the highly-talented tragedian Mr. Charles Mayne 
Young, then one of the managers of the Theatre Royal in this town, died 
July 11. She was buried at Frestwich, and upon the gravestone are some lines 
written by Joseph Aston. The spot was one which she selected when walking 
there with her husband. Some interesting particulars are given in the Life of 
C. M. Young ^ by his Son, the Rev. Julian Young. 

The Lancashire Union of Independent Churches was founded at Mosley 
Street Chapel, September 23. 

Messrs. Norton and Co.*s dyehouse, at the Wallness, was burned down 
October 9; damages £2,000. 

Banns of marriage were published in St. Mary's Church for the first time, 
October 19. 

The Methodist New Connexion Chapel, Broad Street^ Pendleton, was built. 

Robert Southey visited Manchester. In his Letters of EspricUa he has 
given a curious account of his experiences 



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138 Anruds of Ma/nchegter. omt 

Brooghton Bridge built by Mr. Samuel Clowes. The paaaage over was free 
to his tenants in Bronghton, bat for other passengers a toll was levied. 
Theatre Boyal, Fountain Street, erected. 

1807. 

Julius Leuchte, leader of the band at the Gentlemen's Concert, died Jan. lA. 

The Bev. John Lever died February, aged 75. He was the brother of 
Sir Ashton Lever, of Alkrington. 

The Grand Lodge of the Loyal Orange Institution of England established 
at the Star Hotel, Deansgate. Colonel Taylor, of Moston, was elected Grand 
Master. February. 

Mr. Francis Duckinfleld Astley, of Dukinfleld, was appointed High Sheriff 
for Cheshire, and passed through Manchester 12th April, with a splendid caval- 
cade, accompanied by the Rifle Corps. 

The Bev. Jeremiah Smith, D.D., of Corpus Christi College, Oxford, 
appointed master of the Free Grammar School, liay 0. 

The Theatre Royal, Fountain Street, was opened July 12, with the comedy 
of FoUy aa it Flies and RosincL^ under the management of Mr. Maoready. 
The rent was £2,000 a year. 

There was a riot between the Orangemen and the Irish, in High Street, 
July 13. 

47 George in. stat. 2, cap. 81. Act to alter, amend, explain, and enlarge 
the powers of the several Acts passed for making and maintAlning the Bochdale 
Canal Navigation. August a 

As three boys were sliding upon the ponds in Strangeways Park, the ice 
broke and they were let into the water, when two were saved by Mr. David 
Law, jun. The other was drowned. November 29. 

The Independent Chapel, Grosvenor Street, was opened in December. 

James Massey, who was a prisoner in the New Bailey, charged with an 
unnatural crime, hanged himself, and was buried near the " distance chair ** on 
Kersal Moor; from whence he was afterwards removed and buried in the 
ditch at the place where Grindrod was gibbeted, and was finally interred near 
the Salford weighing machine. 

The payment of cock penny abolished by the feofBees of the Free Grammai 
School. 

The Independent Methodist Chapel, Shaw Street, Salford, was opened. 

The Baptist Chapel, York Street, was built. 

The first packet boat from the New Bailey Bridge commenced sailing to 
Runcorn. 

John Lancaster died at Mere 10th August. He is said to have been the 
first to open a Sunday school in Manchester. He was a shoemaker in a cellar 
in London Road, where he started a school in 1785. {Manchester QutMrdian 
Local Notes and Queries, No. 0B4.) 

Rev. George Walker, F.RS., died in London in 1807. He was bom at 
Newcastle-on-Tyne in 1735, and after preaching to Dissenting congregations at 
Durham and Yarmouth became mathematical teacher at Warrington. In 
17M he was master at Nottingham, but came to Manchester as a professor a: 



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uos: Amuda of Mcmchester. 139 

the Manchester Academy. He was president of the Llteiary And Philoeophica' 
Society, and the author of the Disaewter^a Plea^ and various essays on ethia 
and belles-lettres. (Smith's Centefiary, p. 180.) 

Mr. Joseph Hanson reaigned the command of the Manchester Loyal 
Masonic Rifle Volunteers. 

1808. 

A dispute between the weavers and their employers respecting the rate of 
wages led to a riot. May 24, 25. Lieutenant-Colonel Hanson appeared on the 
field and endeavoured to pacify the weavers. One weaver was killed by the 
military. 

48 George UL cap. 43. Act for the more easy and speedy recovery of small 
debts within the parish of Manchester. May 27. 

48 George ILL cap. 127. Act for enabling Sir Oswald Mosley, Baronet, to 
grant certain lands and hereditaments, in the parish of Manchester, for the 
purposes of the Manchester Public Infirmary, Dispensary, Lunatic Hospital or 
Asylum, and for vesting the property and effects Jy long to the said Charity in 
Trustees for the benefit thereof . June 18. ^ 

The Bev. John Darby died August 31, aged 71. He was for upwards of 
forty years second master of the Free Grammar School, and on the death of Idr. 
Lawson refused the head mastership on the ground of ill-health. 

Mr. Nathaniel PhiUps, of Stand, in Pilkington, died September £9, aged 82. 

A servant woman committed suicide by poison, and was buried at New 
Cross, September 22. 

The Bev. John Whitaker died at Buan Bectory, SOth October. He was the 
son of Mr. James Whitaker, and was bom at Manchester and baptised at the 
CoUeg^aJbd Church. He entered the Grammar School 7th January, 1744-6 ; and 
was exhibitioner to Brasenose, Oxford, 1762. He matriculated 6th March, 1752, 
and became Lancashire Scholar of Corpus Christ! College 2nd March* 1753, 
and fellow 21st January, 1763. He took his degrees as follows : B.A« 24th 
October, 1756; M.A. 27th February, 1769; and B.D. 1st July, 1767. He was 
elected a F«S.A. 10th January, 1771. He lived near Salford Bridge, circa 1772. 
He was successively curate of Bray, Berkshire, and curate of Newton Chapel ; 
be was morning preacher at Berkeley Chapel, November, 1773, to January, 1774 ; 
and Beccor of Buan Lanyhom 22nd August, 1777, to the time of his death. 
He married Jane, daughter of the Bev. John Tregenna. He is best known by 
his History of Manchester^ 1771-75, which, if disfigured by dogmatism and 
untenable theories, is a work of great importance and erudition. A full Ust of 
his numerous writings is given in the Bibliotheca Conubienais of Boase and 
Courtney, and in Palatine Note-book^ vol. i., p. 77, where a miniature portrait 
by H. Bone is engraved. 

Mr. John Thornton, drawing-master, died November 9. 

Bev. James Bayley, M.A., senior fellow of the college, died November 13. 
He was son of James Bayley, high sheriff in 1757, and was bom in 17-10. He 
was educated at the Grammar School, and was Hulme exhibitioner at Brasenose 
College, Oxford, in 1762. He was rector at St. Mary's Church, and was elected 
fellow of the Collegiate Church, October 14. 1773. (Smith's Grammar School 



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140 AnTuds of Manchester. [^309 

Regiater^ vol. I., p. 81.) The Bev. C. Johnson, of Wilmslow, was elected In 
his place, December 12. 

lir. Nathan Meyer Rothschild settled in Manchester, as agent to his father 
t Frankfort, in purchasing cotton goods for the Continental market. He was 
only resident for a few years. 

Sir Oswald Mosley offered to sell the manor of Manchester to the inhabi- 
tants for £80,000, but the negotiations failed. £70,000 was offered, and refused. 

A petition, signed by 50,000 persons, was sent from Manchester against the 
"Orders in Council,'' passed In retaliation of Bonaparte's Berlin and Milan 
decrees. 

Manchester and Salford Court of Bequests was established. 

The Manchester and Salford Waterworks Company establishecu The 
length of iron main pipes laid down was upwards of seventy miles, and the 
daily consumption of water was about 1,400,000 gallons. Besenroirs were made 
at Bradford, Beswick, Gorton, and Audenshaw. 

The Shndehill Fits partially filled up, and a Methodist chapel built upon 
a part of their site in Swan Street, but converted into shops and dwelling- 
houses in 1823. 

The Circus, in Chatham Street, was taken down and dweUing-houset 
erected on the site. 

The Regent Bridge, Regent Road, was opened. A toll was taken until 
1848, when it was made free. 

The Bradford reservoir was demolished. 

1800. 

The newsroom was opened at the Exchange 2nd January. 

The Bev. John Clowes, of Broughton Hall, was elected a fellow of the 
Collegiate Church, February 11. 

Mr. Joseph Hanson, of Strangeways Hall, was sentenced in the Court of 
King's Bench to six months* imprisonment, and a fine of £100, liay 12, for his 
share in the confiict between the weavers and their masters. A "penny sub- 
cription" was raised, to which there were thirty-nine thousand six hundred 
contributors. Hanson was justly popular with the working classes. 

49 George III. cap. 102. Act for more effectually supplying with water the 
inhabitants of the towns of Manchester and Salford. June 20. 

The dining-room of the Exchange was opened 4th June. 

Mr. Samuel Clowes, of Bnnighton Hall, was appointed high sheriff of the 
county. 

The lessee of the Theatre Royal, the elder Macready, found himself in 
financial straits. His son, afterwards so famous as an actor, although only a 
youth of sixteen, was practically manager of his father's company. The youth 
saw his father arrested by the sheriff's officer. " When I found him actually a 
prisoner," he says, " my fortitude gave wsy, and I burst into tears." For W. C. 
Macready's later conniectlon with the town see under date 1849. 

The Swedenborgian Conference was to have been held in IdUmchester, bat> 
" from unforeseen circumstances of an unpleasant nature," did not take place* 
A conference, summoned by the Rev. William Cowherd, was held, and resulted 



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1810] Anmoda of Manchester 141 

in the formation of the Bible Christian Chorch. (Hindmarsh's Biae of New 
Jerusalem Churchy p. 190.) 

The Manchester Exchange HeraXd, No. 1, September 80, was printed and 
published by Joseph Aston, St Ann Street 

liary Leatherbarrow, said to be 106 years of age, died at Holme. 

A large pile of warehouses, situated in Crompton Court, was burnt down, 
April 13. 

Bradbury, the down, opened the new Amphitheatre in Spring Gardens, 
September. 

The Ladies' JubUee School, Strangeways, was founded October 24. (See 
under date 1810.) 

The Jubilee, to commemorate the fiftieth year of the reign of George III., 
celebrated with processions, balls, and fireworks, October 25. 

The fine whole-length portrait of Colonel Stanley, painted by Lawrence, 
was presented by James Ackers and Thomas Johnson, and placed in the 
Exchange room. November. 

The scutching machine introduced into Manchester by Mr. James^Kenncdy. 

1810. 

The Manchester Auxiliary Bible Society was established January 4. 

Mr. Thomas Henshaw, of Oldham, died March 4. He left £20,000 for a 
Blind Asylum, £1,000 to the Infirmary, £1,000 to the Lunatic Hospital, and 
£500 to the Ladies* Jubilee School. 

Rev. Thomas Barnes, D.D., died at Femeysides, Little Leyer, 27th June. 
He was bom at Warrington, 13th February, 1747, and educated at Warrington 
Grammar School and Warrington Academy. In 1768 he became minister at 
Cockey Moor, and in 1780 was appointed co-pastor of Cross Street Chapel. He 
was one of the founders of the Literary and Philosophical Society, and a leader 
in the intellectual and philanthropic movements of the time. There is a 
portrait of him in Sir Thomas Baker^s Memorials^ and a list of his writings. 
He is buried in the Chapel Yard. 

The Bev. John Gresswell, who for many years filled the office of school- 
master at the Chetham Hospital, died July 14. 

A dinner given to Admiral Sir William Sidney Smith by the authorities 
of the town, September 0. 

William Wilkinson Westhead bom 26th September. He was known as 
the " Mandiester gigantic boy.*' (See under date of September 6, 182a.) 

Mi^or^Seneral Roger Aytoun <** Spanking Roger"), of Chorlton Hall, died 
at Inchdamey, in Scotland* October 23. 

Rev. Ralph Harrison died 4th November. He was a descendant of Cuthbert 
Harrison, of KJrkham, but was bom at Chinley, in Derbyshire, and was 
educated at the Warrington Academy, and in 1771 became minister of Cross 
Stieet ChapeL There Is a silhouette portrait of him In Sir Thomas Baker*s 
MemorUUa, He is the author of Institutes of English Grammar^ 1777 ; Sacred 
Harmony : Psalm Tunes^ 1786. His Sermons were collected, with a memoir 
by Rev. John Holland, and published in 1813. 

The Royal Lancasterian Free School, Manchester, founded by public 



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142 Annals of Manchester. 



(18U 



subscription, was piiened, November 23, in Marshall Street, Oldham BoacL It 
was transfenred to the Manchester School Board in 1880. 

The Wealeyan Methodist Chapel, Great Bridgewater Street, was opened. 

Hackney coaches established in Manchester. 

Brown's Chantry, dedicated to St. George, on the north side of the CoUegiata 
Church, was purchased by the parishioners for £800. 

The Ladies* Jubilee School, in Strangeways, had its origin in 1808. in the 
benevolenoe of several ladies. In 1800 a house was procured in Broughton 
Lane, and ten girls were educated. Over the centre door of the present build- 
ing is the following inscription : " Jubilee Female Charity School, erected 
1810, by public subscription, in commemoration of the 50th year of His Bd^esty 
George in." Shortly after the completion of the building the number of girls 
was increased to thirty. The children are instructed in reading and writing, 
in knitting, sewing, and in the duties of kitchen and house servants. 

Joseph Allen, portrait painter, settled in Manchester and painted a great 
number of portraits. He was a native of Birmingham. He retired from 
Manchester to Buxton, where he died. 

A painting by Old Parry, representing Manchester Market Place in 1810, 
is preserved at Ageeroft HalL It is described by Sir Thomas Baker in the 
Palatine Note-book^ voL ill., p. 281. 

1811. 

The Manchester Philanthropic Society established January 1. 

Wood and Foster's cotton factory, at Garratt, was destroyed \tj fire, 
Januarys. 

William Thomas Lewis, comedian, died January I8» aged 66. He was a 
native of Ormskirk, his father being an actor, and his grandfather a clergyman. 
He went on the stage when very young, and early distinguished himself. He 
made his first appearance in London, October 13, 1776. In 1782 he became deputy 
manager of Covent Garden Theatre. In 1803 he retired from this position, and 
eventually became Joint proprietor of the Liverpool and Manchester Theatres. 
{OenUemaWs Magcueine, January, 1811, p. 00.) 

Bev. Thomas Bancroft, M. A., Vicar of Bolton, died at Bolton, 6th February. 
Ho was bom at Manchester, 1756, and wrote Prolusionea Poetical, 1788, and 
other works. {Qrammar School Beglster, vol. L, p. 103.) 

Mr. John Presoott, printer of the Manchester Journal, died, near Leigh, 
April 13, aged 70. 

Mr. Joseph Hanson died 3rd September. He was bom at lianchester, 1774. 
He was the author of Defence of the PeiiiUma for Peace, 1808. After retiring 
from business he lived at Strangeways Hall, and was imprisoned for taking 
sides with the weavers in a dispute with their employers. (See under date 180O.) 

Mr. Thomas Philips, father of Sir George Philips, Bart., died, aged 83. 

Mr. Samuel Chetham Hilton, of Moston, was appointed High SherilT. 

Mr. Joseph Hanson, in giving evidence before the House of Commons on the 
petition from the Manchester weavers, stated the number of spinners to be 
9,000, and the number of weavers at 12,000, the latter earning lis., and the 
former averaging 7s. per week when fully employed. 

The Lodge in Pool Fold taken down. This was the ancient house formerly 



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itu] Annals of Manchester. 143 

known as " BadcUffea of the Pool," and at one time naed as a prison for Roman 
Catholic recusanta. 

The population of Manchester, including Ardwick, Cheetham, Chorlton 
and Hnlme, at the a^coDd cenraa, was 80,064. That of Salford, including 
Bronghton, 19,030. 

1812. 

Haigh, Mamhall, and Tidawell'a waiehonae, High Street, was destroyed 
by flie, Sunday, Febmary 0. 

Rev. Comelina Bayley, D.D., died at Manchester, 2nd April. He was 
founder and minister of St. James's Church. He wrote a Btsbrew Qrammar^ 
and took an acUve part in the promotion of Sunday schools. The Sweden- 
borgian minister Hindmarsh, who knew him well, says that he was a 
disbeliever in the Newtonian astronomy, against which he urged Jos. z. 12, and 
2 Kings xz. 10, 11. He thought a knowledge of the Hebrew language a good 
introduction to that of the angels of heaven, since it was the tongue spoken by 
God and His prophets. One of his sermons ended with the following odd meta- 
phor in the expression of a wish that ** the vhUctb of strife may be qutnehtd in 
the>lre of divine love." <Hindmarsh*s RiBt of Hew Jeruaalem Church, p. 130.) 

A meeting for proposing a loyal address to the Prince Regent was called by 
the authorities at the Exchange, but the meeting was postponed. The 
irritation thus caused finally led to a riot, in which great damage was done. 
April a 

There were food riots in ApriL The ringleaders were apprehended, and on 
the 13th June eight persons were executed at Lancaster— four for mill burning, 
three for breaking into a house merely to obtain some food, and a woman for 
stealing some potatoes at Bank Top. 
' National Schools, on Dr. Bell's system, opened in Granby Row, 20th April, 
and in Bolton Street, Salf ord, 26th June. 

The Wiltshire, Buckinghamshire, Louth, and Stirling militia regiments^ 
numbering about 3,000, were encamped on Kersal Moor, and were reviewed by 
General Ackland, June 4. The camp was visited in August by the Duke of 
Kdntzose. 

Thirty-eight men— named William Washington, Thomas Broughton, Thos. 
Cooke, John Haigh, Thomas Wilkinson, Charles Oldham, James Sjiott, Chas. 
Woolllng, Robert Thomley, Simon Simmons, William Coppock, John Oldham, 
Aaron Marvel, John Haworth, Err Oldham, John Kershaw, Charles Smith, 
Thomas Harsnett, John Knight, Thomas Cannavan, Joseph Tilney, John 
Godley, Daniel Jevens, Stephen Harrison, Edward M'Ginnes, James Hepworth, 
Rycroft Hepworth, James Lawton, Robert Slack, Randle Judson, Edmund 
Kewton, Aaron Whitehead, James Buckley, John Newton, James Boothby, 
Edward PhUllps, James Greenwood, and Isaac Birch— who had assembled at a 
public-house in Ancoats Lane were taken up and tried for administering the 
Luddite oath, June 11. After remaining in prison for three months they wore 
tBedTat Lancaster and acquitted, August 28. 

Mr. Sadler, the aeronaut, ascended in a balloon from St. George's Field, ^ 
June2GU 



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144 Armala of Mcmchester. mt 

t ' ■' " -'■'■■ — — ^ — - 

The tomb of Sir James Stanley, fourth warden of the Collegiate Church, and 
Bishop of Ely, was reopened after an Interval of 287 years since his interment. 
The bishop died excommunicated, and a suspicion was thereby excited that the 
body would not be found buried within the pale of the church. This conjecture 
was confirmed. June. 

Mr. James Cooke, solicitor, of Salford, died August 7. He was a captain in 
Ackers's First Regiment, and afterwards colonel of the Trafford and Hulme 
Volunteers. 

Bight Hon. George Canning entertained at dinner at the Star Inn, 
Manchester, October 31. The company numbered about 300. 

Mr. Samuel Crompton made a survey of all the cotton distiicta in England, 
Scotland, and Ireland, and obtained an estimate of the number of spindles then 
at work upon the principle of his invention. There were between four and five 
millions. He obtained a Parliamentary grant of £5,000 in full, without fees 
or charges. In 1820 about seven millions of his spindles were at work. 

The Society for Converting the Jews to Christianity was instituted. 

The Beligious Tract Society was established. 

The Church Tract Society was instituted. 

Mr. Edward Greaves, of Culcheth, was appointed high sherifL 

18ia 

Mr. Charles White, M.D., F.RS., died 20th February. This eminent surgeon 
was bom in Manchester, October 4, 1728L He was one of the founders of the 
Manchester Infirmary, and, in addition to some professional writings, was the 
author of a suggestive book on Gradaiiona in Man and Animals, 1790. Par- 
ticulars of his life are given in Smith's Centenary, in Smith's Orammar School 
BegUter, and in a notice by Thomas White in the Menwirs of the Literary and 
Philosophical Society of Blanchester, series 2, vol. ilL 

Mr. Edward Erastus Deacon, MD., died March 14. 

Bennett's factory, Great Newton Street, destroyed by fire, Bfarch 16. 

Messrs. Kaylor and Co.'s warehouse, with others, in the New Market 
Buildings, destroyed by fire, April 1. 

53 George IIL cap. 20. Act for enlarging the powers of an Act of His 
present Majesty for supplying with water the towns of Manchester and 
Salford. April 1. 

Rev. John Dauntesey, of Agecroft Hall, died April 24, aged 78. 

The Manchester Pitt Club was established. May. 

The Manchester Police Bill received the Royal assent, June 11. 

63 George HI. cap. 72. Act for the more effectual administration of the 
oflQce of a Justice of the Peace within Manchester and Salford, and to provide, 
by means of a rate, a competent salary to a Justice of the Peace acting within 
the said townships, and to enable the Constables of lianchester and Salford to 
take recognisances in certain cases. June 22. 

Mr. William Tates died July 10, at Spring Side, near Bury, in his 74th year. 
He was a partner with the first Sir Robert Peel. 

The Temple of the New Jerusalem Church— the followers of Swedenborg— 
in Bolton Street, Salford, was opened September 10. 



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isiij AnncUa of ManchcBter. 145 

Bev. Samuel Hall, M.A., died, 22nd September. He was probably a native 
of Aahton, and in 1777 became carate of St. Ann's, where he continned nntil 
1794, when he became rector of St. Peter's, which was indeed partly built for 
him. Mr. Hall was chaplain of the local volunteers, and, in deference to the 
Dissenting members of the corps, he omitted the Athanaslan creed. This lost 
him his expected election as a Fellow of the Collegiate Church, but secured him 
the incumbency of St. Peter's. He published two collections of hymns (see 
Bardsley's MemoricUs, pp. 188-174). He was one of the guardians of De Quincey. X 

64 George IH. cap. 1. Act to continue and amend two Acts of the thirty* 
eighth and forty-third years of His present Mi^jesty for more effectually 
repairing that part of the roads from Manchester to Rochdale, Bury, and Bat- 
diffe Bridge, which is called the Manchester district* and for making and 
maintaining a new branch of road to communicate therewith. December 0. 

Mr. William David Evans, banister, was appointed the first stipendiary 
magis-trate for Manchester and Salford, at a salary of £1,000 per annum, 
payable in the proportion of seven-eighths from the township of Manchester, 
and one-eighth from the township of Salford. 

A poem, entitled A Prospect ofManche$Ur and its Neighbourhood from ^ 
Chamber upon the rUing grounds adfaeent to the Oreat Northern Boad^ was 
published anonymously at lianchester, but is known to be the production of 
Kinder Wood, a surgeon. 

The Bev. J. H. Mallory was elected a Fellow of the Collegiate Church, in 
the place of the Bev. Croxton Johnson, 1814, deceased. 

1814. 

Miss Lavinia Bobinson was found drowned in the Irwell, near the Mode 
Wheel, February 8. This young lady, who possessed superior mental accomp- 
lishments, as well as personal beauty, was engaged to Mr. Holroyd, a surgeon^ 
but on the eve of her intended marriage she disappeared from her home in 
Bridge Street, December 6, and, owing to the long frost, her body remained 
under the ice for a long period. It appears most probable that the rash act of 
the *' lianchester Ophelia" was due to a quarrel in which her betrothed had 
repeated some slanderous statements made respecting her. There, was how- 
ever, a strong suspicion that she had met with foul play. The slanders wera 
shown to be baseless, and the feeling against Mr. Holroyd was so strong that 
he had to leave the town. (Procter's Bffgone Manchester, pp. 868, 200; City 
News Notes and Queries, vol. L, p. 265.) 

Mr. Peter Cross, for many years master of the Portico, died March 1. 

The successes of the British army on the Continent were celebrated by pro- 
cessions, balls, and illuminations, April 18. 

64 George IH. cap. 88. Act for rebuilding the Chapel of Newton, in the 
parish of Manchester. May 4. 

Mr. John Vint died Idth May, aged 60 years. He was a native of Newcastle- 
on-Tyne, and had been the editor and conductor of Harrop's Manchester 
Mercury and British Volunteer newspapers. 

In connection with the Sunday school Whit-week ftetivities the Church Com- 
miasioi&ordered " a number of cakes to be baked, at Id^ f6r the children," to be 
K 



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146 Awndla of Mcmcheder. 



0814 



eaten before starUng in St. Ann's Square. This is apparently the origin of '* bans 
and milk.** The excorsions originated about this time from a desire to keep 
the yonng people away from Kersal Moor Baces on Whit- Wednesday. 
(Bardsley's Memorials^ p. 127.) 

The Society of Arts awarded to Miss Halstead, of Manchester, their gold 
medal for a painting of fmlt and flowers, June 7. She was the daughter of a 
Manchester attorney. 

Mr. John Leigh Phillips died June 23, aged 53. He was a liberal promoter of 
bibliography and the arte, and his collection of books, paintings, engravings, 
&c, was dispersed by ancUon at lianchester in 1815, and realised £5,474 16s. 3d. 
His natural histof y collection formed the basis of the Manchester Natural 
History Society's Museum. 

54 George HI. cap. 206. Act for amending two several Acts of the tenth and 
thirty-fifth years of the reign of His present Msjesty, relating to the estates 
devised by William Hulme, Esquire, and to enable the trustees thereof to 
apply the trust monies in making an allowance to, and provision for, the 
Exhibitioners of certain Exhibitions founded by the testator, in Brasennoae 
College, Oxford, and also in founding and supporting a Lecture in Divinity in 
the said College, and to incorporate the said trustees, and for other purposes 
therein mentioned. July 14. 

Several houses and part of a soapery, at Hunt's Bank, fell into the river 
Irwell, when three persons were drowned, July 29. 

Mr. Cornelius Leigh died 5th August, aged 56. He was for upwards of half a 
century connected with Harrop** Manchester Mercury and British Volunteer 
newspapers. 

Mr. William Cowdroy died, Aug. 10, aged 62 years. He was proprietor and 
editor of the Manchester Gasette^ a facile writer, with a certain graft of humour, 
and his wit was directed by public spirit and patriotism. As conductor of the 
Manchester Oaxette, his light purjiing paragraphs were greatly appreciated, 
and his columns frequently supplied the newspapers with wit and humour on 
current topics. Many of his compositions, with changes of name and date, 
were often revived at intervals of five or six years. He left four sons, all 
printers, and two daughters. 

Mr. Francis Duckinfield Astley, of Dukinfleld Lodge, was installed Grand 
Master of the Masons for the counties of Lancaster and Chester, in the two 
orders of Knight Templars and Boyal Arch Masons. The ceremony took place 
at the Dog Inn, Deansgate, August 10. 

The Wesleyan Methodist Chapel, Brunswick Terrace, Pendleton, opened 
August 29. 

The Manchester branch of the Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge 
was instituted, August. 

Thomas Egerton, first Earl of Wilton, died at Heaton House, September 
23, aged 66. He was elevated to the peerage May 15, 1784, by the title of Baron 
Grey de Wilton, of Wilton Castle, in the county of Hereford. His lord^^hip 
married. In 1709, Eleanor, youngest daughter and coheiress of Sir Ralph 
Ansheton, baronet, by whom he had several children, but one only survived, 
namely, Eleanor, who married, in 1791, Robert Viscount Belgrave, afterwards 



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1810] 



ATmah of MtmcJieeter. 147 



Marquis of WestmiiiBter. In conoeqnence of the decease of Lord Grey dc 
Wilton's elder children, his lordship obtained a new patent 26th of June, 1801, 
creating him Viscoont Grey de Wilton and Earl of Wilton, with special 
remainder to the second, and to all the younger sons successively, of his 
daughter, by her then husband, or to her male issue by any future husband. 
He was succeeded in his title and estates by Thomas Bgerton, second Earl of 
Wilton, second son of the Marquis of Westminster by the above marriage. 
His lordship was a liberal benefactor to the various charitable institutions in 
Manchester. He was buried in the family vault in Prestwich Church, Oct. 8. 

Thomas HoUingsworth died at Liverpool in October. He was an actor of 
good repute, and was styled the Father of the 3ilanchester and Liverpool 
Theatres. 

The first watchman was appointed for Chorlton Bow, now Chorlton-upon- 
Medlock, in October. 

A panic occurred in the Methodist Chapel, Oldham Street, and occasioned 
the death of two females and the serious injury of others, December 9. 

Considerable damage was done by a violent storm in Manchester and the 
neighbourhood, December. 

Bev. Timothy Priestley died, aged 80. He was the brother of the famous 
Joseph Priestley. He was for a time minister of the Congregational Church in 
Hunter's Croft, now Cannon Street, but his relations with his congregation 
were not happy, and he finally left Manchester for London. He is buried in 
Bunhill Fields. (Jones's BunhiU MemoricUa ; Bailey's Lancaahire, p. £20.) 

The Dude Bridge (so called in compliment to Lord Ducie, the proprietor of 
the land) was opened. A toll was taken until 1830, when it was removed upon 
payment of £800 by the Improvement Committee. 

The Manchester M<igazine: or. Chronicle of the Times, was published 
monthly by Joseph Hemingway and Martin Began, price Is. Discontinued 1818. 

1815. 

The Bishop of Chester consecrated a burial ground in Walker's Croft Jan. 
Ist. This land was acquired by the Manchester and Leeds Bailway in 1814, 
and is now wholly covered by Victoria Station. 

Mr. John Ferriar, MD., died, Feb. 4, aged 51. He was the son of the Bev. 
Alexander Ferriar, and was bom at Oxnam, near Jedburgh, Boxburghshire, 
on the 2l8t or 22nd of November, 1761. In 1781 he took his degree of M.D. at 
Edinburgh, and the following year he was married to Miss Barbara Gair. 
About the year 1785 Dr. Ferriar settled in Manchester, and became physician 
to the Boyal Infirmary. He was a member of the Literary and Philosophical 
Society, and contributed to the Memoirs, He was an ardent lover of literature, 
and his Illustrations of Sterne are evidences of fine taste and extensive 
reading. Ut wrote also Medical HistorieStV^; An Essay Towards a Theory 
of ApjHsriti4mSt 1813, and other writings. His Bildiomania has been reprinted 
in the Palatine NoU-book. Details of Ferriar's life and writings are given 
in the PaUUine Note-book, vol. 11., pp. 05, 100, 127, 129 ; Axon's Zancashin 
Gieaninffs; Smith's Centenary, p. 174. 



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148 Annais of Manchester, 



11815 



ConacUnce^ a tragedy, by Mr. Joseph Aaton, was performed at the Theatre 
Royal, February 8. It is founded upon one of Miss Lee*s Canterbury Tales, 

Mr. Nathaniel Heywood died 6th ApriL In conjunction with his elder 
brother, Benjamin Arthur Heywood, he established Heywood's Bank. He is 
burled in Cross Street Chapel. (Baker's Memorials, p. 100.) 

Missionary societies were established at Manchester by the Wesleyan 
Methodists February 22, and by the Church of England April 10. 

On Whit-Monday, when the children of the Sunday schools were at tha 
Collegiate Church, a cry was raised that the roof was coming In, and in the 
panic which ensued one child was killed and five injured. This led to the aban* 
donment of the gathering, which was not resumed until 1810. 

Mr. Robert Barber died June 10. He was the organist of St. Ann's Church 
lor upwards of 30 years. 

A General Swedenborglan Conference held in Peter Street Chapel Aug. 14*17. 
Bey. R Hindmarsh presided. It was decided to establish a Missionary Society. 

Mr. Joseph Budworth Palmer, F.S. A., died 4th September. He was bom In 
Manchester about 1760. His father, Joseph Budworth, was the landlord of the 
Palace Inn, and sent the boy to the Grammar School. He was one of the 
▼olnnteers who were at the siege of Gibraltar. In 1702 he published A Fort' 
nighfa Rambles to the Lakes, which went through several editions. He was 
the first to describe the *' Beauty of Buttermere." He married a rich Irish 
heiress. Miss Palmer, of Palmerstown, and assumed his wife's name. His only 
daughter, Emma, was the mother of the Duchess de Grammont, the Countess 
of Dundonald, and Mr. W. A. MacUnnon, M.P. (Smith's Orammar Sehooi 
Beffister, voL 1., p. 160 ; Nichol's Literary Anecdotes, vol. tU., part ii., p. 644.) 

Mr. John Trafford, of Trafford Park, died October 20, and was Intensd Itt 
the family vault in the Collegiate Church. 

Mr. Robinson Foxley, M.D., died at his house In King Streeti November 8. 

The Archdukes John and Louis of Austria visited Manchester, November. 

Mr. Nehemlah Bohj, father of the Rev. William Roby, died December, 
aged 70. 

The value of the property in the town was assessed at £406^088. 

The galleries and pews of the Collegiate Church ware rebuilt* and other 
repairs effected, at a cost of nearly £20,000. 

The Auxillaiy Society for Promoting Christianity among the Jews estab* 
lished in Manchester. 

The ICarqult of Anglesea passed through Manchester on his route to Brad* 
lord« to procure a substitute for the leg he lost at the battle of Waterloo. 

The Manchester Golf Club fbrmed by Mr. W. ICltchell, of Holt Town. 

In this year the township of Manchester was rated at £306,684; Ardwick, 
£11,241; Cheetham, £8,661; Chorlton, £10,830; and Hulme, £0,428. 

The exportof twist legalised by Parliament, at which time the consumption 
of cotton amounted to 00,306,343 pounds. 

The Bye Institution was opened in King Street. It has since removed to 86, 
Faulkner Street, 1882; St. John's Street, Deansgate, 1874; and to Oxford 
Road«188S. 

BiUiographiana, is the title of a coUecUon of original Uterary oontri- 



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IfllS] 



Armals of Manchester, 149 



bntloas to Aston's Exchange Herald. The work was pubUshed for privete 

distrlbntloa. It consisted of 24 nnmbers. The principal contributors were 

Messrs. F. R. Atkinson, Nathan Hill, and William Ford, bookseller. Of a con- 

iinnation, which appeared in the Stockport Advertiaer^ only ten copies were 

printed. 

1816. 

There was a great flood in the Irwell, January 5 and 6. 

Eleanor, Countess of Wilton, died at Heaton House, February 8, aged 67. 

The shock of an earthquake was felt March 17. 

Rev. William Cowherd died at Salford, 24th March. He was bom at Cam- 
forth, Lonsdale South of the Sands, in 1763. He became curate of St. John's 
Church under the Bev. John Clowes, but when the Manchester disciples of 
Swedenborg formed a separate communion he was appointed the first minister 
of the chapel opened in Peter Street in 1703. Afterwards he formed the deno- 
mination of Bible Christians, and erected a chapel in King Street, Salford, 
where, in 1800, he made abstinence from animal food and intoxicants a con* 
dition of church membership. He was a contributor to the New Jerusalem 
Journal, and the author of Liturgy of the LorcTs New Churchy Manchester, 
1703 ; Facta Authentic in Science and Religion towards a new Translation of 
the Bible, Salford, 1816 ; Select Hymns, Manchester, 1800 and 1818 ; Letters on 
Beligiaus Subjects, Salford, 1820 (a portion only is his). He was also the trans- 
lator of Swedenborg*s Doctrine of the New Jerusalem concerning Faith, which 
was printed by the Blanchester Printing Society, and editor of a translation 
made by three of his pupils of the Prodromos, Manchester, 1706. Mr. Robert 
Hindmarsh states that Mr. Cowherd claimed '*the same kind of revelation as 
was given to Emanuel Swedenborg before him,*' and regarded himself as the 
" greatest and most extraordinary man living.'* This testimony is not without 
suspicion of controversial bias. A portion of his library is preserved in the 
Bible Christian Church, Cross Lane, Salford, the King Street chapel having 
been abandoned. (Axon's Manchester Libraries; Hindmarsh's Bise of the 
New Jerusalem Church; The Dawn, July 24, 1884 ; and Williams's Ethics of 
Diet, p. 200.) He is buried under a tomb in Christ Churchyard, King Street^ 
Salford, with the following inscription : " William Cowherd, the founder and 
minister of Christ Church, Salford, died 24th of March, 1816, aged 63 years. At 
his request is inscribed, * All feared, none loved, and few understood.' " This 
has given rise to some misapprehension, for the words are merely adapted 

from a verse of Pope :— 

" Ho who would MT« ft linking land 
All foAT, nono love, few und«ntan<L" 

66 George III. cap. 12. Act for altering, amending, and extending the 
powers of two Acts of His present Mi^esty's reign, for supplying with water 
the inhabitants of the towns of Manchester and Salford. April 11. 

Mr. Thomas Battye died 16th ApriL His Bed Basil Book and other tracU 
on parochial affairs contain some very curious evidences as to the social con- 
dition of lianchester at the beginning of the century. 

Mr. William Godwin was in Manchester on April dO» and visited Thomas 
Walker. With this " venerable old gentleman ** he spent '* a delightful day " 
at Longford Hall, Stretford. 



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150 Annale of MamchesUr. 



[1816 



A free reglatry for " the enoonragement of faithful female aetrants ** opened 
in Chapel Walks, May 1. 

Mr. Samuel Mottram died. He was the deTiaer of a plan for the dlaeeml- 
nation of the yiewa of Swedenborg lyy men who took covered hand*barrow8 of 
books, some for sale and some for gratnitona diBtribntlon. It haa been suggested 
that tUs waa the origin of the aystem of oolportage, ainoe ao extensively 
employed by the Bible Society. <7%« JDaim, 8th May, 1884.) 

Mr. Nathaniel Milne, coroner for this division, and clerk to the magtstrates, 
died May 10. Elected to the coronership in 1787, he was succeeded by his son, 
John Milne, Esq., who was elected June 10, 1818. 

Mr. Isaac Clarke, bookseller, died June 18, aged 73. 

Mr. Thomas Henry, F JI.S., died June 18, aged 82. This eminent chenUst 
and philosopher was bom at Wrexham October 26, 1734, where he received his 
education, and served an apprenticeship to a surgeon-apothecary. He first 
settled at Oxford ; in 1760 he removed to Knutsford, where be married ; and in 
1764 removed to Manchester, where he continued to reside, "universally 
beloved for Ids conciliating qualities and private worth," during his long life. 

56 George III. cap. 62. Act for building a bridge across the river Irwell 
from the township of Salford to Strangeways, in the township of Cheetham, 
and tor making proper avenues thereto. June 20. 

Mr. Henry Atherton, barrister>at-law, of Lincoln's Inn and Manchester, 
died, August 17, aged 76. He married a daughter of Edward Byrom, and his 
daughter was the late Miss Eleanora Atherton. 

Mr. Charles Taylor, MD., died, August 24, at Hammersmith. He was a 
native of Manchester, and became secretary to the Society of Arts. 

Henry Crabb Robinson's Diary for September has this entry : ''Strolling 
into the Old Church at lianchester, I heard a strange noise, which I should 
elsewhere have mistaken for the bleating of lambs. Going to the spot, a dis- 
tant aisle, I found two rows of women standing in files, each with a babe in 
her arms. The minister went down the line, sprinkling each infant as he 
went. I supDOse the efficiency of the sprinkling— I mean the fact that water 
did touch— waa evidenced by a distinct squeal from each. Words were mut- 
tered by the priest In his course, but one prayer served for all. This I thought 
to be a christening by wholesale, and I could not repress the irreverent 
thought that, being in the metropolis of manufactures, the aid of steam or 
machinery might be called in. I waa told that on Sunday evenlnga the cere- 
mony is repeated." 

The Radical Reformers held meetinga in St. Peter*a Field October 28, and 
' again December 80* 

A meeting in St. Peter'a Field, ''to take into conaideration the present 
state of the country,** November 4. 

** Married, yesterday, at the Collegiate Church, by the Rev. C. D. Wray, 
John Braham, Esq., of Tavistock Square, London, to Frances EUaabeth, eldest 
daughter of the late George Bolton, Esq., of Ardwick." <Harrop*s Mereurf^ 
Nov. 10, quoted in Palatine Noie-book, vol. L, p. 71.) 

The Albion Cotton Mills, situated in Great Bridgewater Street^ were borut 
down, December. Damage £25,000. 



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^0171 Annals of Manchester. 1.. 

Mr. John BnuUhaw, F£.A., of Darcy Lever, died in December. He was a 
magistrate for the eonnty diviBion, a feoffee of Chetham's Hospital^ and IJent.- 
Colonel of the Bolton Local Militia. His death was occasioned by the over- 
taming of the Blaekbnm mail at Pendleton. 

The Market Cross, pillory, and stocks were removed from the Market 
Place, and the Obelisk, on the site of the old Exchange, taken down. This 
latter was called Nathan Crompton's Folly, having been erected during his 
serving the office of borooghreeve. 

The value of a Tyburn ticket, in Manchester, was from £860 to £400, whilst 
in London they sold for £23. The holders of these tickets were exempt from 
filling any public office in the town. 

The day police consisted of a deputy constable and four beadles ; the night 
police numbered 63. 

The Ladies* BiUe Society was formed* 

Mrs. Ward, wife of the manager of the Thaatn Boyal, took leave of the 
stage in the character of Elvira, in PiMorro. 

1817. 

The Grand Duke Nicholas, afterwards Emperor of Russia, visited the town, 
Januarys. 

Manchester CaurleTf No. 1, January 4, printed by Messrs. Howarth, 
Cowdroy, and Rathbone. 

St. George's Church, Oldham Boad, was consecrated by Dr. G. H. Law, 
Bishop of Chester, Jan. 17. 

A meeting of the inhabitants of lianohester was held to consider the 
" necessity of adopting additional measures for the maintenance of the public 
peace,** January. 

Mr. Thomas Walker died at Longford 2nd February. He was bom 3rd April, 
1749, and Ids father was a Bristol merchant, who settled in Manchester. In 
1784 he led the successful opposition of the lianchester manufacturers to Pitt*s 
" Fustian Tax.** He was founder of the Constitutional Society, which desired 
the removal of the Test and Corporation Acts. In 1790 he was boroughreeve. 
Two years later his warehouse was attacked by a "Church and King mob.** 
In VW he was prosecuted for conspiracy, but the evidence was so plainly per> 
Jured that the charge was abandoned. In his latter years he ^yproved of the 
imposition of the Com Law. (Espinasse*s Laneaahire Worthies.) 

Mr. William Dunstan, governor of the New Bailey Prison, died February 20. 
He was succeeded by his eon, Thomas Dunstan, who was elected ICarch S. 

The first stone of the Strangeways Bridge was laid by Ifr. W. D. Evans, 
29th February. It crosses the Irwell near the top of Greengate, Salf ord, which 
place it connects with Strangeways. It was built by subscription, and a toll 
was taken for many years, except from the tenants of Lord Dude. 

The second general meeting of the Manchester Radicals (Blanketeers) held 
at St. Peter's Field, *'to petition the Prince Regent for redress of grievances.** 
The intention was to proeeed to London to present the petition in person. Each 
man had a blanket with him, as a protection against the weather on the road. 
The meeting was dispersed by the military. March la Two hundred persons 
were arrested* 



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152 Armals of Manchester. 



ant 



ElUah Dixon arrMted on suspicion of high treason, March 12, and detained 
till Noyember following, when he was discharged. A notice of his death 
appears under date of 1870. 

The cotton-spinning factory at Knot Mill, in the occupation of Messrs* 
Brown, Stones, Schollck, Armstrong, Stnbfas, and Frost, was destroyed by fire, 
Sunday morning, March 16. The damage was estimated at £80,000. 

Bev. James Daniel Burton died 24th March. He was bom at Manchestei 
25th July, 1784. He became a Wesleyan minister, and was tlie author of A 
Guide for TatUh, 1814. 

Margaret Marsden, aged 78, and Hannah Partington, a young woman, 
were murdered in the house of Ifr. Thomas littlewjted, at Pendleton, April 28. 
(See under date 8th September.) 

57 George IIL cap. 22. Act fdr amending an Act of His present Mi^Jesty for 
rebuilding Newton ChapeL May 23. 

Catherine Prescott died 2nd June at the reputed age of 106L She was a 
native of Denfaigli, resided in George Leigh Street* and retained her faculties 
in a wonderful degree, liaTing learned to read, without the aid of spectacles, 
partly in the Lancasterian School and partly in St. Clements Sunday School, 
after she was one hundred years old. She was buried at St. Mark's, Cheetham 
Hill, in a grave presented to the family by the Bev. C. W. EtheUton. The 
evidence of her longevity is not beyond dispute. An interesting notice of her 
appears in Braldley*s Sunday School Memorials. 

Mr. Jolm Taylor died in Salf ord, June 3, aged 05. He was educated at the 
Dissenting Academy of Daventry, under the late Dr. Ashworth, and was 
retained in the above academy as classical tutor for several years. He was 
subsequently stationed at Walmsley Chapel, in this county, and at Ilminster, 
in Somersetshire, as minister of Unitarian congregations. Some time after- 
wards, owing to a change in his opinions, he Joined the Society of Friends, and 
for sixteen or seventeen years he was head master of the school belonging to 
that body in this town, which office he resigned owing to an attack of paralysis 
in 1811. It was this complaint which eventually caused his death. His son, 
John Edward Taylor, was the first editor and proprietor of the Mandiester 
Guardian. 

57 George III. cap. 47. Act for making and keeping in repair a carriage 
road from the township of Manchester to Newton Chapel, with a branch to the 
river Medlock, in the township of Droylsden. June 10. 

Mr. William Grant, the father of William, Daniel, and John Grant, died 
June 29th, aged 84. 

57 George UL cap. 58. Act for building a bridge across the river Irwell, 
from Water Street, in the township of Salford, to St Mary's Gate, in the 
township of Manchester, and for making proper avenues thereta Blackfriars 
Bridge. June 27. 

Martha Bouth, of BCanchester, died 18th July, at London, whither she had 
gone to attend the yearly meeting. She was aged about 77, and had been many 
years a minister in the Society of Friends. {Northern Star,) 

There was a violent thunderstorm in Manchester and neighbourhood. Two 
men were killed at Pendleton, and many were hurt at other places. July. 



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isis] Annals of Mcmcheeter. 153 

James Ashcroft, the elder ; James Ashcroft, bis son; David Ashcroft, his 
brother ; and William Holden, son-in-law to the elder Ashcroft, were executed 
0th September, at Lancaster, for the nmrder and robbery at Mr. littlewood's, 
at Pendleton. They all died declaring their innocence. An account of the 
trial is giyen in Criminal Trials^ voL vi., p. 243. 

Thomas Armstrong, aged 34, was hanged at Lancaster 20th September for 
setting fire to his factory atKnotMill. He is said to have been previously in 
peril of his life as one of the mutineers of the Nore. 

John Thorp, bom at Wilmslow, 1742, but after some stay in London 
became, in 1767, a resident in Manchester, where he was a minister of the 
Quaker body, and died 30thSeptember. His Lettera^ addressed to various friends 
on religious subjects, were published, with a memoir by John Bradshaw 
iUverpool, 1834). (Smith's Cataloffue,) 

St. Saviour's Church Schools, Chorlton-on-Medlock, built 

A small volume printed with the title of BUUioffraphianOf by a Society of 
Gentlemen, originally published in the Manchester Exchange Herald in the 
years 1815 and 1816 (Manchester, printed by Joseph Aston, No. 4, St. Ann's 
Street) ; only 24 copies printed. The articles were vnritten by W. Ford, J. 
Midgeley, and others. There is an annotated copy in the Manchester Fre» 
Library. Of a second series only ten copies were printed. 

The Manchester Gas Works were erected in Water Street. 

A Welsh Wesleyan Chapel was erected in Parliament Street. 

Biackfriars Bridge, a wooden structure, was taken down. 

The burial ground attached to St. Stephen's Church, Salfbrd, was conse* 
crated by Dr. G. H. Law, Bishop of Chester. 

An amateur performance for the benefit of the Lying-in Hospital produced 



The Water Works Company substituted iron pipes f6r those of stone which 
had been previously used. 

The Wesleyan Methodist Chapel, Chancery Lane, Ardwick, was built. 

Mr. John Kennedy estimated the number of spindles in Great Britain at 
6,545,833, and the number of operative spinners at 110,763. 

The fly frame and the tube frame introduced into Manchester by Mr. John 
Cheeseborough Dyer, from America, who took out patents for them in 1825 
and 1820. 

18ia 

The AfancAes^ ObMTver, No. 1, January 3, was printed and published by 
the proprietor, Thomas Bogerson. This paper changed hands many times, and 
was discontinued June 21, 1821. 

Mrs. Sarah Bowden died January 20, in her 02nd year. She p ossessed a 
dear recollection of the year 1745 (at which time she was 18 years of age), when 
Prince Charles Edward entered the town. There were two brothers and two 
sisters living at one Ume, whose united ages averaged 80 years each. 

The Savings Bank opened in Cross Street January 31. 

Messrs. Smith and Ingle's paper works, at Throstle Nest, were burnt down 
February 4. 



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Id-k Awnals of Manchester. O^^g 

A meeting held in St. Peter's Field for the purpose of petitioning for Par- 
'"Uamentary Reform, March 9. 

68 George III- cap. 4. Act for continuing the term and altering and 
•nlarging the powers of an Act of His present Majesty's reign, for improving 
the road from Manchester to Rochdale, and other roads therein mentioned, so 
tar as relates to the Bury and Ratclifle Bridge District of road therein men- 
tioned, and for making two new hranches of road to communicate with the 
said district of road. March 17. 

58 George UL cap. 8. Act for making and maintaining a turnpike road 
from near the town of Manchester to Hyde Lane Bridge, in tlie county of 
Chester. March 17. 

68 Gterge IIL cap. 9. Act for continuing the term and altering and 
enlarging the powers of an Act passed in the thirty-third year of His present 
Majesty's reign, for repairing the road from Manchester to Salter's Brook. 
March 17. 

68 George IIL cap. 12. Act for more effectually repairing and improving 
the road from Ardwick Green, near Manchester, to the bridge at the ^nrnmiiu 
near Wilmslow. March 17. 

Mr. James Norris was appointed stipendiary magistrate, on the resigna- 
tion of Mr. W. D. Evans. March. 

Henry Clarke, LL.D., died April 30. He was the son of Thomas Clarke, of 
Salford, and was bom there in 1743. The University of Edinburgh compli- 
mented him with the degree of Doctor of Laws. On the 29th of April he was 
seised with apoplexy, and died the next day, at Islington, near London, in his 
76th year, leaving a widow and a family of two sons and four daughters. Dr. 
Clarke was acquainted with Hebrew, Greek, Latin, Spanish, Portuguese, 
Italian, and French ; distinguished himself in mathematics ; was an excellent 
penman and draughtsman ; had an extraordinary knowledge of perspective ; 
was an expert mechanic; and a compiler of and contributor to various 
scientific and literary works. He was at one time an unsuccessful candidate 
for the position of master of the village school at Stretford, and wrote a 
satirical tract, entitled the School Candidates, which has been reprinted with 
a full biographical and bibliographical memoir by Mr. J. E. Bailey. In 1802 he 
became professor of history and experimental philoeophy at the Military 
CoU^e, Sandhurst. 

68 George III. cap. 86. Act for building a chapel of ease in the township of 
Pendleton and parish of Eedes. St. Matthew's. June 10. 

Mr. Adam Murray died at Rose Hill June 26, aged 52. 

Mr. Charles Terry, for many years governor of Chetham's Hospital, died in 
June. 

The fiftieth anniversary of the induction of the Rev. John Clowes to the 
rectory of St. John's was celebrated by his congregation July 7. 

When Measingham Church was rebuilt some fragments of stained glass 
from Manchester were placed in the windows. {Academy, 19th July, 1884 ; 
PakUine HoU^fook, vol. iv., pp. UO, 135.) 



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1819) Annals of Manchester, 165 

Mr. Thomas Cooke died July 26. He was bom in Sheffield March 20, 1763. 
His View$ of the Science of PhysiogTunny was pablished posthnmously in 1819. 

There was a general turn-out of the spinners, colliers, and weavers for an 
advance of wages. Mr. Gray's factory was attacked, and one man was killed," 
September 9. 

Henry Jones died at Wrexham 19th September. He was formerly a 
gunner in the 72nd or Manchester Volunteers, and so distinguished himself 
by his daring at the siege of Gibraltar that he was afterwards styled " Harry 
the Devil.** 

BIrs. Fry visited the New Bailey Prison* October 3. 

Maximilian, Archduke of Austria, visited Manchester. He stayed at the 
Bridgewater Arms. October 22. 

An amateur performance at the Theatre Royal for the benefit of the House 
of Recovery, October 30, produced £300. 

The Spectator, No. 1, was printed by Thomas Wilkinson, November 7. 

Mr. Ash worth Clegg died 13th November. He was bom 16th May, 1748, and 
was educated at the Manchester Grammar School, and was one of the pro- 
moters of the Manchester Academy. There is a portrait of him in Sir Thomas 
Baker^s Menwriais. To liis nephew. Sir Samuel Clegg, is due the merit of the 
first application of gas to the illumination of a town. 

Bennett Street Sunday School was erected to accommodate 2,687 pupils. 

St. Mark's Day and Sunday School, Cheetham Hill, was established. 

An Act obtained for cutting a road from Ardwick Green to Gorton. 

Mr. George Crossley appointed governor of Chetham*s Hospital. He 
resigned in 184L 

St. Ann's Churchyard was enclosed with an iron palisading. 

1819. 

The stone structure to replace the wooden erection of Blackfriars Bridge 
was begun by Mr. Thomas Fleming, January 4th. 

A general meeting of the Radicals was held in St. Peter's Field January 
Idtb. There was another meeting on June 21. 

Political bitterness led to a riot in the Theatre Royal between Henry Hunt 
and his friends and the Earl of Uxbridge and some officers of the 7th Light 
Dragoons, January 23. 

The Manchester Vagrant Office established January 28. 

John Grimshaw died« Feb. 18. He was organist of St. John's Church and 
a musical composer. {City News Notes and Queries, 1238.) 

The Lock Hospital was opened in Bond Street March 1. It was afterwards 
removed to Deansgate. 

Mr. Robertson's factory, in Newton Lane (now Oldham Road), was burned 
down March 3. 

Thomas Gresswell, schoolmaster to the Chetham Hospital, died March 8. 

Mr. Samuel Jones died 17th March. His father, John Jones, tea dealer and 
banker, married a daughter of the Rev. J. Mottershead. Samuel Jones was 
educated at the Warrington Academy, and soon after the death of his father 
gave up the tea business, which was at 101, Market Street, and removed the 



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156 Annals of MancJiegter, 



tint 



bonk to 12, King Street. His sister Sarah married Lewis Loyd, tbe father of 
Lord Orerstone. Samuel Jones bequeathed £5,000 to Manchester College, 
York, for the augmentation of the stipends of Dissenting ministers. (Baker's 
Memorials^ p. 06.) 

69 George IIL cap. 22. Act for providing that the several highways within 
the parish of Manchester shall be repaired by the inhahitAnts of the respective 
^ townships within which the same are sitoate. April 8th. 

The inhabitants of Oldham Street presented a petition on 12th April to the 
magistrates, in which they complain of " profane and debanched ballad singing 
by men and women.** The nnisanoe was therefore abated. 

The Rteorder, No. 1, May 0, was printed by John Leigh, in the Market 
Hace, and edited by Joseph Macardy. 

To the consternation of the orthodox and loyal committee of the Chorch of 
England Sunday Schools, many of the boys were sent to the Whit-Monday 
procession in drab-coloured hats, then the symbol of Radicalism. These badges 
of Liberalism were therefore prohibited. (Bardsley's MemoHaU^ p. 135.) 

Wardle's Manehuier Observer was published weekly. No. is dated 
Saturday, June 6. 

59 George III. cap. 66. Act for more effectually maintaining and amending 
the road from Crossf ord Bridge to the township of Manchester. June lUh. 

69 Geo. UL cap. 106. Act to enable the Company of Proprietors of the Canal 
Navigation from Leeds to Liverpool to make a navagable cut, and also a 
collateral branch or railway from their said canal at Hennis Bridge, near 
Wigan, to Join the Duke of Bridgewatei^s Canal at Leigh, Lancashire, and to 
amend the several Acta relating to the said Leeds and Liverpool Canal, and an 
Act for making the Rochdale Canal, so far as relates to certain powers therein 
given to the late Duke of Bridgewater. June Slst. 

A meeting of the Radicals was held June 21st, on St. Peter's Fields, when 
delegates were appointed for a general reform union. To check this refonning 
tendency, a meeting of the inhabitants was called by the boroughreeve, Mr. E. 
Clayton, July 9, and resolutions were adopted declaratory of a determination 
to coK>perate in the preservation of the public peace. The Watch and Ward 
was re-estabUshed, and a meeting of the Reformers called for the same date 
was prohibited. The Radicals were advised that the legality of appointing a 
** legislatorial attorney** was doubtful, and the intention of doing so was 
abandoned, but BIr. Henry Hunt made a public entry into the town. 

The Independent Chapel, Chapel Street, Salford, was opened July 26. 

The 10th of August is memorable In the annals of Manchester for the 
fatal Peterloo. Soon after nine o'clock the open space of St. F^ter^s Fields 
began to fill, and processions of the Reformers from all parte of the town and 
the surrounding districts marched in with banners and flags. A hustings had 
been erected on a site near where the south-east comer of the Free Trade Hall 
now stands. There were about sixty thousand present, including many women 
and children. At the last moment the magistrates decided to arrest Mr. Henry 
Hunt and those acting with him in the conduct of the meeting. Many special 
constables had been sworn, and near the field were stationed six troops of the 
16th UuBsars, a troop of horse artillery with two guns, the greater part of the 



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1819] Armals oj Manchester. 157 

8l8t Infantry, some companies of the 88th regiment, the Cheshire Yeomanry, 
over 300 Itrong, and about forty of the Manchester Yeomanry. As Hunt 
began to speak, the Manchester Yeomanry, hot-headed young men who were 
more or less intoxicated, drew their swords, and dashed into the crowd which 
they attac k ed recklessly. They were soon completely hemmed round by the 
mass of human beings against whom they had thrown themselves. The 
hussars now dashed forward to their rescue, and with such force that fugitives 
in their eflTorts to escape were literally piled up to a considerable height above 
the level of the field. The yeomanry thus extricated again rode into the crowd, 
cutting and slashing wherever there was an opportunity. No reliable evidence 
was ever brought forward that the Riot Act was publicly read before the dis- 
persal of the crowd by the yeomanry and military. Eleven persons were killed 
and several hundreds wounded. Biany of these were women. The object of 
the meeting, dispersed in this bloody fashion, was to petition for Parliamentary 
reform. When the reports of the outrage appeared in the London papers the 
feeling of indignation throughout the country was intense. The Manchester 
magistrates met on the 19th, and pubUshed resolutions purporting to have been 
adopted at a public meeting ; but a protest against their proceedings received 
4,800 signatures in a few days. Nothwithstanding this. Lord Sidmouth, on 
the 27th, conveyed to the magistrates the thanks of the Prince Begent for their 
action in the " preservation of the public peace P On the same day Hunt and 
others were brought up at the New Bailey Court House, and conunitted for 
trial at Lancaster Assises on a charge of conspiracy. Elixabeth Gaunt, who 
had been in the carriage with Hunt, and had been wounded and trampled on 
the field, was discharged. Meetings were held in London, Glasgow, York, and 
many other tovms, where the action of the magistrates was denounced. 
KngHsh literature owes the Mtugue of Anarchy to Shelley's indignation at the 
butchery of the people at Peterloo. When Pwliament met in November, Earl 
Grey moved an amendment to the Address in condemnation of the ISanchester 
massacre, but the votes were 34 for and 160 against. In the Commons 160 voted 
for an inquiry and 381 against an inquiry. Nevertheless, the eflect of Peterloo 
was very important, for it united the Beformers of all clisses, and was the 
beginning of the movement which carried into law the Reform Bill of 1832. 
The Patriot^ No. 1, price 2d., was printed by Joseph Aston, August 28. 
Mr. Thomas James Hatfield died 2nd October, aged 31, and was buried at 
Cross Street Chapel. He had collected a valuable library, which was sold by 
auction. Sir Thomas Baker describes his book-plates {MemoriiUs, p. 112). 
The building of the Infantry Barracks, Begent Boad, began November 1. 
William Cobbett was prevented by the authorities from passing through 
Manchester, on his way from Liverpool to London, on his return from America, 
November 30. The prohibition was due to Cobbett's intention to carry through 
the town the bones of Thomas Paine, which he had brought over with him 
from the United States. (Wheeler's Manchester, p. 110.) 

The Congregational Chapel, Moeley Street, enlarged. This congregation 
afterwards migrated and formed the Cavendish Street Chapel. 

The Hulme Philosophical Institution founded at Christ Church Schools, 
HuLoM* The promoters were James Gaskell, Bowland Detrosler, and others. 



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158 Annals of Manchester, j: 

It was afterwards united to the Sunday school there, and known as Christ 
Church Institute. 

The Collegiate Churchyard was enclosed with iron railings, and a faculty 
obtained from the Bishop of Chester prohibiting interments therein for a 
period of 81 years. 

Rev. Fteploe Ward, D.D., died. He was the son of Archdeacon Ward, of 
St. Ann's, and was educated at the Grammar School and at Cambridge, and 
was rector of Beeton, Cottenham. 

Mr. James Banks Robinson, R J^., died at his bouse, Cheetwood, in his 71st 
year. He was fifty years in the service, and fought in twelve general engage- 
ments, amongst which were those of the Nile and Trafalgar, when he acted as 
pilot to the fleet. Few men ever passed a more chequered life, or witnessed 
more hairbreadth escapes. He commenced his career with Bruce, the traveller, 
and was also the first of the party of midshipmen who ascended to the top of 
Pompey*s Pillar, and partook of a bowl of punch. 

The Manchester Racecourse was improved. 

The Rev. John Markland, M.A., of Bicester, county of Oxford, eldest son 
of Robert M^^'^^^^^^^i of Mabfield, died December IS. 

1820. 

Messrs. Clay and Cullingworth*s and Messrs. Hudson and Price's ware- 
bouses, in Marsden Square, were burned down, January 22. 

The Rev. W. R. Hay presented, in January, to the valuable living of Roch- 
dale, as a reward for his services in putting down the demand for reform, and 
especially for the forcible dispersal of the Peterloo meeting. He was deservedly 
an object of general detestation in Manchester. 

Mr, Thomas Knight, one of the managers of the Manchester and Liverpool 
Theatres Royal, died at his seat. Manor House, Shropshire, February 4. 

The printer of the Manchester Observer was fined £250 for a libel on 
Thomas Fleming, February 12. 

George IV. proclaimed in Manchester by Mr. Thomas Sharpe. There was a 
procession, and a feu dejoie was fired at Ardwlck Green by the 15th Hussars, 
the 3l8t Infantry, and the Manchester Yeomanry to celebrate the accession of 
George IV., February 7. 

Mr. Nathaniel Gould died March la He bequeathed several large sums to 
the various charities in Blanchester. 

The trial of the Radical leaders, for the meeting at Peterloo, began March 
18, at Lancaster Assises, before Mr. Justice Bayley. Henry Hunt was 
sentenced to two years and six months* imprisonment; whilst Joseph Johnson, 
Joseph Healey, and Samuel Bamford were condemned to one year's imprison- 
ment, Bamford, in his Life of a Radicai^ has left a graphic account of the 
trial and of his prison experiences. Hunt issued periodical Letters from Man* 
Chester Gaol, and complained bitterly of his treatment. 

Mr. Joseph Clarke, bookseller, died March 22, aged 81. 

John Dunn was hanged at Lancaster 27th March for the murder of Mar- 
garet Grimes at Manchester. 



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18M] 



Awaals of Manchester. 169 



All Saints* Church, Oxford Road, was consecrated April 12. It was founded 
bj the Rev. Charles Burton, IZj.D., who became the rector of the church. 

Mr. Francis Ridings, for thirty years principal horn player at the theatre, 
died April 14. 

The anniversary of George IV.'s birthday was obeerved by the civil and 
military authorities of the town, who went In procession to Ardwlck Green, 
and ti/eu dejoie was fired, April 24. 

Mr. John Okey died May 10. He was adjutant of the first regiment of Man- 
chester Volunteer Infantry, and subsequently of the Local MUitia, commanded 
by Colonel Silvester. 

The keystone of Blackfriars Bridge was laid by J. K Scholes, boroughreeve 
of Salford, 17th June. The bridge was opened 1st August by Thomas Fleming. 

Mr. James Watson, commonly called the "Doctor,** a man of some literary 
power but of eccentric habits, was drowned in the river Mersey, near Dids- 
bury, June 24. Some of his humorous pieces were published under the title of 
the Spirit of the Doctor, 1820. He was editor of The Gleaner, Salford, 1806. 

1 George IV. cap. 68. Act to repeal an Act made in the fifty-eighth year of 
His late Majesty, for building a chapel of ease in the township of Pendleton 
and parish of Eccles. July 8. 

The Law Library, Marsden Square, was established July 21. 

Rev. William Hawkes died 1st August. He was bom in Birmingham 10th 
February, 1750, and was for 31 years minister of the Moeley Street Unitarian 
ChapeL There is a Sketch of his Character by J. Corrie, and a notice in the 
Monthly Repository, 1814, p. 606. 

St. Augustine's Catholic Chapel, Granby Row, was opened September 27. 
Cost£10,00a The architect was John Palmer. 

Mr. Otho Hulme died October 8. He was founder of the firm of O. Hulme 
and Sons. 

Rev. Rowland Broomhead died October 12. He was bom at Stannington, 
27th August, 1751, and studied in the English College at Rome, and on his 
ordination preached before Clement XIV. In 1778 he was appointed to the 
mission in Manchester and the district, and under Us guidance St. Mary*s, 
Mulberry Street, and St. Augustine's, Granby Row, were built. When he came 
to Manchester the Roman Catholics numbered 1,000; when he died, about 
40,000. A Brief Memoir of him was published. There are two engraved 
portraits. He was buried at St. Augustine's. 

Mr. Samuel Taylor, of Moston, died 23rd October, aged 4& He was a magis- 
trate, and lieutenant-colonel of the Manchester and Salford Rifle Regiment of 
Volunteers, and also Grand Master of the Orangemen of Great Britain from 
1807 till his death, when he was succeeded by the Duke of York. A monument 
is erected to his memory in the Collegiate Church. 

Thomas Barritt died October 29. aged 77. He was bora in Withy Grove, 
where he carried on the business of a saddler, but devoted all his leisure to 
archAological pursuits, and accumulated a library and a valuable collection of 
antiquities. The regard felt for him is well expressed by Mr. Joseph Aston in 
a memorial card which was printed at the time >— 



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160 ATmals of Manchester, ,um 



BBBTVrH TBB BEMAIN8 OF THOICAS BABRITT, A PROFOUKD 
AMTIQUABIAK AND A GOOD MAN. 
A dSfti ktmti tn d amd imptclti 6y ail ramka cftoeUti^, (ktebfr i9, 1890, agtd 77 jrovn. 

In MAifcrinuic Uv«d a man wbo kiMir 
Mocb of old tlmo, and much of andant lor»; 
Btranf and aoaree books had ha, and ooxloiia colna, 
lladals and painted gUaa, and pondiiKia anna ; 
Habneli and Taeaitiilatai. gaitntlota taat, and dilalda 
Of many kinds, proof against bkMdy war : 
Bwoida wlthoat number, of all murdering shapes, 
And one, whleh ant bad grte'd a prlnoe's thigh. 
Mors trained than the rest— and more rover'd 
3f him who owned it, and b7 all his friends. 
He was Ter^d in heraldry, and oould teU 
How att tha thsnss. and all the knights, and eqniree. 
Within his shirs, had sprang from times rsmola. 
And fkmcd too^ was he, for his industry ; 
For aye at work, for mueh his business oallsd; 
And yet fall msny a pleturs did ha paint. 
Fadigrsas eoplad, bimnch and root, and osnrings made 
Of antique ehapes ; and almost beyond belief. 
Helmets and shields, to HtsI Orssea and Boma; 
Stealing from slsep the time to give them form: 
Nay oooa, grappling Fatienoe, he made a suit of mail. 
With thousand upon thousand links, for tha love 
He bore to andant arms; for ha was curious 
As the eearrhing air, whleh priea, without a blush, 
Into things soaro^ or saersd, or profisne. 

Barritt was thrice married, his last wife dying in 1823. In early life he had the 
misfortune to lose a leg, and had reooorae to one of cork. He was interred b j 
torchlight, and his remains were attended to the grave by thirty or forty of 
the most respectable inhabitants of the town. The balk of hia manuscripts 
were pnrchased bj the feoilbes of Chetham's College ; his collection of ancient 
arms, armoor, and other antiquities, were disposed of by lottery ; his collection 
of ancient stained glass pictores, together with his drawings, were purchased 
by the late Bir. W. Ford ; and his books, &c., were sold by auction by Bfr. 
Thomas Dodd. A MS. Tolume of verse, compiled by Barritt, for his two boys 
in 1807, is described in Papers of the Manehetter Literary Club, vol. IL, p. 156 
There is a notice of him in the Dictionary of National Biography, 

There was a partial illumination of the town to celebrate the withdrawal 
of the Bill of Fains and Fenalties against Queen Caroline, November 20. 

Wesleyaa Methodist Chapel erected in Grosvenor Street, Chorlton-upon- 
Medlock. 

In BladtewoodTa MagaHne for December there is printed "A Prologue 
Spoken before a Private Theatrical Performance in Manchester.** This private 
theatre was in the house of Bfr. Thomas Ainsworth, in King Street, and the 
youthful performers included W. H. Ainsworth, J. R Stephens, and others. 
The prologue was written by James Croesley. {Mancheeter Guardian Local 
Notes and Queries, No. lOOB.) 

The Manchester Chamber of Commerce was established for the promotion 
of measures calculated to benefit and protect the trading interests of its mem- 
bers, and the general trade of the town and neighbourhood of Manchester. 



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tni] 



Awnals of Manchester. 161 



The Salford Gas Works, Clowes Street, was erected by Messrs Appleby, 
Clay, and Fisher. From these works Salford, was supplied by contract nntil 
December, 1831. 

The Church Boilding Commissioners submitted to a parish meeting an 
offer to build three new churches if the parish would pay for sites by a church 
rate ; but the inhabitants, by a majority of 720 votes against 418| refused the 
rate. 

A meeting was held in the Bfanor Courtroom, Brown Street, to move 
addresses to George IV. and Queen Caroline, expressive of indignation as to 
the proceedings against the queen. Mr. Baxter presided, the boroughreeve 
having previously refused to call a public meeting. December 4. A counter- 
demonstration of the High Church party was held in the large room of the 
Police OiBce, 9th December, when a loyal address to the king was adopted. 

Dr. Samuel Hibbert Ware, of Edinburgh (formerly of Manchester), was 
presented by the Royal Society of Arts with their large gold medal, for his 
discovery of chromate of iron in one of the Shetland Isles. 

AU Saints* Church, Chorlton-on-Medlock, consecrated. 

Mr. Hugh Hornby Birley gasetted as maSor of the Manchester Yeomanry, 
vice T. J. TrafTord, resigned. 

The silk-throwing mill of Mr. Vernon Royle, erected 1810-20, is said to have 
been the first to be completed and brought to perfection in Manchester. 

1821. 

William Sandford died January 10. He was aenior churchwarden of 
Manchester in 1815, and one of the constables in 1818L He was father of the 
Bev. G. B. Sandford. 

There were great rejoicings at Heaton Hail to celebrate the nu^Jority of the 
Earl of Wilton in January. 

The premises of Messrs. Buxton and Sons, builders, ftc, in Oxford Boad» 
were burned down in January. 

William Ogden died, February 3. He was a letterpress printer, and the 
last surviving son of the well-known " Foet Ogden.** B£r. Ogden, in his poll* 
tical principles, was a determined Jacobin and a Radical Reformer. During 
the temporary suspension of the Habeas Corpus Act he was arrested as a state 
prisoner, and underwent several examinatJans before the Privy Council, but 
was ultimately discharged. His treatment was the sut^jeet of a debate in the 
House of Commons, in the course of which Canning was said, but erroneously, 
to have sarcastically called him the "revered and ruptured Ogden.** This 
phrase raised great indignation amongst the Radicals. 

Rev. Samuel Taylor, Wesleyan Methodist minister, died at Plymouth Dock, 
SOth February. He was bom near Manchester, 5th May, 1708, and was the com- 
piler of an IfUUx to Minuiea of Conference from 1744 to 1816 (1817), and of an 
Ahridffmeni of the Life ofPhiiip Henry (1818). 

BCr. James Currie died, February 24, aged 81. He was for many years 
newsman txom this town to Wigan. 

Dr. White's house, which stood on the site now occupied by the old Town 
Hall, was pulled down. February. 



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162 AwnalB of Mcmehester. asai 

Joseph Nadiii« who had heen upwaids of twenty yean depnt j-conataUe at 
Hancheater, resigned in March, and was aneoeeded by Stephen Lavender, of 



1 and 2 George IV., cap. la Act for more eflbetnally repairing and im- 
proving the roads from Hnrdlow Honse, throngh Buxton, in the county of 
Derby, and Stockport; in the county of Chester, to Manchester, and other roads 
therein mentioned in the said counties. April 6th. 

Mr. Thomas Hoyle, senior, calico printer, ICayfleld, died April 9^ aged 82. 

Sir Walter Scott, Bart., visited Manchester, April 9. 

A colony of rooks established themselves in a small garden at the top of 
King Street, belonging to Bfrs. HalL AprIL 

Manehesier Ouardiant No. 1, May S, price 7d., printed and published by 
John Edward Taylor and Jeremiah Gamett. 

1 and 2 George IV., cap. 47. Act to alter and amend several Acts passed 
for more efliBctnally supplying with water the inhabitants of the towns of 
Bfanchester and Salford, and for further extending the powers and provisions 
QtthesaidAcU. lCay7th. 

The changing of the £1 and £2 notes began at the Bank of England ICay 10. 
The place waa constantly crowded. The amount of notes exchanged for gold 
up to June 80 exceeded £420,000^ upwards of four tons weight. 

The Rev. lilies Wrigley, M.A., died ICay 12, aged 7S. He was fbr twenty- 
eight years incumbent of St. Michael's Church. 

BCr. Richard Rushforth, of Hunt's Bank, died' ICay 24. He was a libera] 
promoter of the fine arts. EUs fine collection of books, prints, and picturef 
was dispersed by auction. 

B£r. Edward Hall Thorpe, lieutenant in the navy, and son of Mr. Thorpe 
surgeon, of this town, died ICay 20^ on his return from Madrid. 

A TWAAt'ng was convened by the Chamber of Commerce in the Police Office, 
to take into consideration the propriety of a petitian to Parliament to amend 
the Stamp Duties Act. ICay. 

The shambles at Newton Lane (now Oldham Road) were removed to the 
new market In Shudehill, and the New Cross taken down. It is commemorated 
in the name given to the district. May. 

Ralph Nixon, who had formerly been a master manufacturer of this town, 
committed to prison for robbing the Turk's Head, Shudehill. ICay. 

A meeting of leypayers in the Fdlioe Offlos^ to take into consideration 
Mr. Scarlett's Poor Law Bill, June 1. 

A young man severely crushed between the wheel of a oarrier'a cart and 
the wall in the narrow part of BCarket Street, June 4. 

Mr. Samuel Waller, a Methodist local preacher, Indicted at the New Bailey 
Sessions for preaching In the highway at Ashton«under>Lyne, and sentenced 
to three months' imprisonment, June 28. 

1 and 2 George IV., cap. 128. Act to improve BCarket Street, in the town of 
Manchester, and ^yproaohes thereto, and to amend an Act passed in the 57th 
year of His late MtiiettfB relgn« for building a bridge across the river Irwell 
from Water Street, in the township of Salford, to St ICary's Gate, in the town- 
ship of Manchester. July 2. 



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isni Armals of Manchester. 163 

Colonel Thomas Uderton Ferriar died at Valends, Colombia, nth Jnlj. 
He was a son of Dr. John Ferriar, and had the command of the British Legion 
at the battle of Carabobo, 24th Jnne, which broke the power of Spain in the 
New World. It was the coolness and decision of the British volunteers that 
secured the victory. Colonel Ferriar died of wounds then received. (Axon's 
Lanca8hire Gleanings^) 

The coronation of George IV. was celebrated July 10 by processions of trades, 
which included upwards of 40,000 persons. In the afternoon the following 
articles were given away, vie, 25 oxen, 60 sheep, 20,000 pounds of bread, and 
400 barrels of strong ale. 

Mrs. Sarah Cowdroy died 21st July, aged 65. She was the relict of William 
Cowdroy, founder of the Ocuette, 

At the first meeting held under the Market Street Improvements Bill about 
10 commissioners qualified, July 23. 

Mr. James Murray, M.D., of Medlock Bank, died July 20. 

Mr. Reddish, a bookseller, was imprisoned fbr selling a copy of the PoliHeal 
Dictionary, July. 

Mr. William Freer, glass manufacturer, of St. Ann's Square, died Aug. 11. 

The second anniversary meeting of the Radical Reformers was held in the 
Union Rooms, George Leigh Street. They walked to St. Peter*s Field, and 
thence to Christ Church, Hulme (the Bible Christian Church), where several 
children were baptised in the name of Henry Hunt. August 16. 

The dislike felt for local banknotes led to their refusal by many of the 
principal inhabitants, September L 

An explosion took place at Mr. Robert Andrew's works. Green Mount, 
Harpurhey, September 11. 

Mr. Thomas Andrew, turkey-red dyer, Harpurhey, died, aged 86^ Sept 14. 

Baintry, Ryle, and Co.'s Bank removed from Macclesfield and opened in 
Norfolk Street, Manchester. September. 

The Manchester Express commenced to run. It left London at 4 pjn. and 
arrived here on the following morning. It only carried two passengers. Oct. 1. 

Mr. George Evans Aubry, secretary of the Chamber of Commeioe, appointed 
clerk to the Improvement Commissioners, October 18. 

A subscription was begun for Sir Robert Wilson on his dismissal from the 
army, October 22. Sir Robert having connived at the escape of Lavalette 
from Paris after the Peace of 1815, had incurred the displeasure of the Prince 
Regent, and his conduct at the funeral of Queen Caroline having completed his 
disgrace at head-quarters, he was dismissed from the army. After the lapse of 
a few years he was restored to rank and position. 

Acres Fair removed to the new market, Shudehill. October. 

Rev. Peter Hordem, B.A., appointed librarian of Chetham College, on the 
resignation of the Rev. J. T. Allen. October. 

Writs were served on Messrs. Birley, Withlngton, Tebbutt, Oliver, and 
Meagher, for assaults committed at St. Peter's Field on the 16ih of August, 
181^. October. 

Mr. William C. Macready played in the character of *' Hamlet " for the first 
time here in the Theatre Royal, Fountain Street, November a 



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164 Avmals of Manchefter. Uiu 

St. John's Church, Deaiugste, was newly roofed (the old roof having proved 
flanlty) and heantified thronghont, at the expense of Miss Byrom, the daughter 
of the founder. It was reopened November 4th. 

Rev. Joshua Brookes, M.A., died November 11, in the 68th year of his age. 
He was the son of a shoemaker, and was bom at Cheadle Hulme, and baptised 
10th ICay, 1754. He was educated at the Free Grammar School ; and was 
appointed chaplain to the Collegiate Church in March, 1791 ; and during the 
period of thirty-one years is supposed to have baptised, married, and buried 
more persons than any other clergyman in the kingdom. He was a man of great 
eccentricity, with many failings, but few if any vices. He had a considerable 
acquaintance with books, and left a good library behind him. Bfany ludicrous 
stories are told of him. He figures conspicuously in Mrs. Banks's novel of The 
Manehesler Jfan, and is mentioned in Parkinson's Old Church Clock. Mr. 
Evans, in his notes to the fifth edition, has given a full account of this kind- 
hearted but eccentric divine. His bookplate la described in the PcUatine Note- 
book, vol. L, p. 00. He is buried in the Collegiate Church near the Corporation 
Seats. 

Thomas, second Earl of Wilton, was married, at Knowsley, to Lady Mary 
Margaret Stanley, daughter of the twelfth Earl of Derby, November 20. 

A reduction of Ss. 4d. per ton on the carriage of cotton from Liverpool to 
Manchester by the Duke's Canal and the Old Quay Company. November. 

Northern Express and Lanauhire Daily Post, Na 1, December 1, printed 
at Stockport, and published in Manchester, for Henry Burgess. This was the 
second attempt to establish a daily newspaper out of London. 

Sir William David Evans, Kt, died at Bombay, December 4. He was a 
native of London, and was bom in 1767. He was called to the bar and practised 
as a barrister at Liverpool and Manchester from 1794 to 1814, when he was 
appointed stipendiary magistrate of Manchester. In 1817 he was appointed 
Vice-chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster, and in 1810 became Recorder of 
Bombay. He was the author of various legal works. {OenOeman^s Maifozine, 
1822.) 

B£r. William Jones, of the firm of Jones, Loyd, and Co., bankers, died 
December 24, at Broughton Hall. 

The "Tent Methodists"* Chapel, in Canal Street, Anooats, was opened 
December 2S. 

Mr. Joseph Farlngton, B.A., died at Parr's Wood, near Manchester, Dec. 
30th, and was buried at Mancheflter. He was bom at Leigh, 21st November, 
1747. (Redgrave's ArtisU of the EnglUh School.) 

Bfr. William Blackburn, of Manchester, went to superintend the cotton mill 
at Dover, New Hampshire. This was the beginning of the cotton manufacture 
at Great FaUs. (Axon's Lancashire Gleaningst p. 143.) 

An Act was obtained for widening Market Street, King Street, Nicholaa 
Croft, Toad Lane, and Poole Lane. This improvement was completed in IfSA. 

By the third Parliamentary census the fourteen districts of the township 
of Manchester contained 16,663 inhabited houfies, occupied by 22,880 families, 
which consisted of 51,520 males and 66,496 fou^ales ; total, 108,016. The total 
population of the township* oonstituting the parish of Manchester was VftJOSL 



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109t] 



Annala of Mcmcheeter. 166 



The number of pablicationa of the baniu of matrimony in the Collegiate 
Chnreh of ICancheater was 2,101. The whole fees (indoding publication of 
banns and marriage fee, then 3s. 6d.) were paid at the time the names of the 
parties intending to be married were inserted in the banns' book. The number 
of marriages solemnised after the publication of banns during the same year 
was 1,82A. The fee (3s. 6d.), which included the publication of banns, was thus 
divided, Tis., lOd. each chaplain, Is. 8d. ; Od. each derk, Is. 6d. ; Id. each 
chorister, 4d.— ^s. Od. 

The CcUhoHCf edited by Bev. N. Gilbert, formerly of Antigua, changed to 
The Caiholie Photnix^ 1822; edited by Mr. Grimes, surgeon; printed by Mr. 
Joseph Pratt, Bridge Street. 

A requisition, signed by nearly 400 leypayers of the parish, was presented 
to the churchwardens to eonvene a meeting to induce the commissioners to 
forego the erection of three or four new churches in the town. 

Captain Richard Crompton, second son of Nathan Crompton, of this town, 
died at Lisbon, December 1. This gentleman volunteered from the 1st battalion 
of the Lancashire Militia in the 0th Begiment of Foot. He was at the battle of 
Vimiera, and subsequently town adjutant of Lisbon. 

The population of Manchester, including Ardwick, Cheetham, Chorlton, 
and Hulme, at the third census was 126»031. That of Salford, including 
Broughton, 20^562, 

1822. 

A saw miU belonging to Messrs. D. Bellhouse and Son wilfully sat on fire 
and destroyed, January 0. 

The ManehiMter Iris, No. 1, February 2, printed and published by Henry 
Smith ; ceased February 27, 1823. Henry Smith served his apprenticeship with 
William Cowdroy, Jun. He died July 11, 1838^ aged 44 years. 

Mr. William Cowdroy, Jun., proprietor and printer of the Manehtster 
GazeUe, died Blarch 10, aged 47. 

Messrs. Hugh Hornby Birley, mi^Jor of the Manchester Yeomanry Cavalry ; 
Bichard Withington, captain ; Alexander Oliver, private, and Edward Meagher, 
trumpeter in the same corps, were tried at Lancaster in March, under an 
action of assault and wounding on the 16th of August, 1819, Thomas Bedford* 
a Journeyman hatter ; but after a trial of five days a verdict was given for the 
defendants. This was an attempt to bring to account those who were 
responsible for the Peterloo massacre. 

Elisabeth, relict of George Ormerod, and mother of Dr. Ormerod, died 
May 18, aged 00. 

3 George IV., cap. 11 Act for lighting and watching, and for regulating 
the police within the township of Chorlton Bow. May 15w 

The County Court first held in Manchester, by adjournment from Preston, 
May 23. 

Smithlleld BCarket, Shudehill, was opened in May. 

The Bfanchester Society for the Promotion of Natural History established 
June 30. The Museum, late in Peter Street, was opened May 18, 183Si The 
collection is now at the Owens College. 

The improvement in Market Street was commenced in June. 



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166 Armals of Mcmchester, q^2S 

The foundation stone of the Town Hall« King Street, was laid by Mr. James 
Brierley, boroughreeve, Angost 10. It was finished 1826. The cost of land wa^ 
£6,600; of building, £28,086; finishing the large room, £5,012; making a total 
outlay of £30,547. The style of architecture is taken from the Temple of 
Erecthus at Athens, and the dome in the centre is after the model of the 
Tower oC the Winds. In the niches in front are figures of Solon and Alfred, 
and in the attic are medallion portraits of Locke, Solon, and Judge Hale. The 
building measures 134 feet in front, and 70 feet in depth. The increase of 
municipal business led to the vacation of the old Town Hall in 1877, and it is 
now used for the Central Free Reference Library. 

St Matthew's Church, Liverpool Road, founded August 12; consecrated 
September 24, 182S. It will accommodate 2,000 persons. It is of modem Gothic 
architecture, and has a lantern tower and spire, the height of which is 132 feet. 
It is built upon part of the site of the ancient Roman town of Mancunium. 
Sir Charles Barry was the architect. 

A General Swedenboigian Con f erence held at Bolton Street Temple, Salford, 
August 14-17. (Hindmarsh's jBtse, &c, p. 375.) 

The death of *< Old BiUy " excited a great deal of interest. " Billy** was a 
horse belonging to the Mersey and Irwell Navigation, and when he died, 27th 
November, was in the 62nd year of his age. A lithograph was published, 
showing "Old Billy,** with Henry Harrison, who had known the animal fbr 
fifty-nine years. 

Busholme Road Cemetery was opened. 

A dome added to St. Feter*s Church. Mosley Street 

The Female Penitentiary opened in Rusholme Road. 

The New Quay Company begun by John Brettargh and two others, with a 
capital of £30.000. 

The Wesleyan Tract Association was instituted. 

The manufacture of gros de Naples and figured sarcenets introduced intc 
Manchester. (Wheeler's JfancAes<«r.) 

18Sa 

Rev. Thomas Blackbume, D.CX., warden of the Collegiate Church, and 
rector of Thelwall, died January 10, aged 67. He was bom at Orford Hall, and 
educated at Westminster School and Trinity College, Oxford. He was presented 
to the wardenship of lianchester in 1800. It is said of his brother John that 
he " was f orty-six years the representative in Parliament for the county of 
Lancaster, and during the whole of that period he only asked and received two 
favours of the Government which be supported, vis., the wardenship of Man- 
chester for his second, and the office of distributor of stamps for his third 
brother.** 

Mr James Harrop died 22nd February, at Broughton Priory, aged 60 years • 
He was the son of Joseph Harrop, the founder of the Manchester Mercury, 
and succeeded to the conduct of that paper. He was postmaster for several 
years, but lost that appointment in 1806. 

Rev. Thomas Jackson Calvert, D D., installed warden of the Collegiate 
Church, March 8. 



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ISM] Awnals of Ma/nchester. 167 

B£r. Samnel Dawson died 11th March, aged 70. He was one of the earliest of 
those who followed the Swedenborgian t^earhings of Mr. Clowes. He was for 
many years leader of the Bolton Society. He is borled at Prestwich. <Dr« 
Bayley, in The Dawn, March 27th, 1884.) 

Mr. David William Paynter died Blarch 14. He was the son of a Manchester 
solicitor, and received his education at the Grammar SchooL He wrote the 
History of Godfrey Banger , 1818 ; EurypUue, a tragedy ^ 1816 ; and Muee in 
Idleness, 1819. The last named was somewhat savagely handled by a critic in 
ElcLckvDood^s Magazine. His tragedy of King Stephen was performed in 1821, 
after many unavailing eflforts. B£r. Paynter died at the age of 82, and is buried 
in Blackley Churchyard. 

By a decree made in the Bolls Court, London, all lands in the parish of 
Manchester <with but few exceptions) were subjected to the payment of one- 
tenth of all the hay, milk, and potatoes produced within it, and one-tenth of 
the value of agistment of barren cattle, besides com. Blarch. The agricul- 
tural lands within the parish contained 15^000 acres. 

Mr. William Green died at Ambleside 28th ApriL He was bom in Man- 
cheater in 1761, and was an artist and author of Guide to the English Lakes, 
Mountains, and Scenery, 1819. He was an accomplished artist, and his 
drawings helped to make the Lake District known. He was a friend of 
Wordsworth and Southey. {Manchester School Segister, voL ii., p. 6; 
voL iiL, p. 82L) 

The ball and cross on the spire of St. Biary's Church were lowered to the 
ground by Philip Wooton, May 10. 

Mr. Bichard Whitfield Ashworth died at Cheltenham 23rd ICay. He was 
bom at Strawberry Hill, Salf ord, about 1800, and wrote Leisure Hours (poems), 
which were printed in 1843. {Grammar School Eegister, voL iiL, p. 60l) 

4 George IV., cap. 107. Act for amending the road leading from the New 
Wall, on the Parade, in Castleton, in the parish of Bochdale, through Middleton 
to the Meerstone, in Great Heaton, and to the town of Manchester, and for 
diverting certain parts of the said road. June 17th. 

4 George IV., cap. 116. Act to alter, amend, and enlarge the powers of the 
several Acts passed for more effectually supplying with water the inhabitants 
9f the towns of Ifanehester and Salford. June 27th. 

The Boyal Manchester Institution, for the promotion of literature, sdenoe, 
and the arts, inaugurated at a general meeting of the inhabitants, held in the 
Exchange room, October L The building in Mosley Street, begun in 1825 and 
completed in 1830, was erected at a cost of £30,000. Sir Charles Barry was the 
architect. The institution was originally projected by Thomas Dodd, auctioneer 
and connoisseur. It is now the City Art Gallery. 

Acres Fair was removed from St. Ann*s Square to Campfleld. 

1824. 

A covered market opened in London Boad February 14. The site is now 
covered by the railway station. 

The treadmill was introduced into the New Bailey Ftison February la 
Christ Church <Bible Christians), Bvery Street, opened February 20. 



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168 AwnaJls of Manchester. ium 

Mr.MatttiewFalkiierdied at Burnley 8tli Mareh. He was bomlnlTSS. 
He was the proprietor of the Manchester Heraid^ 17B8L {ManchesUr School 
Segisitr, voL IL, p. 7.) 

6 George IV., cap. 10. Aet for more eflTectnaUy repairing and improving 
the roads from Hurdlow Honae, oonnty of Derby, to Manchester, oonnty of 
Lancaster, and other roads in the said eoonties and in the county palatine of 
Chester. lCarch23rd. 

Mr. Edward Greayes, of Colcheth Hall, died March 29, aged 62. He was 
high sheriifof the county in 1812. A monument l^ Chantry Is erected to his 
memory in the Collegiate Coureh. 

The PrimitiTe Methodist Chapel opened in Jersey Street ApriL 

There were labour riots, occasioned bj the masters haying increased the 
hours of labour from eleyen to twelye hours. ApriL 

A company fdr a double railway between Uyerpool and Manchester was 
formed May 20. The capital was in 4,000 shares of £100 each. George Stephen- 
son was engineer. The Bill was lost in committee June 1, 182S. 

5 George IV., cap. 06. Act for lighting, cleaning, watching, and improving 
the township of Hulme, and for regulating the police thereof. June Srd. 

6 George IV., cap. 143, Act for making and maintaining a turnpike road 
from the road leading from Bfanchester to Bolton, to communicate with the 
road from Bury to Bolton. June 17th. 

Hugh Frichard publicly sold his wife, aged 20^ for 8s. June. 

The Baptist Chapel, Great Mount Street, was opened August 2QL 

The Mersey and Irwell Nayigation Company presented to the Manchestei 
Museum the head of " Old Billy,** a horse which was said to have been in their 
service 02 years, August 301 

The fall of an iron beam at the factory of Mr. Nathan Gough, Oldfleld Lane, 
caused the death of nineteen persons and the iAJury of nineteen others. Oct. 16. 

The Unitarian Chapel, Greengate, Salf ord, was erected, and was opened 
on Christmas Day. 

An Act of Parliament (6 George IV. cap. 123) passed for supplying Man- 
chester with gas. The merit of originating the gasworks is due to B£r. G. 
W. Wood, M.P., and Mr. Thomas Fleming. 

A covered market estabUshed in Brown Street 

Mr. John Houtson died at Ava. He was a native of Lawder, Boxburghshiie, 
but came to Manrhester at an early age, and engaged unsuocessfuUy in com- 
merce. After becoming bankrupt he went out as part of a colony to Fernando 
Po. Afterwards he accompanied Giovanni Belxoni on his expedition to Central 
Africa, closing the eyes of the dead traveller, and brought back his rinz and 
last message to his wifa. Houtson then took psssage to Ava, where he died a 
few days after hia arrivaL He was an early friend of Sir William Fairbaim, 
who has given an account of him in hisantobiography. (Pole's Hfe ofFairbabm.) 

The Floral and Hortieultural Sodety was established. 

The Humane Society, for the recovery of persons apparently drowned or 
dead, was reorganised. 

Welsh Calvinistic Methodist Chapel erected in Cooper Street 



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laan Av/nalB of Manchester. 169 

Hr. DanntfiMj Hulme presented £10,000 to the General Infirmary (euldect 
to a life annuity). 

1825. 

The Inflrmazy clock was lighted with gas January 1, at the expense of 
31r. Richard Ormerod, of Ifanchester. 

The Manehesier dmrier. No. 1, January 1, printed and publiahed by Thoc. 
Sowier, No. 4, St. Ann's Square. The first editor was Alaric Watts, a brilliant 
young man, whose name was then well known in the literary world. His 
connection with the paper was very brief. He writes to his wife, 24th Aprils 
1826: **I have sold my half copyright of the Manchester Couriertor £600." 
Blr. Watts was bom in London 10th Biarch, 1797, and died at London 5th ApriL 
1864. {Alaric WaUs: A Narrative of his Life, by his son, A. A. Watts, 
London, 1884.) 

A sixpenny omnibus began to run 1st January between BCarket Street and 
Pendleton. This was started by John Greenwood, of Pendleton, and was the 
beginning of the local omnibus system. {City News Notes and Queries, toL i., 
p. 167.) s 

Rev. Edward Smyth died at Chorlton Hall, FeburaryO, aged 70. Hewasa 
son of Archbishop Smyth, of Dublin. He came to Manchester, where he built 
St. Clement's Church, in 1703, and St Luke's, in 1804. He became paralysed in 
1817. He is buried in St. Luke's Churchyard. {Manchester School Register, 
yoL iii, p. 71.) 

The Deaf and Dumb School, Stanley Street, Salfbrd, opened February Oi 

The Infant School, Buxton Street, London Road, opened February 14. This 
was the first infant school established in Manchester, and ito foundation was 
due to the Society of Friends. 

The Union Club was established. The house In Mosley Street was opened 
March 21, 1830. 

The Police Act <0 George IV.cap.6) for the township of Ardwkk passed 
the Legislature March 28. 

The Mechanics* Institution, Cooper Street, was founded, and held its first 
meeting ICarch aa The building in Cooper Street cost £0^000, and was the 
flist building erected in England for the purpose. The institution removed to 
OsTld Street In 1857. 

A peal of ten bells was opened In the Collegiate Church on Easter Monday. 

George IV. cs^ 51. Act for making and maintaining a road from Great 
Aneoats Street, in the town of Manchester, to Join a diyersion of the Manches- 
ter and Salterns Brook road, in Audenshaw, In the parish of Ashton*under-Ly ne» 
and two branches of road communicating therewith. May 2. 

OGeorge lY. cap. 88. Act for more eifectually Improving the roads from 
Manc h ester, throng Oldham, to Austerlands, In the parish of Saddleworth, 
ana from Oldham to Ashton-under-Lyne, and from Oldham to Rochdale. May SO. 

OGeorge IV. o^. 112. Act to enlarge the powers of an Act of His late 
Majesty's reign, to empower the Justices of the Peaoe within the Hundred of 
Salford to raise a sum of money to be paid by way of salary to the chairman 
of the Quarter Sessions for the said Hundred. Juneia 



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170 Awnals of Manchester. [I820 

6 George IV. cap. 20. Act for enabling the tmsteee in the will of Dorothy 
Clowes, widow, deceased, to grant leases of the estates thereby devised for 
building upon or improving the same. June 10. 

The Rev. James Pedley, M.A., died 28th June, in his 79th year. He was 
for forty years incnmbent of St Thomas's, Pendleton, and for the same period 
one of the assistant masters of the Free Grammar School. 

Manchester AdverHeer, No. 1. Jnly 2, printed by Joseph Pratt, for Stephen 
Whalley. This paper was given away, its revenue being derived solely from 
advertisements. 

Chorlton Bow Infants* School was established August 22. 

The foundation stone of the Salford Town Hall and BCarket laid August 90, 
by Lord Bezley. The building was enlarged in 1847, 18i8» and 1853. A new 
wing was added in 1800^ when the wing built in 1848 was taken down. 

The Jews* Synagogue, Halliwell Street, Long Millgate, was consecrated 
September 2. 

William Hone, who visited Bartholomew Fair, London, Gth September, 
gives a picture and description of William Wilkinson Westhead, the Man 
Chester gigantic boy, who was bom 20th September, and baptised at the 
Collegiate Church 12th October. He was then 6ft. 2in. high, measured 6ft. 
round the body, 27in. across the shoulders, and weighed 22 stone. (Wood*s 
OiarUa and Ihrarfa^ p. 212.) 

St. Philip's Church, Salford, consecrated September 21. The Parliamentary 
grant for the building of this church was £14,000. 

Mr. George KicholBon died at Stourport, November L He was bom at Brad- 
ford, in Yorkshire, in 1700, but resided successively at Manchester, Poughnill, 
and Stourport. As a printer he was remarkable for the cheapness and beauty 
of the publications which came from his press. He was also the author and 
compiler of a variety of work»^Stenoffraphy, Advocate and Friend of Woman^ 
On the Conduct of Man to Inferior AnimaUt The Primeval Diet ofMan^, Sic. 
He was himself a vegetarian. (Further particulars are given in Williams's 
Ethics of Diet.) 

Mr. George Calvert died November 14. He was a surgeon, and was the son of 
Mr. Charles Calvert, of Oldham Street and Gloesop Hall. He was the author 
of a treatise on Diseaeee of the Rectum, and for three years in succession 
gained the Jacksonian Prise of the Royal College of Surgeons. Bom in Man- 
chester, I7B6. 

The premises of Messrs. Sharp, Roberts, and Co. destroyed by fire, which 
was believed to be the work of an incendiary. 

The Diorama, Cooper Street, was built. It has since been taken down. 

The annual value of property in Manchester was £334,737, and in Salford 
£74,079. 

The Provincial Portable Gas Works Company, Hulmefleld, was formed, 
but the project was abandoned in 1820. 

A Fire Engine Department established under Captain Anthony. 

A Bill was introduced into Parliament for the construction of a ship canal 
from Manchest4sr to the mouth of the Dee, at an estimated expense of £1,000,000, 
to be raised In 10,000 shares at £100 each. The scheme was thrown out by the 
Parliamentary Committee. 



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ISM] Annala of Manchester. 171 

The Independent Chapel in Roeholme Road was opened. 

The Wesleyan Methodist Chapel, Rnsholme Road, was erected. 

The Baptist Chapel, Oak Street, was built. 

The Wesleyan Chapel, Oxford Street, was built 

Mr. Richard Roberts (of the firm of Sharp, Roberta, and Co.), took ont a 
patent for a self-acting mnle now generally in use ; a second patent was taken 
ont in 1830. The invention owed its existence to a strike, when the difficulty 
of obtaining mannal labour induced an appeal from the manofacturers to Mr. 
Roberts to invent a mechanical substitute. 

W. Barter undertook silk weaving in Manchester. 

There were estimated to be 20,C00 power-looms in Manchester parish, 104 
spinning factories in the town, and 110 steam engines. 

1826. 

Ann, relict of the late Mr. Henry Atherton, barrister, and daughter of the 
late Mr. Edward Byrom, died January 9, aged 75. 

Mr. Thomas Price, a fustian manufacturer, was murdered, at mid-day, Feb. 
10th, in his warehouse in Marsden Square. The premises were also set on fire. 
James Evans, his warehouseman, was tried for the crime, but acquitted. 

Miss Ellen Turner was brought to Manchester by Edward Gibbon Wake- 
field, March 7. In conjunction with his brother William, his sister Frances, 
and Edward Thevant, he abducted the young lady, who was an heiress, from a 
school at Liverpool, obtaining possession of her by means of a forged letter, sum- 
moning her to see her stepmother. This story they afterwards varied. She was 
brought to the Albion Hotel, Manchester, and from thence taken to Gretna 
Green, where a form of marriage was gone through. She was taken to London, 
and then to Calais, where she was rescued by her uncle. The Wakeflelds were 
tried at Lancaster Assiaes, in March, 1827, and on ICay 14th, 1827, Edward was 
sentenced to three years* imprisonment in Newgate and William to three years* 
imprisonment in Lancaster Castle. The marriage, which had not been con- 
summated, was dissolved by Act of Parliament Edward Gibbon Wakefield*8 
useful after-life was a striking contrast to this disgraceful al&Or. His services 
to the Australian Colonies were very great. He died at Wellington, New 
Zealand, May 16th, ISOi. 

Mr. John Shore, well known for his benevolent character, died at Ardwick, 
March 10, aged 84. 

7 George IV., cap. 18. Act for more eflTectoally repairing and improving 
the roads from Man^***^t-^^ to Salter*s Brook, and for making and mM<fifAi»ii«g 
several extensions or divisions of road, and a new branch of road to communi- 
cate therewith. March 22nd. 

The Bianchester and Liverpool Railway Bill passed through the House of 
Lords, May 1. The draining of Chat Moss <the first point of operation) was 
commenced in June. The first shaft of the Liverpool Tunnel was opened in 
September, and the earthwork, comprising the cuttings and the embanking 
along the whole line, was begun in January, 1827. The last Joining between 
the several lengths of the line was completed in June, ItCiL 

7 George IV., cap. 49. Act for making and maintaining a railway or tram* 



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172 Awnals of Manchester. o^m 

road from the town of Liverpool to the town of Manchester, with certain 
branches therefrom. May 6th. 

7 George IV., cap. 81. Act for making and maintaining a road from the 
top of Hnnt*s Bank, in the town of ICanchester, to Join the present Manchester 
and Bnry turnpike road in PUUngton. May Sth. 

Mr. Joseph Parry, an able painter of marine snl^ects, died May 11. He 
was bom at Liverpool, in 1744, and is generally known as " Old Parry." 

Elisabeth Bato, aged 28, murdered at the Jolly Carter, a pnblic-honse at 
Winton, near Fatricroft, May 22. Alexander and Michael M'Keand, dealers in 
linen and tea, at Manchester, were convicted of the murder August 18; and 
hanged at Lancaster August 21. Michael's body was given to the surgeons of 
Lancaster for dissection, and Alexander's was sent to the Manchester 
Infirmary for the same purpose, but was first puhUdy exhibited. (Procter, 
Byegone Manchester^ p. 62.) 

7 George IV., cap. 90l Act for making and maintaining a railway or 
tramroad from Manchester to Oldham, with a branch from Failsworth Pole to 
or near Dry Clough, in the township of Royton. May 26tlL 

7 George IV., cap. 138. Act for more effectually repairing and improving 
several roads leading to and from the town of Salford, through Pendleton, and 
other places therein mentioned, and several other roads therein mentioned, 
for making and maintaining certain diversions or new lines of road to com* 
municato therewith. May 20. 

Owing to the great commercial distress, rioto occurred in May. The mobs 
attacked several factories, and an attempt was made to destroy by fire that of 
Mr. Hugh Beever. So alarming was the state of affairs in Manchester that it 
more than once occupied the attention of the Cabinet, and troops were marched 
into the most unquiet districts. Several of the rioters were tried and convicted. 

Mr. William Howe, auctioneer, generally known by the nickname of ** Lord 
Howe,** died at Leamington, June 18. His popular designation was due to an 
anecdote in circulation that he had accepted some publie reference to the 
famous admiral as intended for himself. 

Mr. Thomas Dunstan, governor of New Bailey Prison, died July 7, aged 32, 
and was succeeded by his brother, Mr. Richard Dunstan. 

A general Swedenborgian Conference held in the Peter Street Chapel, 
August 8-12. 

Mrs. Elixabeth Hall, of King Street, died August 9, aged 80. She was a 
descendant of an ancient and honourable family of this town. 

There was a trial in the Court of King's Bench between Sir Oswald Mosley, 
the lord of the manor, and Mr. John Walker, a fishmonger, for an infraction 
of the manorial rights. The lord claimed to be entitled to a market for the 
sale of fish on Tuesdays, Thursdays, and Saturdays, and a right to oblige fish* 
mongers within the manor to make sales of their wares within the market 
and pay stallage. Verdict for the plaintiff^ August 17. A rule wUi for a new 
trial having been obtained, was discharged by the Court of King^s Bench after 
argument. (Jfosky v. Waiker^ p. 7 ; BarrutPoU and CresBtpetTe BeporU^ p. 40l) 

The foundation stone of St. George's Church, Hulme, was laid September 
7vh. It was consecrated December 9, 1828. The erection of this church was by 



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ISifJ 



ArmaU of Manchester. 173 



a Parliamentary grant of £14,000, but the whole ooet was £20^000. The ground 
was presented by Wilbraham Egerton, of Tatton. 

Mr. David H. Parry, an artist of conaiderable local celebrity, died Sept 15. 
He was bom at lianchester in 1798, and was one of the original projectors of 
the Royal Institution* He bade fair to hold an exalted rank in his profession. 

The Manchester Branch Bank of England was opened in King Street 
September 20. 

Henry Hardie, ILD., died October 6. 

Mr. Joseph Whittlngham Salmon died, at Nantwich, 16th October, in tha 
79th year of his age. He was for a time the amanuensis of Bey. John Clowes, 
of St. John's Chnrch. (Hindmarsh's Biae of the New JeruadUm Chvreh^ p. 66.) 
He was the author of various works. 

Mr. Greorge Tomllnson, surgeon, died November 19, aged 68. He was a 
well-known and extensive oollector of books, &c., and works of art. 

Bev. Joseph Proud died. He was the author of a SeUcHon ofHymna, 1790. 
In 1793 he was Joint minister with Ifr. Cowherd, of the Swedenborgian Temple, 
Peter Street, but removed to London. In 1815 he was appointed, by the 
Swedenborgian Conference at Manchester, as missionary minister. 

The Welsh Independent Chapel in Gartaide Street was openei. 

Infant School, Saville Street, Chorlton-upon-Medlock, founded. This was 
the second infant school in Manchester, and was established by the Joint 
liberality of persons of all denominations. 

The suspension bridge near Broughton Ford opened. A toll was levied. 

A bridge was erected over the Irk at Hunt's Bank. 

Four large Wesleyan Methodist Chapels were opened in Manchester. The 
accommodation thus provided was sufficient for 6,000 persons. The chapels 
were in Oxford Street, Oldham Boad, Ancoats, and Irwell Street, Salford. 

The Independent Chapel, Chorlton-upon-Medlock, was opened. 

Mrs. Sarah Bichardson, widow, died at the Mount, Dickenson Street. She 
was said to be 101 years old. She was a native of Warrington, and was gimnd, 
great-grand, and great-great-grand mother to 153 descendants. 

Wesleyan Methodist Chapel, Newton Heath, was built. 

Independent Chapel, Busholme Boad, built. 

1827. 

Mr. James Touchett died January j, aged 81. 

The Wesleyan Methodist Chapel, Irwell Street, Salford, opened Jan. 80. 

Bough Bobin, the Manchester pugilist, died, February, at the age of 21 
He fbught battles in the prise ring without a defeat. (Procter's Qur Turf, 
6tc,p.84.) 

7 and 8 George IV., cap. 9. Act for more eiTectually repairing and main- 
taining the road from Hulme across the river Irwell, through Salford to Ecdes, 
and a branch of road communicating therewith. March 81st. 

7 and 8 George IV., cap. 21. Act for amending and enlarging the powers 
and provisions of an Act relating to the Liverpool and Manchester Bailway. 
AprUmh. 

7 and 8 George IV., cap. 68. Act for eiTectually repairing and uOu.^ . j 



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174 Annals of Manchester. tisat 

improving the road from the end of Ardwick Green* near Manchester, to Hyde 
Lane Bridge, in the county of Cheater. May 28th. 

7 and 8 George IV., cap. 9. Act to enable the tnuteea of the estates devised 
by William Holme, Eaqnire, to appropriate certain parts of the aocomolated 
funds arising from the said estates in the purchase of advowsons, and for 
other purposes therein mentioned. May SSth. 

Mr. James Ackers, of Lark Hill, Salford, died May 28, aged 71. 

7 and 8 George IV., cap. 23. Act for enabling the trustees of the undivided 
moiety late of John Leech, deceased, in certain land in the town of Manchester, 
to concur with the parties entitled to the other moiety thereof in making 
partition thereof, and to sell all or any part of the said land, in the said town 
of Manchester, in consideration of perpetual chief rents, to be reserved, 
issuing out of such land. June 14th. 

The Bev. John Haddon Hindley, M.A., librarian of Chetham's Library, 
died at Clapham, 17th June. He was bom at Manchester, October, 176iS, and 
translated the Odea of Halls from the Persian. {School RegisUr^ vol. i., p. 205.) 

Samuel Crompton, the inventor of the self-acting mule, died in King Street, 
Great Bolton, June 26th, at the age of 74. He was bom at Hall-rth*-Wood, 
Bolton, and, after receiving a fair education, worked as a weaver in his mother's 
house. He was a man of amiable character, with a tinge of mysticism, par- 
ticularly fond of music— he was a good player on the violin— and not very well 
adapted for the rough world with which he had to deaL His mechanical 
genius led him to the invention of the mule. It was constructed with great 
secrecy, and, after five years of toll, was in 1770 a success. It enabled him to 
produce yam of a quality that made him the object of an inquisitive persecu- 
tion, which did not hesitate at espionage. He made his invention public on the 
faith of promises which were ruthlessly broken. After many struggles and 
discouragements he received a Parliamentary grant of £5,000— a sum ludicrously 
Inadequate, when the wealth-producing nature of his invention is considered. 
Crompton struggled on under depression and discouragement, whilst the 
Industry which he had benefitted grew with amazing rapidity. (G. J. French, 
X</« of Crompton: Bsplnasse's Laneaahire Worthies,) 

Bev. John Hugh Worthington died at Leicester 4th July, at the early age 
of 24. He had been chosen co-pastor with Bev. J. G. Bobberds in July, ISCiS. 
He was the betrothed of Harriet Martineau, and the causes why she did 
not visit him during his last illness at Manchester and Leicester have 
been variously stated. (See Harriet BfarUnean*s Auiobioffraphy ; Birs. Fen- 
wick BCiller^s Harriet Martineau^ 1884 ; and a correspondence In the Daily 
News of December, 1884, and January, 1885.) In a letter, which appeared aoth 
December, Dr. James liartlneau gives a fine portraiture of Worthington. 

The Salf ord and Pendleton Boyal Dispensary, in Chapel Street, was opened 
September la 

The races at Heaton Park began, September 2S. Until 1835 no professional 
^oekeys were allowed to take part. 

Mr. Charles Wheeler died, September 26l He was bom at Manchester, 1750, 
and was the Inaugural proprietor and editor of the Mancheattr Chronidt. 
{Maneh. ColL, toL a p. UO) 



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i33g] AwnaU of Manchester. 175 

Mr. Richard Thompion (late of Manchester), a magistrate and one of the 
deputy-lieutenants of the county, died at Lancaster, Noyemher 20. 

Maurice de Jongh, of Manchester, patented a self-acting mule. Dec 4. 

Mr. Nathan Jackson died, Dec 17. He was for many years in the com* 
missariat department under Sir Robert Kennedy, whom he accompanied with 
the British army in Spain and France He was brother to Messrs. R and C. 
Jackson, solicitors, of this town, and was descended from Dr. Cartwright, 
Bishop of Chester. 

The Botanical and Horticultural Society was established. 

St. John's Charity and Sunday Schools, Gartside Street and St John's 
Place, were erected. 

St Matthew's Sunday School, LiTerpool Road, was erected. 

Rey. Thomas Ward'died, aged 71. He was a son of Archdeacon Ward, and 
was educated at the Grammar School and at Cambridge He was Vicar of 
Nester and Rector of Handley. 

Rey. William Priestley died at Deyises. He was the son of Rey. Timothy 
Priestley and nephew of Rey. Dr. Priestley. He was bom at Manchester, 
1708, and was Independent pastor at Fordingbridge. 

On the death of the Rey. William Johnson, the first incumbent of St 
6eorge*s-in-the-Fields, Oldham Road, the Rey. James White, M.A., was 
appointed. He was bom at Nottingham in 1788, and was the younger brother 
of Kirke White, the poet, whom he survived nearly eighty years. He remained 
In Blanchester until 1841, and interested* himself in the promotion of Sunday 
schools and infant schools. He was the originator, in 1831, of the Manchester 
Clerical Book Club. He died at Sloley House, Sootton, Norfolk, in March, 188a. 

1828. 

Mr. Joseph Gleave, printer, bookseller, and periodical publisher, died 
February 18^ aged 66. 

A new vessel, the **Smma," was launched, in the presence of a large crowd 
and amidst great rejoicings, at the New Quay Company's Docks, Feb. 28. Some 
hundreds out of curiosity had gone on board, but the vessel had hardly touched 
the river when she swamped, and they were all thrown into the river. About 
forty were drowned and many more injured. (Procter's Bytgone Manchester). 

9 George IV., cap. 7. Act to enable the Company of Proprietors of the 
Liverpool and Manchester Railway to alter the line of the said railway, and 
for ^tiiAniifag and enlarging the powers and provisions of the several Acts 
relating thereto. March 20th. 

The Infant School in Bombay Street, Salfbrd, was opened April 7. 

Mr. Charles Knight visited Manchester in the interests of the Society for 
the Diiltwion of Useful Knowledge. In his P<u9(ggea of a Working Life he 
says : **It was not an inviting plaee for a stranger to wander about in, but I 
soon found willing guides and cordial friends. It was not always very easy to 
interest the busy millowners in the oldects for which I came amongst them. 
Some were too absorbed in their ledgers to hear long explanations ; others 
were wholly indiiferent to matters which had no relation to the business of 
their lives. I persevered, and, chiefly by the exertions of a very earnest 
man, Mr. George William Wood, a local association was formed, on 



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176 Annale of Manchester, tms 

the 0th of June, of the Society for the Difltuion of Useful Knowledge." Mr. 
Knight Titited Mencheeter seTeral times in sabseqnent years. 

BIr. John Farris died Joly 4, aged 74^ He was formerly a sergeant- 
midor of the 72nd (Manchester) Regiment, and lost a leg at the siege of 
Gibraltar. 

9 George IV., cap. 117. Act to amend seyeral Acts for cleansing, lighting, 
watching, improTlng, and regnlating the towns of Manchester and Saifbrd 
July 15th. 

One of the arches of a bridge— Hanging Bridge— disooyered in the course 
>f ezraTatlons. It had been concealed for an unknown period. July. 

Bfr. Joseph Smethurst, formerly deputy-constable of Salford, died Aug. 0. 

Mr. William Leonard Kilbie died August la He was one of the Man- 
chester beadles, and had serred as a dragoon in the battles of Corunna and 
Waterloo. 

A grand musical festival and fancy drees ball was held. It began 7th 
October and lasted for a week. The proceeds (£5,000) were deyoted to the 
public charities. The festfyal was held in the nave of the Collegiate Churcht 
and the evening concerts in the Theatre Royal, Fountain Street. 

The UanehesUr TinuBt No. 1, Saturday, October 17, printed and published 
by Archibald Prentice. 

The Manchester and Salford Advertiser, No. 1, Saturday, November 15. 

St. (George's, the mother church of Hulme, was consecrated December 9, 
by Dr. J. R Sumner, Bishop of Chester. The architect was Mr. Goodwin. 

A new Fish Bfarket was opened December 22. It was built upon the site of 
the old butchers* shambles. 

Mr. C. A. Cowdroy died at Sandbach, in the county of Chester, December 
28th. He was formerly one of the proprietors of the Maneheaier Courier, which 
began in 1817. 

At the Spring Assises at Lancaster, Judgment was given in a tithe case 
pending between the warden and fellows of the Collegiate (Aurch and their 
lessee, Mr. Joule, they claiming tithe in kind on hay, milk, potatoes, the 
agistment of ley cattle, gardens, fte. It was decided that the parishioners 
were liable to all these demands, except the tithe in kind on gardens, orchards, 
poultry, ftc 

All Saints' Sunday School, Clarendon Street, was built by subscription. 

The Wesleyan Methodist Chapel in Harpurhey was built. 

Mr. Francis Maroellus Hodson died, aged 05. He was for a time minister 
of the Swedenborgian church in Peter Street. At another period he 
was in the habit of riding from Manchester to Aecrington to conduct the 
Sunday services there, and from his text at the opening of the chapel (Deut 
xxiL (S) he was known as the ** Bird's-Nest Fellow.** He had a ch^iel in 
Ancoats, and for their use compiled a volume of hymns. He left Manchester 
for Hull, where he preached at the Dagger Lane Chapel, but returned to his 
native home to die. He was the author of the Encydopadia ManeunienaU* 

The Cannon Street Congregational Chapel rebuilt at a cost of £1,800. (See 
under date 1861, September 12.) 

The Bank of Manchester in Biarket Street was opened. 



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I] Armala of Mcmcheder. 177 

The declared Taliie of all the oo(;ton gooda exported from Great Britain wm 

The ICaaeheater Improrement Committee waa formed. By thia body a 
great number of alterations, more or leaa extensiye, were eiTected. 

There were 8,000 looma for ailk and 4,000 for mixed goods at work In and 
about Manchester. 

St. Philip's Church, Broken Bank, Salford, was, by authority of the Bcde- 
siastical Commissioners, constituted a district parish churdu 

1820. 

Miss Frances Hall, of King Street, died January 4, in her 84th year. This 
renerable lady was the last surrlyor of a family which, for more than a century, 
bad been distinguished in this town. At the period of 1746 the family took an 
actiTe part on the side of Charles Edward ; and he presented them with an 
original portrait of his father, painted by Belle, the French artist, and which 
was disposed of, along with other curioua Jacobite relics, on the death of this 
lady. She left the following munificent bequests, ria., to the Manchester 
Infirmary, £11,000; House of Becoyery, £11,000; Lying-in-Hospital, £11,000^ 
and the Ladies' Jubilee School, £11,000. She is commemorated by an elegant 
monument in Byrom's Chapel of the Collegiate Church, erected in 1834. 

Mr. John Leigh Bradbury, calico printer, died January 4. He was the 
author of seyeral yery useful inyentions, among which waa a mode of printing 
ealicoea both sides alike, another for silk-throwing, and anoth e r for the manu- 
facture of pins. 

The Ardwick and Ancoats Oisfiensary waa opened In January. 

BCrs. Martha Wright, relict of Mr. Thomas Wright, and last sunrlylng 
member of an ancient family resident In Broughton, died February 28, aged 82. 
She left aeyeral large sums of money to yarious local charities. 

The New Mechanics* Institution, Braxeunose Street, commenced March 25. 

Mr. Dauntesy Hulme died April 27, aged 85. He was remarkable for his 
extensiye contributions to the yarious charities of the town. During his life 
he presented the sum of £10,000 to the Infirmary, and at his death another 
£10,000. 

The Manchester and Liyerpool District Bank was established in Spring 
Gardens, April 30. 

Serious riots, through commercial distress. May 6. The wearing factories 
of Mr. T. Harbottle, Messrs. Twiss, and Mr. Jas. Guest, were attacked, and their 
contents entirely destroyed ; that of Messrs. Parker waa burnt down. ICany 
proyision shops were forcibly entered on the same day. 

A deputation from Manchester, Liyerpool, Glasgow, and other towns had ^ 
an interriew with the Duke of Wellington and other Ministers for the purpose 
of adyoeating free trade to India and China* May 9. 

10 George IV., cap. 36. Act for enabling the Liyerpool and Manchester 
Railway Company to make an alteration in the line of the said railway, and 
for amending and enlarging the powers and proyisions of the seyeral Acta 
relating thereto. May 14th. 

10 George IV., cap. 114. Act for more eifectually repairing and otherwise 
1C 



^ 



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178 ATmala of McmchesUr. 03^ 

improTing the roads from Hnrdlow Hooae, in the county of Derby, to Han* 
Chester, and other roads therein mentioned. Jnne Ist. 

Mr. Thomas Holland, schoolmaster, died Jnne 12. He was bom at Man. 
Chester, 29th October, 1700, and was joint author with his brother, the Bst. 
John Holland of BxercUea for ike Memory and UnderMtanding, 1788L 
{Monihly BepoaUory, 1829, p. 721.) 

Mr. WUliam RowUnson, aged 22, was drowned in the Thames, Jnne 22. He 
was a young man of considerable promise, as is shown by yarious contributions 
which he made to The Phoenix and other ICanchester journals. One of his 
pieces. Sir OuaUer^ is reprinted in Procter^s Literary Beminieeeneee (p. 103). 
At the time of his death Bowlinson was employed by Messrs. Pfgott to collect^ 
material for their directories. He is buried in Blsham Churchyard, Berkshire. 

Mr. AleTander Wood, editor of the Maneheeter and SaXford Advertiser^ 
died August 8. 

Mr. Gayin Hamilton, one of the surgeons of the Infirmary, died August 2^ 
aged 74. His wife was Biiss Ward, daughter of T. A. Ward, of the Theatra 
Royal. 

There were high floods in the Irwell, August 27. 

St Andrew's Church, TraTis Street, Annoats, was founded September 14, 
and consecrated October 8^ 1831. It was erected by the Church Building Com- 
missioners at an expense of £14,000. 

Charlestown (Pendleton) Independent Sunday School commenced in a 
cottage in Ashton Street. September. 

A dinner was giyen to Mr. Robert Peel in Manchester. Ther^ were 600 
persons present. October 0. 

Mr. Thomas Stott, a natiye of this town, and formerly captain of the 29th 
Foot, died at Quebec, October 29, aged 02. 

Mr. Richard Hartley, of Salford, died 22nd Noyember. He was a well- 
known change>ringer, and was commonly known as Bfsjor Hartley. 

Mr. Dayid Bannerman, Mosley Street, died, December 1. 

Colonel John Ferriar died of dysentery at Pasto, near Carthagena, 
Columbia. He was a son of Dr. John Ferriar, and on the death of his brother. 
Colonel Thomas Dderton Ferriar, after the battle of Carabobo, succeeded to 
the command of the British Legion. When his old leader, Paes, headed a 
leyolt against BoUyar, the men under Ferriar's command remained faithful by 
his influence. He bad the decoration of the Orden del Libertadar^ and at the 
time of his death was military goyemor of the proyince of Coro. (Axon's 
Laneeuhire Oleaninffe,) 

The Manchester Phrenological Society was instituted in Faulkner Street. 

An Act (0 George IV., cap. 117) recites that "whereas the said towns of 
Manchester and Salford are respectiyely yery large and populous, and form two 
townships separate and distinct from each other in all matters of local arrange- 
ment ; and soon after the passing of the first recited Act (32 Gto, UL) the com- 
missioners thereby ^pointed dlyided, and formed two distinct bodies, and 
from that time haye so continued to act and to put the first recited Act in 
force for each town separately and respectiyely, and the rates authorised by 
the said first recited Act to be assessed and raised haye been and now are 



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18S0] 



Anruds of Mcmcheeter. 179 



raised by aeiMtfate and distinct assessments within each of the said towns, and 
applied exdoslTely to the uses of the town in which they were and are 
respectively assessed and raised ; and whereas the said towns of Manchester 
and Salford, and more partienlarly the former, having greatly increased since 
the passing of the said first recited Act, and being still increasing in trade, 
population, and extent of buildings, cannot conveniently be regulated by one 
body of commissioners acting separately as aforesaid." The police of the town 
was therefore divided, and persons qualified as prescribed by the 32nd Geo. III. 
were constituted commissioners for executing that Act in Salford alone, by 
the name of *' the commissioners for better cleansing, lighting, watching, and 
regulating the town of Salford.** At the same time the constitution of the 
Uanchester body was remodelled. 

1880. 

Bev. William Boby died at Manchester, January 11. He was bom at 
Wlgan, March 23, 1766. He was a man of great distinction amongst the Con- 
gregatlonallsts, and was the author of Lectures on Revealed Bdigion ; and 
various sermons and pamphlets. (McAirs Funeral SerrMn and Memoir, 1838). 

Mr. J. C. Dyer eflTected considerable Improvements In the method of roving. 
His method was patented February 27. 

Mr. Matthew Bfason, for 83 years governor of Manchester Workhouse, died 
March 11. 

11 Qeorge IV. cap. a Act for better cleansing, lighting, watching, regula- 
ting, and improving the town of Salford. March 19. 

Mr. Bobert Barnard died, March 81. He was of Coalbrookdale, Shropehire, 
and afterwards of Manchester. He was author of The Leisure Hour Improved^ 
1800; Memoirs of Francis, commonly called St. Francis, de Sales, 1814 ; and 
of A Wreath from the Wilderness, 1816. (Smith's Friendtt Books.) 

11 George IV. and 1 William IV. cap. 88. Act for more effectually repairing 
and Improving the road from Chorlton Bow, near Manchester, to the bridge at 
the oommills at Wilmslow. April & 

Mr. Joseph Nelson, the manager of Ifr. Balnea's Improvements at Chat 
Moss, and the first successful Improver of that waste, died there, April 14, 
aged 84. 

Tiylve persons were drowned near the railway bridge, in the Irwell, by 
the upsetting of a boat. April 24. 

Mr. Francis Woodiwis, currier, of Fennel Street, died May 1, aged 72. He 
was a man of penurious habits, by which he ^Tiitf^i^il a fortune of nearly 
£100,000. 

A Temperance Society formed 12th May, with a pledge against the use of 
ardent spirits. (Winsldll's Ten^i)erance RejormaOon, p. 23.) 

Mr. Charies Bobinson was found shot in Oxford Boad, May 80^ on his 
returning home from Manchester. The murderer was never detected, but 
it was regarded as a trade outrage. 

The foundation stone of Christ Church, Acton Square, Salford, was laid 
May 28 ; consec ra ted November, 183L The first rector was the Bev. Hugh 
Stowell. ILA. 



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180 AwnaU of Mcmchuter, g^^ 

11 George IV. cap. 47. Act to amend seyeral Acts for snpplyiiig the tows of 
Hanchester with gas, and for regulating and improving the same town. Ifay 99. 

The first Co-operative Congress was held in Ifay. 

Mr. Foster EUis, of Holme, died June 6, aged 8S. He was forty years In the 
anny, having entered the service in 1775, and was orderly to General ElUot at 
the siege of Gibraltar. 

The ilrst Sir Robert Peel, Bart, though not connected by birth with the 
town of Manchester, claims notice as one of the most active, intelligent, and 
successful merchants who frequented her markets, and where, in 1788, he 
carried on the business of a banker. He was bom at Peel Fold, near Black- 
bum, April 26, 1750, and died at Drayton Manor, in Staffordshire, June 8^ 1880^ 
having accumulated by integrity and industry upwsrds of two millions ster- 
ling. His eldest son, the late Sir Robert Peel, was bom at Chamber Hall, 
Bury, in 1788. Sir Robert Feel procured the patronage of the king for the 
Manchester Infirmary, and since that period it has been called the Royal 
Infirmary. Sir Robert Peel left to the Infirmary and Lunatic Asylum in Man* 
Chester, and to the Lying-in Hospital of Salford, £100 each. 

Mr. Richard Roberts invented an improvement in the self-acting mule for 
the spinning of cotton, which was patented July 1. 

Mr. Edward Hobson, of this town, died at Bowdon, September 7. Mr. 
Hobson, though in humble lif^ had, by perseverance, aided lej good natural 
talents, become a thoroughly skilful botanist, mineralogist, geologist, and 
entomologist. His M%uci Briianniei (of which, from the nature and extent 
of the work, a very few copies were issued) stands a recognised monument 
of his soundness in that particular and intricate portion of the science of 
botany, as the general reference made to the work by Sir W. J. Hooker and 
Dr. Taylor will testify. Upon other subjects of natural history he was in cor- 
respondence vrith many eminent authors, and his investigations and opinions 
were much respected. 

Rev. Charles Wickstead Ethelstone, M.A., died at Crumpsall, September 14. 
He was bom at Manchester 24th BCarch, 1707, and was Fellow of the Collegiate 
Church and incumbent of St. Mark's, Cheetham HllL He wrote The Suicide, 
and other Poema. {Manchester School JReffister, vol. IL, p. 4.) 

The ICanchester and Liverpool Railway was opened September 15, in the 
presence of the Duke of Wellington, attended by a great number of nobility 
and gentry, and amidst the loud greetings of many thousands of spfttators. 
The Right Hon. William Huskisson was unfortunately killed at Parkside, near 
Newton4e- Willows, which threw a gloom over the festivities of the day. The 
cost of the whole undertaking, up to June, 1830, was £820,000. There is a 
gnq)hic account of the opening day in Fanny Kemble's JBecords, and another in 
F. H. Grundy*s Pictures of the Past. The engineering details are given in 
8miles*s Life ofOeorge Stephenson. 

St Thomas's Church, Pendleton, founded September 28; and consecrated 
October 7, 1831. 

Chorlton-upon-Medlock Town Hall, Grosvenor Square, was oommenced 
October IS, and finished October 13, 183L 

Mr. Isaac Blackbume, distributor of stamps, and brother to Mr. John 
Blackbume, MJ?., of Hale, died December 17, aged 72. 



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1831) 



Annals of Manchester. 181 



Barrop*$ Manehesier Mercury, which oommenoed lC«rch 8, 1762, expired 
December 2S, after an existence of 79 years. 

*'The Aa9oei€Ue was a small Blanchester newspaper of the 1880 period, the 
prettiest named and best printed and most yarled In its contents of any paper 
of that species.** (Holyoake*s Sistarp of Co-operation^ roL IL, p. 14.) 

The Sunday School in connection with Charlestown Independent Chapel 
opened In Shemwell Street. 

St Thomas's Snnday Schools, Aid wick, built. 

The Blanchester Gentlemen's Glee Qnb established. 

UnUed Trad£B Co-operaHve Jowrnal v^XMAheA. {BxAjoeMn HiaUry e(f 
Co-operoHon^ toL i., p. 161.) 

There was a coH>peratiye scheme proijeeted for the cttltiTatlon of Chat Moss. 
{Ibid, p. 156.) 

The Fdreign Library was founded. 

The duty on printed cottons was reduced. 

The number of yards of goods printed in Great Britain was 130,063,620 ; the 
amount of capital in the trade was estimated at dB60,OOO,OOO, employing 330,400 
persons in factories alone. 

1831. 

The Voice of the People^ No. 1, January 1, was printed by John Hampson. 

The year opened with great apprehensions of a turn-out of the factory 
operatives, but although thirty thousand were on strike in the Ashton district 
the example was not followed In Manchester. A great sensation was caused 
by the murder of Mr. Thomas Ashton, of Wemeth, who was found, January 3, 
dead by the roadside, having been shot through the breast. The murderers 
were not detected for three years, when one of them turned Idng's evidence, 
and it was then found to be a trade outrage. Three men had been hired to 
•hoot him, and received £10 for doing the deed. The motive was not private 
vengeance, for Mr. Ashton was an amiable young man, but a desire to intimidate 
the masters generally. The trial took plaee at the autumn assices, Chester, 
1831, and two men were sentenced to be hung, but owing to a dispute between 
the sherllb of the city and of the county the execution was delayed. The two 
men were eventually hung in London some months later. 

Petitions for representatives in Parliament adopted January 80. 

Mr. Louis Schwabe obtained a patent for certain processes and apparatus 
for preparing and beaming yams of cotton, linen, ftc., so that any design, 
device, &c., may be preserved when woven into doth. January 22. 

Mr. William B£assey, eldest son of the late Bfr. John Massey, of this town, 
died at Tunis, February 27. He was a young man of considerable talent as a 
linguist. 

1 William IV. cap. 7. Act for more effectually maintaining the road from 
Crossford Bridge to the town of Manchester, and for making a branch road to 
sommunicate therewith. March 11. 

The body of Moses Femeley, who was executed at Lancaster for the 
murder of his stepson at Hulme, was sent to the Manchester Infirmary for dis- 
section, March 14. 



y 



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182 Annals of Manchester. 



1831 



ABhton Womll and William Worrall were executed at Lancaster for the 
murder of Sarah M'Lellon, at Fallsworth, March 14. 

1 William IV. cap. 10. Act to authorise the raising of farther monies f oi 
supplying the town of Manchester with gas. March 16. 

The Basaar in Deansgate was erected* and opened Bfarch 22. It was pulled 
down in 1872 to make way for the Deansgate improvements ; and upon the 
site fine shops have been erected^ now (1886) in the occupation of Messrs. 
Kendal, Billne, and Co. 

Hulme Dispensary was established, liarch 2a 

The first concert of the Manchester Choral Society was htid in the Exchange 
dining-room, liarch 90. 

Bey. James Gatliif died at Gorton, and was buried in the chancel of Gorton 
Chi^wl, April 80. He was bom at M anc he ster about 1703, and edited Wogan's 
Esmiya on the Proper Lessons in the Liturgy of the Church of England^ with 
a Life of Wogan, third edition, 1817, 4 vols. {Manchester School Begieter, i. 184. > 

Bam Mohun Boy visited Manchester, and was shown through various 
establishments, April 13. 

1 William IV. cap. 51. Act for amending and enlarging the powers and 
provisions of the several Acts relating to the Liverpool and Manchester 
Bailway. April 22. 

Mr. BeAJamin Heywood, of Manchester, returned as one of the representa- 
tives of the county. May 10. 

The Bev. John Clowes, M.A., died May 28, at Leamington, in his 88th year. 
He was for sixty-two years rector of St. John's Church. Bom on the 81st 
October, 1743, he was the fourth son of Mr. Joseph Clowes, barrister, and wa» 
educated at the Free Grammar School, and at Trinity Collie, Cambridge, 
where he was highly distinguiBhed as a classical scholar, and became a fellow 
of the college. He was the first rector of St. John's, and refused more than 
one oflSsr of high preferment in the Church. In the spring of 1773 he became 
acquainted with the theological writings of Baron Emanuel Swedenborg, 
and from that time he dedicated all the energies of his powerful mind to the 
publication of those doctrines, both in the pulpit and by tfie press. During the 
latter part of his life he resided principally at Warwick. A full list of Ms 
writings would contain about two hundred entries. He has left an interesting 
autobiography, and a life of him by Mr. Theodore Crompton has also been 
published. Some interesting references to Bir. Clowes will be found in Hind- 
marsh's Rise and Progress of the New Jerusalem Church, There is a memorial 
of him by Flaxman in St. John's Church. 

A Socialist Congress was held in Bfay for the purpose of establishing a 
eommunity. 

A dinner given to Bfr. John Wilson Fatten and Lord Stanley, the lepre* 
sentatives of the county, at the Exchange Boom, June 17. 

The Botanical and Horticultural Gardens, Old TralTord, opened June 2L 
Ihey cover a space of sixteen acres in extent. 

The payment from the gas profits to the Improvement Committee was 
£6,906 15s. 2d. June. 

Bobert Bowker, who had been confined for many weeks in the New Bailey» 
on a charge of feloniously wn^wing use of money, to the extent of several thou* 



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isni 



AwndU of Mcmchester. 183 



iand ponnds, belonging to the chorchwardens, wu discharged on bail amount- 
ing to the sum of £800, June. 

The BeT. W. Huntington succeeded, in June, to the rectory of St. John's, 
upon the death of the Bev. John Clowes. 

Mr. Richard Bradley died at Bradford Colliery, July 0, aged 06. He was 
bom at Stoneyhurst, and at the age of fifteen he came to Manchester, where 
he was taught to weave on the Dutch loom. He resided under the same roof 
and was in the same employ for seyenty-one years. 

A Medical Vapour Bath Institution was opened July 28. 

Robert Bradbury, a celebrated down, died July 28. He was originally a 
cabinet-maker at Liyerjraol, and, under the management of Mr. Riley, the 
author of The Itinerant, then the lessee of the Uyerpool Theatre, made his 
d€b<U as down. He was possessed of prodigious strangth, and some of his 
feats were more calculated to terrify than amuse his auditors. 

Mr. Nathaniel George Phillips, eldest son of Mr. John Leigh Phillips, of 
Mayfleld, died August 1, at Childwall, near UyerpooL Mr. Phillips 
was an amatour artist of great tasto and skill; he executed a consider- 
able number of etehings, consisting prindpally of views of old halls, ftc., in 
Lancashire and Cheshire, as well as many miscellaneous sul^oots. 

Messrs. Fairbaim and Lillie*s foundry and millwright establishment burnt 
down, August 8. The damage was estimated at £8,000. 

Lord Hill, Commander-in-Chief, reviewed upon Kersal Moor the various 
troops stationed in this district, amounting to upwards of 8,000 men. He was 
accompanied by Generals Sir H. Bouverie, Maodonald, and Sir Willonghby 
Gordon. August 11. 

1 and 2 William IV . cap. 60. Act for making a railway from Maadiester 
to Sheffield. August 23. 

1 and 2 William IV. cap; 00. Act to enable the Company of Proprietors of 
the Canal Navigation from Manchester to Bolton and to Bury to make and 
m^ktw^j^in a railway from Manchester to Bolton and to Bury upon or near the 
line of the said canal navigation, and to make and maint4Un a collateral branch 
to communicate therewith. August 23. 

The coronation of William IV. was cdebrated by a procession of the various 
trades, and the Sunday school children of all denominations, amounting to 
upwards of 80,000. In the evening there were displays of flxeworks. The day 
was rather unfavourable. September 8. 

St. Andrew's Church, Travis Street, was consecrated October 01 

The Chorlton-npon-Medlock Dispensary opened, October 13. 

Mr. Robert Southey came to the town in October on a visit to the Rev. 
James White, brother of Kirke White, then at St. George's Church, Oldham 
Road. On this occasion he made the aoquaintanee of Mr. Charles Swain, with 
whose poems and individuality he was ** much pleased.** 

Mr. Ralph Wright, of FUxton, died November 18, aged 80. He was the 
senior magistrate of this division. His attempt to dose up an andent fbo^iath 
led to considerable litigation, and was the immediate cause of the formation of 
the Sodety for the Preservation of Ancient Footpaths. (Prentice's ManeKaUr^ 
pp. 800 and 202.) 

Mr. Jacob Chatterton, of the Woolpack public-house, Finidleton, died 



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184 Awnals of Manchester. imt 

Norember S. He was the lint individiial intemd in the new boiial-groiind 
attached to St. Thomas's Chorch. 

Mr. Thomas Dean died at Shrewslmry, Dec. 13, aged 70. He was one of 
the celebrated Uanchester Volunteers, or 72nd, which distlngnlwhed itself at 
Gibraltar. 

Christ Church, Self ord, was consecrated. It was enlaiKed in 1817. 

Christ Church Sunday School, Hulme Street, was erected* 

A turn-out of spinners, occasioned by low wages and a scarcity of provisions. 

The Laneaahire Cihcperator^ or UufiU Claaaea AdvocaU. The editor was 
Ifr. K T. Craig, but the periodical did not live long. (Holyoake*s History of 
Co-operation^ voL i., p. IflO.) The title was altered to Lanoaahira and Torh- 
ahire Co-operator. 

Mr. L. Harris was appointed singing-master at the Collegiate Church. 

The suspension bridge at Broughton gave way at the time the 00th Rifle 
Corps were passing over it» fbrty or fifty of whom were precipitated into the 
river. No lives were lost, but six of the men were very seriously hurt 

The Cemetery in Irwell Street* Salfbcd, was opened. 

The Concert Hall, Peter Street^ was opened. 

Toll Lane, leading from Deansgate into St. Ann's Squai«» widened. 

The Rothesay Castle steamer was lost on Dutchman's Bank, near Great 
Orme's Head, on her passage from LiveriKwl to Beaumaris, and out of 106 
persons only 21 were saved. Many families in this town and neighbourhood 
had to mourn the loss of their relatives. 

Jonathan Dade and Isaac Holland were apprehended for fbrging Bank of 
Bngland notes. They were two of an extensive gang that had been carrying 
on operations for years. 

The population of Manchester, including Ardwick, Cheetham, Chorlton, 
and Hulme, at the f<m]lh census was 181,708, The population of Salford, 
including Broughton, 42,876. 

The Scotch Presbyterian Church f^yunded in St. Peter^s Square. 

183a 

Blessrs. Tatlock and Love's factory, in Spear Streeti was burnt down, 
January 2. The damage was estimated at £8,000. 

Messrs, Broadhurst, Curran, Ashmore, and Gilchrist apprehended for 
holding political meetings on the ** Sabbath-day," January 3. They were sen- 
tenced to twelve months' imprisonment in Lancaster Castle. 

Bir. Henry Liverseege, painter, died January 13» aged 20. He was bom in 
Manchester in 1809. At a very early age he showed an extraordinary love for 
art. His designs at eleven or twelve years of sge were indeed surprising. Had 
his life been prolonged, there is no doubt but that he would have risen to the 
highest rank in his profession. A volume of engravings after his paintings 
appeared in 1888, and this was republished in 1876, with a life by his friend and 
pupU, Ifr. George Richardson. Liverseege is buried at St. Luke's, Chorlton- 
upon-Medlock, where there is a memorial tablet, 

Mr. James Finley, stonemason, died January 26. He was the operative 
builder of the railway bridge over the IrweU. 



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ArmaU of Mcmcherier. 186 



Mr. ThoniM C. Hewes, an eminent mechanic, died January 2& 
ICeasrs. Bancks and Ca pablished a large plan of Blanchester and Salfordy 
January. 

Mr. Charles Hnghes, one of the Manchester 72nd Begiment, onder General 
Elliot, at the siege of Gibraltar, died Febmary 15, aged 77. 

St. Patrick's Catholic Chapel, Oldham Boad, was opened Febmary 20. 
Mr. Goodier and six of his workmen killed by the explosion of a steam 
boiler, in Pool Fold, ICarch 23. 

2 and 8 William IV. cap. 28. Act for effectually repairing and improving 
the roads leading from Barton Bridge into the lianchester and Altrincham 
turnpike road. Aprils. 

2 William IV. cap. 80. Act for widening and improTing a part of London 
Boad, in the parish of Manchester, and also for eflJBttlng Improvements In the 
streets and other places within the town of Manchester. April 9. 

St. George's Sunday School, Oldham Boad, was erected. The flxst stone 
was laid April 23. 

Mr. James Down, surgeon, late of Leicester, died at Kersal Lodge, May 2. 
]9e was the inventor and patentee of a valuable method of purifying gaa. 

A meeting of 60,000 persons was held on St. Peter^s Field, to obtain the 
restoration of the Grey administration. May 14. 

The district suflRered from a visitation of Asiatic cholera. On May 17 a ^ 
man named James Palfreyman, living in Somerset Street, Dalefleld, was seised 
with symptoms of malignant cholera. The case was reported to the Board of 
Health. The cholera spread to various other Lancashire towns. In Manchester 
Its ravages were chiefly confined to the district of Angel Meadow, Deansgate, 
Portland Street, Little Ireland, and Bank Top. The deaths from cholera In 
1831-3 in Manchester were 674 ; in Salford, 216; in Chorlton, 31. The services 
of the medical profession were freely rendered in checking the disease, but the 
prejudices of the people were strongly against them, and an attack was made 
September 3 on the Swan Street Hospital, when the head of a boy, severed from 
the body, probably in the course of a poH-moriem^ was exhibited by his 
Infuriated relatives. 

2 and 8 William IV. cap. 46u Act for enabling the Liverpool and 
Manchester Hallway Company to make a branch railway, and for amending and 
enlarging the powers and provisions of the several Acta relating to such 
railway. May 23. 

The Bev. J. H. Mallory, M. A, rector of Mobberley, and one of the fellows 
of the CoUegiate Church, died May 25. 

The Kersal Moor Baces of Whitweek this year are gn^hically described 
In Procter's Our Turf, &c. 

By the passing of the Beform Bill, June 7,!Bianchester became entitled to | 
two representatives and Salford to one. 

By an Act (2 William IV. cap. 90) passed June 23, for ** improving and 
regulating'* the township of Chorlton (which bears a close resemblance in all 
Its main features as to paving, watching, soughing, &c, to the Acts affecting 
Manchester), the said township is hereafter to bear the new designation of 
" Choriton-upon-Medlock." 

Mr. John Milne, coroner for this district, died June 28. 



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186 Annals of Mcmchesler. 



IVM 



2 and 8 William IV. cap. 69. Act to enable the Company of Proprieton of 
the Manch^ter, Bolton, and Bury Canal Navigation and Railway to a^u r some 
parts of the said canal navigation, to alter and amend the line of the said 
railway, to make farther collateral branches thereto, and for amending the 
powers and proyisions of the Act relating to the said canal and railway. June 1. 

Mr. John Bradshaw, watchmaker, Deansgate, died July 8, aged 67. 

Mr. Edward Brown, one of the celebrated Blanchester Volunteers at the 
siege of Gibraltar, died at Stand, July 24, aged 74. 

The organ at St. Andrew's Chorch, Travis Streets boilt by Benn, was 
opened Joly 2SK 

The iirst number of a satirical paper called the Squib published In July. 
V The passing of the Reform Bill, and the enfranchisement of Manchestei 
and Salford, was celebrated by a magnificent prooession of the authorities, 
trade societies, ftc, August 9. Mr. Charles Green ascended in a bdloon. 

The Bev. Adam Clarke, D.D., died August 20, at London. He was bom at 
Moybeg, Londonderry, and having Joined the Methodist body, was in 1791-92 
appointed to the Manchester circuit, and in conjunction with Samuel Bradbum 
instituted in that year the Strangers* Friend Society. We learn that at this 
time there was at least one student of alchemy in the town with whom Hand, 
of Dublin, a noted adept; desired the doctor to put him in communication. The 
people were somewhat boisterous in their devotion. **I can do,*' he says "with 
the Liverpool *Amens,* but at Bianchester they are like cart wheels among 
watch works.** He was appointed to ICanchester again in 180S, and formed the 
Philological Society, of which he was president. Several of his communications 
to this association are printed in his works. In 1805 he became superintendent 
of the London circuit. In 1816 he settled at Nullbrook, near Liverjraol, but fre- 
quently visited Manchester. There are many matters of local interest men- 
tioned in Everett's Adam Clarke Portrayed, Dr. Clarke*8 father is buried at 
St. Thomas's, Ardwick. 

Bfr. W. S. Butter elected to the coronership of this district, August. 
Bir. William Ford died at Liverpool, Oct. 3. He was bom in Manchester in 
1771, and was intended for the medical profession, but became a bookseller, for 
which his unrivalled bibliographical knowledge specially fitted him. His cata- 
logues are still highly prised by collectors. He was one of the contributors to 
BiMographiana. There are notes of him in the Maneheeter Orammar 
School Begieter^ and Earwaker's Local Gleanings, Nos. 90, 111, 144. 

Bev. Bichard Jones died November 22, in the 62nd year of his age. He was 
minister of the Swedenborgian Temple, Peter Street, for nearly thirty years, 
and rendered his services gratuitously. (Hindmarsh*s Rise of New Jerusalem 
Church, pp. 215, 436.) He was the author of a Friendlff Address to the 
Beeeivers of the Doctrines of the New Jerusalem Church (Manchester, 
1806), and wrote under the signature of **Disdpulus** in the Intellectual 
Repository, 

The first number of a satirical paper called the BuUoek Smithy Gasette 
published, November 24. 

The first election for the borough of Manchester took place December 13 
and 14. The following were the numbers at the close of the poll : Bfr. BCark 
rhilips, 2,923 ; Bight Hon. C. P. Thomson. 2,068 ; Bfr. Samuel Jones Loyd, 1,832 ; 



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jg3S] A'fmals of Mcmchester. 187 

Mr. John Thomas Hope, 1,500 ; Mr. William Cobbett, 1,806. The expenseii of 
the election were £729 2b. 6d. 

OThe first election for the borongh of Salford took place December 
13 and 14. The nnmbers at the close of the poll were: Mr. Joseph 
Brotherton, 712 ; BCr. Wul Garnett, 51& The expenses of the election were 
£250 15s. 0d. 

Mr. J. T. Hope was entertained at a public dinner in the Theatre Royal, 
December 24. It was attended by TSO gentlemen. 

A public dinner was held at the Theatre Royal, to celebrate the return ot 
Mr. Mark Philips and the Right Hon. Charles P. Thomson, as the two first 
representatlTes of Manchester, December 27. 

The total number of children attending the day schools in Manchester and 
Salford in the month of December was 17,000. 

By the Reform Act, Lancashire was divided into North and South, each 
returning two representatives. 

Gasworks at Holt Town erected. 

Todd Street, or Toad Lane, improved at a cost of £1,401 16s. 

The revenue of the Post Office in Manchester was £53,510 8b. 4d. 

The inhabitanto of Salford decided to purchase BIr. Appleton's gasworks, 
which he offered for £0,000. 

The front of the Infirmary was cased with stone. 

The Baptist Chapel, George Street, was opened. 

There were from 12,000 to 14,000 looms, and ten throwing mills, giving 
employment to about 8,000 hands. 

The number of mills at work in Manchester and adjoining townships 
was: Silk mills, 16; cotton mills, 90; woollen or worsted mills, 4; flax 
miUs,2. 

A new throstle frame was invented by Mr. Robert Montgomery, of John- 
ston, Scotland. 

The duty on cotton produced £600,000. 

The Pwn Jfan's AdwKoUe and the People's Library were both published 
tn Mancliester, and edited by Mr. John Doherty, of whom there Is a slight 
notice in Johnson's Manehetter CcUtUogue. 

1838. 

BIr. Robert Stephenson, of Worsley, died January 17, aged 7B. He was one 
of the gallant 78nd Regiment at Gibraltar, and was the first man who struck 
his pick into the rock as a miner. 

The Scotch Kirk, St. Peter^s Square, was opened by Dr. Muir, of Bdinburgh, 
February 8. The building was designed by Mr. Johnson, and cost £7,600. 

Mr. Michael Ward, M.D., died Feb. 21. He was a native of ICanchester, 
was a former surgeon to the Manchester Infirmary, and the oldest resident 
medical practitioner in the town. 

A fire broke out in the Medlock Paper BfiU, occupied by Messrs. Schofleld^ 
March 1. 

The Manchester and Salford District Provident Society was mtaWlshed, 
March. 

8 and 4 William IV. cap. 18L Act for more eflbctually repairing and 



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188 Armals of Manchester. 



(18SS 



imivoTing the road from the end of Ardwiek Green to 2(ottram-in-Longden- 
dale, in the county of Cheater. April 2. 

Bev. John Dean, D.D., Principal of St Mary Hall, Oxford, and Rector of 
Onlde, in Northamptonahire, died April 12. He waa a native of Mancheater, 
and waa edncated at the Free Grammar School, from which he went to 
Braienoae College, Oxford, where he obtained a fellowship, and afterwards 
held the office of tutor for many years. Dr. Dean held for some time the pre 
centorship of St. Asaph, with the ainecnre rectory of Corwen. {€hnUeman'9 
Magagine^ May, 1833, p. 168.) 

An Inqoest held in Salfbrd on the body of Corporal Daniel Maggs, of the 
83th Begiment, who was shot by Private John Hoaeh. The murderer was 
aubaequently banged at Lancaster, May 1. 

BCr. Alexander Wilkinaon, late publisher of the Maneheaier Advertiser^ 
died May 10. 

3 and 4 William IV. cap. 67. Act to amend an Act passed in the seventh 
year of the reign of His late Majesty King George IV., for repairing the roads 
from Manchester to Salterns Brook, and for making several roads to communi- 
cate therewith, and also for making a certain new extension or diversion of the 
said roads, instead of a certain extension or diversion by the said Act 
authorised to be made. May 17. 

The Due d*Orleans, accompanied by aeveral distinguished French officers, 
visited Manchester, on his route for London, May 24. 

A poll was taken in May, at the Town Hall, when the levying of a church, 
rate waa defeated. The numbers were : For the motion, 9,613; against the 
rate, 3,514. 

Mr. Stephen Lavender, deputy^constable of this town for twelve years, 
died June 12. He was elected in 1821, previous to which he was a Bow Street 
officer. BCr. Lavender was one of the officers ordered to arrest the Gato Street 
conspirators, and was close to Smithies when he was shot He afterwards 
traced Thistlewood to an obscure lodging, and he only escaped with his life by 
flinging himself on the bed in which Thistlewood lay, who was in the act of 
firing a pistol at him. 

BCr. John Thorpe died at his house in King Street, July 2, aged 00. He had 
filled the office of surgeon to the Manchester Infirmary during a period of 28 
years. 

BIr. Joseph Sadler Thomas, upon the death of BIr. Lavender, waa appointed 
deputy-constable of Manchester, July 26. 

Chorlton-upon-Medlock was lighted with gas, July 27. 

There was a high flood in the Irwell, August 1. 

Bev. Bichard Hutchins Whitelocke, of Chorlton-cum-Hardy, died Aug. 14. 
For many years he was the postmaster of this town. 

The feoffees of the Free Grammar School applied to the Court of Chancery 
for the appropriation of the surplus funds of the charity to some useful pur- 
pose. The Court authorised the expenditure of a sum not exceeding £10,000 
in the erection of a new school and a house for the high master. August. 

M. Alphonse Thiers, the celebrated historian, afterwards President of the 
French Bepublic, visited Manchester, aoeompanied by several other distin* 
guished persons, September Ifi. 



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AwncUs of Mancheder. 189 



ICnu Fletchor died October 8, whlUt on her way from ShoUpore to Bombay. 
She is better known by her maiden name of Maria Jane Jewsbnry, and 
although not a natiye of Manchester was long resident here. Her first, and 
indeed the only, Tolume of poems she published was her Lay9 of Leiaure 
Hirnn. She wrote also, besides many articles in the annuals and other 
periodicals of the day, a series of papers entitled Oceanides^ composed 
daring her passage with her husband to the East Indies, and published 
in the Aihtnwwn of the years 1831-2. Of her prose works the first was Phan^ 
iaamagoria; or. Essays on Life and Literature; her next. Letters to the 
Young, which had an extensiye drculation ; her third and last. The Three 
Histories, which was also popular, and contains, under the garb of fiction, 
much of her own feeling and experience. Many of her poems, signed with 
her initials, are to be found in the earlier Tolumee of the Atheneeum and the 
Manchester Guardian. 

The members of the Chamber of Commerce presented to BCr. Hugh Hornby 
Birley and Mr. George William Wood, their ilrst and second presidents, two 
splendid silver tureens, weighing 240 ounces each, as tokens of respect fdr their 
▼aluable services. Among the guests were the Earl of Kerry and Lord 
Molyneux. November 28* 

Mr. John Ralston, of Brasennoee Street, died November. He was an artist 
of considerable talent, as many of his latter paintings will testify. 

Rev. W. Manning Walker died, at Manchester, 23rd December. He was 
bom at Yarmouth 18th February, 1784, and was a Dissenting minister^first 
Unitarian, then Independent- at Preston from 1802 to 1821. In 1822 he was 
appointed chaplain of Rusholme Road Cemetery, a position which he retained 
until his death. Several of his sermons were printed. 

BCanchester was visited with a tremendous storm of wind, which did great 
damage in various parts of the town. The high chimney at BIr. Langiey's 
works, Sandywell, Salford, was blown down. December 31. 

Mr. Charles Henry Wheeler died at Winchester. He was bom in 1800; and 
at an early age showed literary ability. He wrote A Sketch of the Bev. Josiah 
Streamlet (Joshua Brooks) for Btaekvooods MagaMine, 1881, and contributed 
other articles to that periodical. {Manchesier School Bsgister, vol. iiL, ppi 58, 20a > 

The improvement of Hunt's Bank commenced. Falatine Stables opened, 
March, 1837. The road opened, June B, 1838. Gateway to Chetham's Hospital 
finished, April, 1830, and the road completed, September 81, 1830. 

The Rev. Richard Parkinson appointed a fellow of the Collegiate Church, 
in place of Rev. John Clowes« 

The value of land in various parts of the town may be estimated from the 
fact that the Improvement Committee of Bfanchester paid for 232 yards of land 
in the Parsonage, £444; for 56 yards 4 inches in Lower Mosley Street, £82 10b.; 
for 7 yards 32 inches in Great Ancoats Street, £10, and another plot of 46i yards, 
£45 10s.; for 174 yards in Little Ptoter Street, £50 8i.; for yards 16 inches in 
Pool Fold, £50; for 7 yards in Fountain Street, £30; for 21 square feet in Spring 
Gardens, £100. 

The import of cotton wool was a08,650,8371b., and the duty £I78,011« 

The Manchester Statistical Society was established^ 



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190 Armals of Manchester, tig^* 



1834. 

The Northern and Central Bank of England opened In Brown Street. 
January 18. It haa ainoe been given np. 

The Salford CommissionerB of Police pnrchaaed the Town Hall and Market 
from the proprietors for £3,000, January 80. 

A fire broke out in Newall's Buildings, Market Street, which destroyed 
about £5,000 worth of paintings that were being exhibited there, together with 
various other property. January. 

BIr. Thomas Joseph Trafford appointed high sheriff of the county, Feb. 8l 
The procession which aooompanied him on entering upon the functions of his 
office passed through Manchester August 8. 

The first society ott a purely " total abstinence" basis is said to have been 
formed at Oak Street, 86th February (Winskill's Temperance Se/ormation^ 
p. 01) ; but it is more probable that the society did not originate until 17th 
September of this year, and that it waa not an exduHvely teetotal organisa- 
tion, although it is sometimes said to have been the first of that kind in the 
United Kingdom. Its claim to priority haa been disputed. The date of 
the abandonment of the pledge of " moderation " for that of total absUnenoe is 
believed to be February, 1835. 

Rev. Moses Randall, chaplain of the Collegiate Church, died March t^ 
aged 06. 

BCr. Thomas Wroe was appointed comptroller to the Manchester Police 
Commissioners, March 19. 

Mr. William Vaughan, master of the Manchester School for the Deaf and 
Dnmb^ died ICarch 24, aged 46. 

Mr. John Shuttleworth was appointed distribuVxr of stamps for this 
district, March. 

The new Police Court, New Bailey, opened May 5L Dimensions, 88 feet by 
50 feet, and 20 feet in height 

Commercial Bank of England, Mosley Street, commenced May 12. 

Prince Jerome Bonaparte, ex-King of Westphalia, aooompanied by several 
HUMngnUhiMi foreigners, visited Manchester, May 2a 

A Convent of the Presentation Order (nuns) was founded adjacent to St. 
Patrick's Catholic Chapel, Livesey Street, May 22. 

BIr. John Sharpe, F.R.S. and F.& A, died at Richmond, Surrey, May 2a 
He was formerly a member of the firm of Sharpe, Bcdes, and Cririe, soUcitors, 
of this town. 

Mr. H. B. Bingham appointed Masterof the Schoolfor the Deaf andDumb^ 
May. 

Ifary lieigh died June 8, aged 82. By her former marriage she waa known 
by the name of PoUy Smith, of the Old Sun Taven, New Market, Market 
Street. 

The foundation of the new Manchester and Liverpool District Bank, Spring 
Sardena, laid by Mr. Robert Barbour, June 20. 

The Rev. Thomaa Gaakell, incumbent of Newton Heath, died June 20. 

Sir Daniel Bayley, K.H., died 21st June, and waa burled at Tottenham. He 
was the eldest son of Mr. Thomas B. Bayley, J.P., F.R.S., and waa bom Sept. 



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IBM Anricda of MaTicheater. 191 

14, 1700^ tad edttcfttad at the Manchfmter Grammar School and at the Warring-' 
ton Academy. At an early age he was sent to a mercantile home in St. Peters- 
burg, and sabseqnently became a partner in the Arm of Thornton and Melville. 
In consequence of great pecuniary losses he retired from business, and in 1812 
was appointed Consul-Oeneral at St. Petersburg, and agent to the Russia Com- 
pany. He was knighted 20th June, 1815, in consequence of ▼aiuable intel- 
ligence and advice as to Russian aflkirs during the war with Napoleon. During 
the absence from Russia of Earl Cathcart, the English Ambassador, he was 
ehargi daffairea, and for the services thus rendered Sir Daniel was made a 
knight of the Hanoverian Gnelphic Order. Sir Daniel was a member of the 
Ifanchester Agricultural Society, and was twice married. 

By the fall of three buildings in Long BfiUgate two boys and a girl were 
killed, July 7. 

The riots ooeurred between Orangemen and Catholics, July 18, 14. 

The Manchester police van, capable of holding eighteen persons, first came 
into use for the conveyance of prisoners between the lockups and the New 
Bailey, July 80. 

A tremendona thunderstorm In the neighbourhood of Manchester did much 
damage. Two men were killed at Newton Heath, and a woman at Prestwicb^ 
by the lightning. July 8a 

Dr. R. B. Grlndrod held a series of temperance meetings at Miles Platting 
in July, and the result was the establishment of a teetotal society. It was at 
one of its gatherings that the Rev. F. Beardsall signed the pledge, 6th Sep- 
tember. *' It seems clear that the Miles Platting Total Abstinence Society was 
the first general public and exclusively teetotal society in England*** (Winskill.) 

A meeting was held in the Exchange dining-room to celebrate the termi- 
nation of slavery in all the British colonies, August 1* 

Mr. John Lever, of Alkrington Hall, near Middleton, died Aug. 81, aged 00. 

Elixabeth Smith shot by her husband, an artilleryman, near the Cavalry 
Barracks, Hulma, August 24. 

The oonier stone of the Methodist New Connexion Chapel, Ptoter Street* 
was laid August 27. 

Iturblde, the ex-Emperor of Mexico, accompanied 1^ General OXeary, 
visited Manchester, August They wore the guests of Mr. Junius Smith, of 
Strangeways Hall. 

The old club-house in Mosley Street was sold to Mr. John Dugdale for 
iB7,000, being twice the amount at which It had been valued a ftew years earlier. 
August. 

Mr. Francis Mallalleu, of this town, was appointed a stipendiary magis- 
trate at Barbadoea in August. 

At the poll the struggle of the Dissenters of Manchester against the half- 
penny church-rate ended in the refusal of the rate by a misJority of 1,122. 
There wefe6,8S7f6r and 7,010 against the payment of the rate. Septembers. 

A branch of the Manchester and Rochdale Canal, from Maden Fold to 
Heywood, was opened September la 

A subscription started for the erection of a Blind Asylum In Manchester, 
March 13. About 24,000 square yards of land were purchased at Old Traflbrd* 
September lOl 



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192 Armals of Mancheeter. tisM 

The flrat legal proceedings In Lancashire nnder the new Factory Act were 
taken September 24. 

A Temperance Conference held in Manchester, at which there were fifty 
delegates present. September 24. 

Mr. Dacrow opened the Theatre Royal with equestrian performances, Sep> 
tember 27 ; closed November 19. 

Manchester October Races originated. October 17. 

Edward, twelfth Earl of Derby, died at Knowsley, October 21, in his 83id 
year. His lordship filled the office of lord-Uentenant of this coonty for nearly 
69 years. He was bom September 18, 1762, and sncceeded his grandfather, 
Edward, the eleventh earl, a4th Febroary, 1776b He was sncceeded by hia 
only son. Lord Stanley, who had been called to the House of Lords in 
1832 by the title of Baron Stanley of Bickerstaffe. 

BIr. James Harrop, eldest son of the late Joseph Harrop, of the Man- 
thuUr Mercury t died October 27. 

Mr. William Sergeant, of Combrook Bank, and of the firm of Sergeant and 
Milne, solicitors, died October 27. 

Mr. Archibald Prentice, proprietor of the Manehttier Times^ was charged 
at the sessions with pnblishing a libel on BCr. Thomas Sowler. proprietor 
of the Cimrier. The Jury, after being locked np eight hours, found the 
defendant *' guilty of writing and publishing, but not with a malidous 
intent," and the chairman decided that this amounted to an acquittal. 
October 2a 

Mr. Taylor's shop and workshops, situated in Mason Street, Swan Street, 
destroyed by fire. The damage was estimated to be from £2,000 to £3,00a 
October 3L 

A splendid Aurora Borealis risible from Manchester, November S. 
Mr. James Bruce, who was master of the Exchange twenty-four years, 
died November 19, aged 79. 

The silent system adopted in the New Bailey. November. 
Town Hall Buildings, King Street, conmienced. Frontage finished 
December, 1839. 

The number of streets in the town estimated at 2,000, and of houses 
at 40,837. 

Manchester paid in postages £00,621 lis. 6d. 

The Market Street improvement completed ; and. from a summary of 
receipts and expenditure of the comnussioners to the end of this year, the sum 
of £232,985 148. had been expended. To Mr. Thomas Fleming the town of 
Manchester was indebted for his seal and activity both in originating and in 
carrying out this most valuable and important improvement of a great public 
thoroughfare. 

Dr. Grindrod began a Juvenile Temperance Society in the Mechanics* 
Institute, Cooper Street. The name ** Band of Hope ** was not adopted by these 
organisations until IMS, and is said to have been suggested by BCr. Carlisle, of 
Dublin. (Winskill's Temperanet Stfarmaiian^ pi 255.) 

A day school attached to the Scotch Church, established upon the plan of 
the Edinburgh Sessional School, and under the care of the minister and the 
Kirk Session. 



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1S351 Anncds of MancJuster. 193 

The popnlatlon of Bfanchester was 200,000, of whom 15,000 lived in cellar 
dwellings. 

The quantity of cotton retained in England for home consamption was 
S06,6M,907 pounds. The export of cotton yam amounted to 70,478,468 pounds. 
The quantity of yam spun in England was 211,731,118 pounds. 

1836. 

ReT. Robert Hindmarsh died, at Gravesend, January 2, aged 70. He was a 
printer, who embraced the Swedenborgian doctrine, and who, when the 
disciples decided to form a separate church, was chosen by lot as the 
"Ordaining Minister.** He was for a time minister of the New Jerusalem 
Temple, Salford, which was built for him in 1813. He had previously preached 
in Clarence Street^ Princess Street, from July 7, 1811. He resigned his position 
April 2, 182i, when a silver cup was presented to him. He wrote Rise and 
Progrtsa of the New Jerusalem Church (London, 1801), and many con- 
troversial writings. He translated and published various of the works of 
Swedenborg. 

Lieutenant-Colonel Mark Watt, Colonel Commandant of the Traflbrd and 
Hulme Local Militia, died, in Hollis Street, London, January 8th. 

Mr. Robert Haldane Bradshaw, of Worsley Hail, died at Woodman's, Hert. 
fordshire, January 8, aged 70. He was the acting manager of the Duke of 
Bridgewater's Trust. 

The election for the borough of Manchester, January 8 and 9. The follow* 
ing were the numbers at the close of the poll : Right Hon. C. P. Thomson, 3,360; 
Mr. Mark Philips, 8,163 ; BCr. Benjamin Braidley, 2,635 ; Sir Charles Wolseley, 
hart, 683. 

The election for the borough of Salford took place, January 8 and 0. The 
following were the numbers at the close of the poll : BCr. Joseph Brotherton* 
7B6; Mr. John Dugdale, 672. 

BCr. Thomas Clayton, the last male representative of the ancient family of 
the Claytons, of Little Harwood, died February 12, at Carr Hall, near Black- 
bum, aged 80. In early life he held successively the rank of captain and major 
in the regiment of Royal Lancashire Volunteers, commanded by the late Earl 
of Wilton, and upon the resignation of that nobleman he was appointed to suc- 
ceed him. Colonel Clayton served with the regiment in Ireland for many 
years, and continued to command it until it was disbanded in 1802. 

Namick Pacha, the Turkish ambassador, visited Manchester, February 12. 

The moderation pledge of the Temperance Society abandoned February 20» 
and a new society formed on the basis of total abstinence. 

Mr. Henry Bailey, deputy constable of Chcetham, was drowned in the 
Irwell in endeavouring to rescue a little boy named Trees, who had fallen into 
the river, March 11. ▲ subscription, which amounted to £1,011 8r. 7d., was 
raised for the benefit of Bailey's family. Bailey's body was found, September 
12, in the river, near Barton Bridge. 

The election for the borough of Manchester, April 28 and 20. The following 
were the numbers at the close of the poll : Right Hon. C. P. Thomson, 3,206 ; 
Mr. a Braidley, 1,830. 

Mr. Charles Tavartf died. May 28» aged 63. This gentleman, who was uncle 
N 



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194 AnTiala of Manchester. ixsss 



to Swain, the poet, was conversant with nine languages, and deeply read 
in the literature of continental Europe. 

Mr. John Philips, lieutenant R.N., last surriving son ot Mr. John Leigh 
Philips, died at Liverpool, June 2. 

A tremendous thunderstorm burst over Manchester and neighbourhood. 
A man was killed at Ardwick ; several hurt in Hulme, June 3. 

5 and 6 William IV. cap. 30. Act to amend the Acts relating to the Man- 
chester, Bolton, and Bury Canal Navigation and Railway, and to make a branch 
railway to Bolton. June 17. 

Mr. William Cobbett, M.P. for Oldham, died June 18, aged 73. He contested 
Manchester in 1832, but was defeated, though few men had greater influence 
with the working men of this district. He was an extraordinary " self-made 
man," and nothing can exceed the strength and vigour of his EngUslk 

Anne, relict of the late Bfr. Thomas Barritt, the antiquary, died June 21. 

A man employed on the erection of a large chimney at the gas* 
works in Salf ord, was killed by falling from the top, a height of 75 yardSt 
June 22. 

The first committal ot a Manchester prisoner to Kirkdale Gaol for trial at 
the South Lancashire Assizes was on June 30. 

Lord Brougham delivered an address to the members of the Mechanica* 
Institution, July 21. 

The Adelphi Swimming Baths, Salford, opened July 20. 

The first South Lancashire Assizes commenced at Liverpool, before Lord 
Chief -Justice Tlndal and Lord Abinger, August 15. Prisoners from this dis- 
trict had previously been sent for trial to Lancaster. 

The shock of an earthquake was felt in Manchester and the vicinity 
August 20, at three o'clock a.m. 

Catherine Green was murdered by her husband, August 21. 

The "Independent Order of Bechabites** formed at Meadowcroft*s Temper- 
ance Hotel, Bolton Street, Salford, August 25. This is a friendly society 
for teetotallers, which has had a very prosperous career. 

BCr. John Youil, brewer and landlord of the Hen and Chickens, lectured 
against teetotalism, which was then being advocated by Dr. R. R Grindrod. 
Mr. Youil's lecture was printed in a pamphlet, now rare. The preface is 
dated Oldham Street, Aug. 20, 1825. 

The first stone of the Collegiate Church Sunday School, Todd Street, was 
laid September 14. 

Mr. John Mackay Wilson died October 2, at Berwick. He was the author 
of Tales of the Bardrra, and for several years editor of the Bencick Adver^ 
iiaer, Mr. Wilson was for some time resident in Manchester, where his TaltB 
of the Borders were first published. Their popularity is attested by numezooa 
editions. 

There was a review and sham fight on Kersal Moor, October 8. 

The Manchester Athenaeum was established, October 28, chiefly by tlie 
exertions of BCr. Richard Cobden, Mr. William Langton, and Mr. James Hey« 
wood, F.RS. 

The Manchester and Salford Institution for the Treatment of the Skin 
was opened November 1(^ 



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UMi Awnals of Mafieheater. 195 

The Assodated Wealeyui Methodist Chapel, Oldham Boad« was opened 
KoTember 22, 

Mr. Thomas A. Ward died at his house, Chatham Street, December 1, afced 
8fi. Mr. Ward was formerly Joint manager, with the late Mr. Lewis, of the 
Manchester and Liverpool Theatres. 

Mr. William Robert Whatton, F.R.S., F.S. A., died at Manchester, Dec. 6. 
He was bom at Longhborongh, February 17, 1700, and was a surgeon In Man- 
chester from 1815 to 183S. He was author of the third volume of History ofthi 
FouncUUians of Manchester^ 1828-33, of the biographies in Balnes*s Lancashire 
and of various pamphlets and papers. He was the librarian of the Literary and 
Philosophical Society. (See Oentleman's Magazine, December, 1836, p. 061, 
for an account of the family.) 

The Salford Gas Works, In Lamb Lane, were erected. 

The Tent Methodists discontinued their chapel In Canal Street, Ancoats, 
and sold it to Mr. Robert Gardner for £3,200. It was consecrated In 1837 as St. 
Jnde's Church. 

J. B. Pomfret, secretary to the Manchester Infirmary, absconded with 
between four and five hundred pounds belonging to that institution. 

The annual value of property In Manchester was assessed at £573,085. The 
total annual value for the borough of Salford was £185,543. 

According to the Parliamentary return, the total number of power-looms 
employed in the manufacture of silk in Manchester and Salford was 300. The 
total number throughout the United Kingdom was 1,716. 

The quantity of cotton retained in Great Britain for home consumption 
was 330,820 pounds. The export of cotton yam amounted to 82,457,885 pounds. 
The total quantity of yam spun in England was 248,114,531 pounds. 

The declared value of cotton manufactures exported was £15,306,022 ; and 
of yam, £4,704.823. 

The Independent Chapel, Oxford Road, was begun. 

1836. 

Mr. Thomas Walker, M.A.,died at Brussels, Jan. 20, of pulmonary apoplexy. 
He was bom at Barlow Hall, October 10, 1784, and his father was the well- 
known Whig boroughreeve. (See under date 1817.) He was educated at 
Trinity College, Cambridge, where he graduated M.A., and in 1812 was called 
to the bar at the Inner Temple. He left Manchester and was appointed stipen- 
diary magistrate at Lambeth. In 1835 he started a periodical. The Original^ 
which continued weekly for six months. It was published in book form, and in 
1874 a new edition appeared edited by Blanchard Jerrold. 

Mr. Daniel Lynch, druggist, of Market Street, died January 23, aged 00. 
He Was the Deputy Grand Master of the Freemasons of the Manchester 
district. 

By an accident at the chapel belonging to the Wesleyan Methodist 
Association, Oldham Road, sevenl persons wore killed and wounded. 
January 25. 

An <min#iwA stone wall, forming the new road. Hunt's Bank, fell into the 
river, and destroyed the works belonging to Messrs. Collier and Ca, on the 
Salford skle, January 8L 



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196 Annals of Manchester, 



OSM 



Mr. Robert Tinker, the original promoter, and for forty years proprietor of 
Vaoxhall Gardens, Ck>llyhar8t, died February 1, aged 70. 

Mr. Henry Hunt died at Acresford, Hants, Feb. 13. He was bom at 
CTphaven, Wilts, in 1773, and was an opulent farmer before he turned Radical 
Reformer. He was the chairman of the Peterloo meeting, and was in con* 
sequence imprisoned for three years in Dchester gaoL His printed Letters from 
that institution are curious and instructive. He was elected M.P. for Preston 
in 1830, reelected in 1831, bat defeated In 1832. There are some interesting 
particulars about Hunt in Bamf ord*s Life of a Radical, 

Mr. Edward Carbutt, M.D., one of the physicians to the Manchester 
Infirmary, &c., and the author of a series of clinical lectures which were 
delivered to the pupils of the above institution, died February 26. 

The first stone of the School for the Deaf and Dumb, and of Henshaw's 
Blind Asylum, Old TrafTord, laid by Mr. William Grant, March 28. The baUd« 
ing was designed by BCr. Richard Lane. 

Mr. James Bohanna, a man long to be remembered as having for 
years walked at the head of the procession on the king's birthday, died 
March 28. He was bom in the year 1761. In 1777 he enlisted in the 72nd 
Regiment, or Manchester Volunteers, and served with that gaUant corps at the 
protracted siege of Gibraltar, under General Elliot. On each returning anni* 
versary of the raising of the siege of that place he visited the College to see 
once more the colours of his regiment, which were then there. 

Rev. Peter Hordem, incumbent of Chorlton-cum-Hardy, and formerly 
librarian at Chetham*s Hospital, died March 28. 

Manchester Improvement Committee obtained a renewal of Its iwwers for 
three years, after strong opposition, March 30. 

The new Union Club-house, in Mosley Street, was opened March 3L 
The Union Bank of Manchester, Brown Street, established March 31. 
The South Lancashire Bank, York Street, was established April 7. 
BIrs. Sarah Henshaw, widow of Mr. Thomas Henshaw, of Oldham, founder 
of the Manchester School for the Deaf and Dumb, died April 8, at Stone Wall, 
Cheetham. 

6 William IV. cap. 10. Act to enlarge the powers of several Acts for eflbctinff 
improvements In the streets and other places within the town of Manchester. 
April 22. 

A basaar and ball was held in aid of the School for the Deaf and Dmnh^ 
April. The nett proceeds were £3,84a 

Captain John Grlmshaw, 103rd Foot, died May 21, at Cowes, Isle of Wlght» 
agedM. 

Mr. Richard Entwlsle died on May 30. He was bom In Manchester In 
September, 1771, his father being James Entwlsle, boroughreeve In 17M. 
Richard Entwlsle was a highly accomplished man, an excellent musician, and 
f(ood linguist. His eldest surviving son was William Entwlsle, M.P. 

Of 63,023 persons employed in mills in the parish of Manchester, 35,283 were 
females ; 87,930 were above the age of 18 years, and 16,006 were below the 
age of 16. The estimate was made in May. 

The Methodist Association Chapel, known as the Tabemade, in Orosvenor 
Street, was opened June 8. 



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isn] AwMxh of Manchester. 197 

St Luke*8 Chorcb, Cheetham HiU» was founded June 6, but not conse- 
crated until October 6, 1830. It is Gothic, from a design by Mr. T. W. Atkinson. 
The tower and spire together are 170 feet in height. 

The Act of Parliament (6 and 7 William IV. cap. Ill) for constructing the 
Manchester and Leeds (now Lancashire and Yorkshire) Bailway received the 
royal assent, July i. 

6 and 7 William IV. cap. 115. Act for making and maintaining a navigable 
Canal to connect the Bochdale Canal and the river Irwell, in the township of 
Manchester, July i. 

St John the Evangelist's Church, Higher Broughton, was founded July 6, 
by the Bev. John Clowes, who liberally gave the land and endowment It was 
opened January 7, 1838, and consecrated October 5, 1830. 

A silver star was presented to Mr. Henry Anderton, the teetotal poet, at a 
meeting held in Hulme» August % presided over by Mr. James Gaskill. He was 
one of the most popular speakers in the early days of temperance advocacy. 
He died at Bury, June 21, 18S5, aged 46 years. 

Manchester and Salford Bank, Moeley Street, established in August 
Mr. William Henry, M.D., died Sept 2, aged 61 years. He was a native of 
Manchester, and finished his education at Edinburgh, where he was the friend 
and associate of Brougham, Jeffrey, Macintosh, and a number of others who, 
like himself, attained a high degree of celebrity. He was intended for the 
medical profession, but, owing to delicate health, he relinquished it. Soon 
after leaving the university he delivered in Manchester several courses of lec- 
tures on chemistry. The notes of these lectures ultimately led to the publi- 
cation of a small volume on the science which in successive editions gradually 
becsme a detailed and excellent treatise on the subject, and was remarkable 
for the precision of its information and for the elegance of its style. Dr. 
Henry was interred September 7, in the burial ground of Cross Street Chapel 
His purely scientific writings are chronicled in the CcUaloffut published by 
the Royal Society. (Baker's Memorials^ p. 90.) 

The first stone of the Female Penitentiary, Embden Place, Greenheys, was 
laid by Sir Oswald Mosley, Bart, president, September 0. It was opened 
September 7, 1837. 

The Manchester Musical Festival and Fancy Dress Bali held September la 
resulted in a profit of £1,320, which was distributed among the public 
charities. 

Madame Maria Fellcita Garcia Malibran de Beriot died September 23. 
She was the eldest daughter of a Spanish tenor singer, Manuel Garcia, and 
was bom at Paris in 1808, and made her ddbut at the London Opera in 1825. In 
the following year she went to America, where she married M. Malibran, an 
elderly gentleman from whom she was soon separated. Her fame as a vocal in c 
was unrivalled. In 1830, after a divorce from her former husband, she married 
M. de Beriot, a Belgian violinist. She came to Manchester September 11, to 
aing in connection with the Musical Festival, and probably owing to vocal 
exertions which were imprudent for one In her condition, she was taken, after 
an evening concert at the Theatre Royal,;with an illness which proved fatal. She 
was buried at the Collegiate Church, Manchester, Oct. 1, but the body was 
exhumed Dec. 20, and re-interred at Brussels, Jan. 4, lKi7. A Funeral S< rmon 



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198 Annala of Mancliester. osj, 

b J Canon Parkinson was printed, and contains, in an ai»pendiz, details of her 
illness and death. 

The stamp dnty npon newspapers was reduced to one penny, September, 
when the newspapers of Manchester were reduced from seTenpence to four> 
pence. 

The Banksian Society was dissolved in September. It was an association of 
botanists, chiefly artisans, who bad held meetings for seven years. It was 
resuscitated as the Natural History Class of the Mechanics* Institution. 

A branch of the National Provincial Bank of England was established in 
Mosley Street, September. 

Mr. John Hal lam, of the Legs of Man Inn, Portland Street, died October 17. 
He had a local reputation as a comedian. 

Mr. Thomas Bury, fustian shearer and woollen cord finisher, died October 
31, aged 78. He was the founder and first finisher of moleskins. 

Captain Benjamin Wild, late paymaster of the 29th Regiment, In which he 
served upwards of 24 years, and shared in its glories and perils in Spain and 
Portugal, died November 0, aged 51 

St^ Savlour^s Church, Hymouth Street, Chorlton-upon-Medlock, consecrated 
November 11. The cost of the structure was £8,000. 

Mr. Thomas Appleby, the founder and originally proprietor of the Salford 
Gas Works, died November 12. 

Mr. Moses Hughes, the well-known performer on the oboe, died November 
26i He was bom at DownhoUand, between Wigan and Ormsklrk. After 
serving an apprenticeship In Liverpool, he came to this town, where he resided 
upwards of fifty years, deservedly respected. 

Mr. John RatclifTe, formerly of this town, died at Cheltenham, December 2, 
at an advanced age. He served the office of boroughreeve in 1800-ia 

The Imperial Bank of England, King Street, was established in December. 
It suspended payment April 30, 18301 

Messrs. Faulkner and Co.'s factory, Jersey Street, Ancoats, destroyed hf 
fire, December.' 

The total number of day scholars in Manchester and Salford was 24,076 
December. 

The day police of Manchester consisted of 41 men. The night police 
numbered 116. 

At this date the five following individuals were living in this town who bad 
served at the siege of Gibraltar: George Bennett, Turner Street; William* 
Smith, Loom Street ; and Giles Betford, Pendleton (blind), served in the 72nd ; 
John Entwistle, Camp Street, served in the 9Tth Bath Volunteers; and Joseph 
Walker, John Street, Salford, served on board the Ocean, 90 guns, and at the 
siege as a sergeant. 

Bev. W. J. Kidd appointed to the living of St Matthew's Church, by the 
Warden and Fellows of the Collegiate Church. s 

An accident by which two were killed and seventy iujured was occasioned 
by the fall of the fiooring of a recently-erected building in Oldham Road, where 
a temperance meeting was being held. Dr. Stanle/, afterwards Bishop of Nor 
wich, visited the sufferers and himself became an abstainer, but returned to 
the use of wine by order of his medical attendant. 



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um Annals of Manchester, 199 

The number of brewen, vlctnallers, and beer retailers in the "Manchester 
Collection ** was 4,674. 

According to a Parliamentary return, the power looms in the United 
Kingdom numbered 117,151, vie, Manchester, 15,960; Buy, 9,901 ; Blackburn, 
4,256; Ashton, 4,018; in Yorkshire, 7,809 ; in Cheshire, 22,913; Middlesex, 868; 
Scotland, 17,721 ; Wales, 1,938; Ireland, 1,516. 

1837. 

The Com Exchange, Hanging Ditch, was opened January 7. The coat o( 
the building was £4,000. The area of the room is nearly 600 square jiaids. 

A malicious explosion of gas at Mrs. Kempshaad's shop in Market Street, 
January 7, caused damage to the extent of £3,000. A public subscription was 
opened for her benefit. 

BCr. John Henry Perkins, first superintendent of the Laaeasterian School 
In this town, died January 21, aged 63. 

The new school and high master's house, belonging to the Free Grammai 
School, completed at an expense of £7,500. Opened January 80. The house 
was subsequently conrerted into the Cathedral HoteL 

Mr. John Atkinson Bansome, senior surgeon to the Manchester Boyal 
Infirmary, died February 10, in his 58th year. Mr. Bansome was bom at Kor> 
wich, March 4th, 1779 ; served his apprenticeship at Lynn, and came to Man- 
chester in 1805. 

Bev. Henry Gillow died February 2S, aged 41. He was ordained priest 
December 21, 1821, and immediately afterwards took charge of the St. Mary's 
Mission, in Mulberry Street. He was a very sealoua Catholic priest, and was 
chairman of the Catholic School Committee, which was the means of opening 
schools in the town and its environs. <Gillow's BUdiographieai Dictianar^t 
English Catholic.) 

The first public sale of raw silk in Manchester is said to have been held 
April 4. 

Great distress prevailed amongst the working classes on account of bad 
trade and the deamess of food. April. 

St. Jude*s Church, Canal Street, Anooats (late a chapel belonging to the 
Tent Methodists), was opened, April. 

The Victoria Park Company incorporated under an Act of Parliament 
(7 William IV. and 1 Vic. cap. 31), May 5 ; opened July 31. The park contains 
140 acres, and is situated in the townships of Busholme, Moss Side, and 
Chorlton-upon-Medlock. 

7 William IV. and 1 Victoria, cap. 21. Act tor making a railway from 
Sheffield to Manchester. May 6. 

7 William IV. and 1 Victoria, cap. 24. Act for enabling the Manchester 
and Leeds Bailway Company to vary the line of such railway, and for amending 
and enlarging the powers and provisions of the Act relating thereto. May 5. 

7 William IV. and 1 Victoria, cap. 27. Act for enabling the Liverpool and 
Manchester Bailway Company to raise more money, and for amending and 
enlarging the powers and provisions of the several Acts relating to the said rail- 
way. May 6. 



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200 Annals of Manchester. u^y 

The third Socialist (Ck>-operatiTe) Congress was held in the Social InsU* 
tntion. Great George Street, Salford, in May. 

BCr. BeAJamin Robert Haydon visited the town in order to advocate the 
establishment of a School of Design. HewashereinMay and Jane. He writes 
in his diary: "Manchester in a dreadful condition as to art No School of 
Design. The young men drawing without instruction. ▲ fine anatomical 
figure shut up in a box ; the housekeeper obliged to hunt for the key. Til give 
it them before I go.*' (See under date 21st January, 1838, and 25th March, 183a) 

7 William IV. and 1 Victoria, cap. 43. Act for effectually amending the 
roads from Manchester, through Oldham, to Austerlands, in the county of 
York, and from Oldham to Ashton-under-Lyne, and from Oldham to Rochdale, 
and other roads, and for making and maintaining new lines to communicate 
therewith. June 8. 

Fire at BCr. Falrweather^s factory, Cambridge Street, June 10. The damage 
was estimated at £2,000. 

The accession of Queen Victoria was proclaimed in this town, June 20. 

The School for the Deaf and Dumb, and Henshaw's Blind Asylum, Old 
Trafford, opened with procession, June 21. 

7 William IV. and 1 Victoria, cap. 09. Act for making a railway from Man- 
chester to Join the Grand Junction Railway, in the parish of Chebsey, in the 
county of Stafford, to be called **The Manchester and Birmingham Railway,** 
with certain branches therefrom. June 30. 

Mr. Robert Owen's periodical Tfu New Moral World transferred to Man* 
Chester (vol. ilL printed by John Gadsby, voL iv. by Abel Heywood ; vol. vil. 
was printed at Leeds). From 10th June, 1837, to 8th November, 1815, It was 
edited by Mr. G. A. Fleming. <Holyoake*s Sistory of Ca^pcrcUion^ vol, U^ 
p. 219.) 

The Grand Junction Railway, connecting Manchester with Birmingham 
and London, was opened July 4. 

The Cattle Market, Cross Lane, Salford, was opened July 12. 

1 Victoria, cap. 112. Act for enabling the Directors of the Manchester Gas 
Works to purchase lands, buildings, and apparatus for the extension of their 
works. July 12. 

The Parliamentary election for the borough of Salford was held July 20, 
when the following were the numbers at the close of the poll : Mr. Joseph 
Brotherton, 889 ; Mr. Wm. Gamett, 888. 

The Parliamentary election for the borough of Manchester, July 27, when 
the following were the numbers at the close of the poll : Right Hon. C. P. 
Thomson, 4,127 ; Mr. Mark Philips, 3,750 ; Mr. WiUiam Ewart Gladstone, 2,324. 

Mustapha Rechid Bey Effendi, the Turkish Ambassador, and suite, visited 
BCanchester and inspected several of the manufactories, August 18. 

The new Asylum for Female Penitents, in Embden Place, GreenheySp 
opened September 7. 

The **01d Bridge** over the Irwell closed, for the purpose of being taken 
down, and one of wood opened for foot-passengers, September 7. 

Manchester General Cemetery, Uarpurhey, was opened in September. *iho 
first interred was a still-born child ; the second was Marian Scgate Watt, aged 
nine years, September 7. 



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issT] Annala of Manchester. 201 

The foundation stono of the Unitarian Chapel in Upper Brook Street waa 
laid September a 

The Weeleyan Methodist Chapel, Cheetham Hill, was opened Sep- 
tember 16. 

Presbyterian Chnrch, Biill Street, Anooats, opened September 24. 

Mr. John Stanley Gregson died of consumption, at Brixton, 2nd Oct He 
was within a month of 97. He was educated at the Moravian School, Fairfield. 
Owing to a disappointment in love, he is said to have enlisted as a private 
soldier, but was bought off. This has been denied. He wss set up as a book- 
seller in Market Street, and was the author of Oimcrackiana and The Code of 
Common Senae, both published at Manchester in 1833. He also wrote the 
oration delivered by the Chetham College boys when describing the curiosities 
formerly shown to the visitors. (Manchester Guardian Local Notes and 
Queriea.) 

BCr. George Hibbert, F.R.S., F.S.A., died, 8th Oct. He was a son of Robert 
Hibbert, who was constable of Manchester in 1759, and was an alderman of 
London. From 1806 to 1812 George Hibbert was M.P. for Seaham. He was a 
member of the Rozburghe Club, and the sale of his library in 1829 was famous 
in the bibliomania. (Baker's Memorials^ p. 00.) 

Mr. Charles Green ascended In the Royal Nassau biUloon, October 10, 28, 
and November 4, from the Gas Works, Lamb Lane, Salford. 

Mr. James Butterworth, author of a History of Manchester^ and several 
other local historical works, died November 23, at Busk, near Oldham, aged 06. 
There is a notice of him in the Dictionary of National Biography. 

The Manchester Society for Promoting National Education was established 
in November. 

The Evangelical Friends* Meeting House, Grosvenor Street, Chorlton-upon 
Medlock, was opened December 17. 

There was a very high flood in the Irwell, December 20. 

Mr. Shaw (an auctioneer), Mr. Hall, and two other gentlemen were rescued 
from the most imminent danger of being drowned in the floods, near Cheadle, 
by the courageous conduct of Henry Wrigley, the driver of an omnibus. 
December 20. 

Charles Phillips, M.D., one of the physicians to the Manchester Infirmary, 
died December 24. 

Rev. Jeremiah Smith, D.D., rector of St. Ann*s, and high master of the 
Free Grammar School, resigned both appointments. 

Rev. Robinson Elsdale, D.D., second master, appointed high master of the 
Grammar School. 

Mr. James Patrick died. He was for many years the printer of Patrick's 
Correct Card of the races. 

The Manchester Architectural Society founded. 

A fire at Messrs. Smith and RawHon's mill, Hope Street, Oldfleld Road, 
December, caused damage to the extent of about £3,000. 

Samuel D. Scott, known as " The Jumper,** took two leaps off the warehouse 
of Messrs. Sbanklin, Manley, and Co., near the New Bailey Bridge, into the 
Irwell. In the flnt leap he dencendotl feet firet into the water, and in the 
second leap head downward The height would be from 65 to 70 feet. 



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202 AnnaZa of Manchester, [isss 

Mr, W. James, formerly of Warwick, the original projector of the Liver'* 
pool and Manchester Railway, died at the Plas Newydd, Ck)mwall, aged 66. 

The Independent Chapel, Liverpool Street, Oldfleld Boad, was founded. 

Mr. Campbell, an actor at the Queen's Theatre, was accidentally shot by 
the property man whilst performing the character of Mr. Felton, in the drama 
of LUian^ the Show Qirl, The subscription for his widow realised £120 lOs. 6d. 

1838. 

y[r. James Norris, chairman of the Salford Quarter Sessions, died January 
19, aged 63 years, and was buried in the Derby Chapel, in the Collegiate 
Church. 

Mr. Benjamin Robert Haydon lectured on the formation of a School of 
Design, 26th January. He records in his Diary meeting Fairbaim and others 
at dinner. " Liked Fairbaim much— good steam-engine head." A visit to his 
works Is described. 

The Night Asylum for the Destitute Poor, Smithfleld, wasopened« Feb. & 

Manchester School of Design was formed in February. 

The first stone on the Manchester side of Victoria Bridge was laid bj 
Mr. Elkanah Armitage, boroughreeve of Salford, March 3. 

Fire at the Oxford Road Twist Company's factory, in the occupation of 
Messrs. Cooke and Hyde, March 7. The damage was estimated at £6,000. 

A petition for a charter of incorporation, bearing 15,831 signatures, was 
forwarded from Manchester for presentation to Her Majesty's Privy Council^ 
March 11. 

Mr. Daniel Maude', barrister, appointed stipendiary magistrate for Man- 
chester, March 19. 

y[r, John Frederick Foster, stipendiary magistrate, appointed chairman of 
;he Quarter Sessions. March. 

The Ardwick Cemetery was opened April 13. 

The Manchester and Bolton Railway was opened ICay 24. The length was 
ten miles, and the cost £650,000. 

The Rev. Rowland Blaney, incumbent of Birch Chapel, died at Longsightv 
May 30, aged 84. 

Zoological Gardens, Higher Broughton, were opened ICay 81. 

The fourth Socialist Congress was held in May at BCanchester. 

1 Victoria, cap. 25. Act for enabling the Company of Proprietors of the 
Manchester, Bolton, and Bury Canal Navigation and Railway to raise mora 
money, and for amending the powers and provisions of the several Acts relatinj( 
thereto. June 11. 

The Unitarian Chapel, Strangeways, was opened June 17. The Sunday 
School was opened June 24. 

Bfary Moore, aged 48, was found murdered at mid-day, at Wlthington, 
June 20. George Hodges was tried on the charge of committing the murder at 
the following assises at Liverpool, and acquitted. 

Salford Mechanics* Institution was opened June 23. Its first president was 
Mr. John Frederick Foster. 

South Lancashire Bank, York Street, opened June 23l 

The coronation of Queen Victoria was celebrated June 28. 



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1S3S) ATmala of Manchester. 203 

The f onndAtion stone of the Hope Street Schools, Oldfleld Road, Salford, 
was laid Jane 28. 

Joseph Corbett Peel, cashier at the Bank of Manchester, absconded with a 
large sum of money belonging to the bank. He was pursued and arrested ai 
Botterdam by Sawley, the Manchester oiBeer, and transported for seven years. 
June. 

The first stone of the Salford side of Victoria Bridge laid by Mr. J. Brown, 
boronghreeye of ICanchester, Jnly 2. 

The Mersey and Irwell Navigation Company started a steamer vpon the 
river for passengers. She carried 160 passengers, was 12-horse power, fl6 feet 
long, and was called *' The Jack Sharp.** July i. 

Marshal Sonlt visited Manchester Jnly 20^ and was entertained at a dinner 
in the Union Olnb House, Mosley Street. 

Rev. Bobert Stephens McAll, pastor of the Independent Church in Mosley 
Street, died at Swinton, 27th July. He was bom at Plymouth, 4th August, 
1708. His DUcouratB on Special Ocecuionat with a life by Wardlaw, were 
issaed in two volumes in 1840. 

Mr. Benjamin Heywood, banker, and president of the Mechanics' Instl* 
tutions, created a baronet, July. 

Mr. Thomas Hardman, of Richmond House, Higher Broughton, died Aug. 
10, aged Oa His valuable collection of paintings, portraits, books, prints, and 
ooins was sold by auction, by Winstanley, in October the same year. 

Messrs. Macintosh and Co.*s patent cloth factory, Chorlton-upon-Medlock, 
was destroyed by fire, August 25, when three lives were lost. 

Bfr. H. Powell accidentally killed at the New Bailey, September 12. 

The junction of the Bridgewater Canal with the river Irwell, near Hulme 
Hall, by means of locks, completed and opened September 20. 

The Manchester Journal, No. 1, September 22, was printed and published 
by Joseph Maeardy. 

A great meeting was held on Kersal Moor, September 24, to demand the 
six points of the Charter. The attendance was estimated by the Jiioming 
Post at 800,000. Mr. Fergus O'Connor, M.P., Rev. James Rayner Stephens, and 
others addressed the assembly, which elected Bronterre O'Brien to represent 
Manchester in the Convention that met at London in February, 1830. 
(Oammage's Hietory of Chartism^ p. 00.) 

The first meeting for the formation of the Anti-Corn Law Association, was 
held at the York Hotel, September 24. 

The last races at Heaton Park, September. The Manchester Cup was won 
by the Barl of Wilton. The race for the Heaton Park Stakes was remarkable 
lor the fall of Harkaway and Cruikseen. (Procter's Our Turf, ^c, p. 02.) 

Mr. Andrew Ward, professor of music, died October 0, aged 4a At the age 
of eighteen Mr, Ward was the leader of the band of the Theatre Royal, and was 
the first to introduce into Manchester Logier's system of teaching music 

Miss Eleanor Byrom, daughter of Edward Byrom, founder of St. John's 
Church, died October 8, aged 82 years. With a large fortune, she inherited a 
generous and loving heart, which prompted her to acts of charity and bene- 
floenoe. She left about £4,000 to dUTerent charities in this town. Miss Byrom 
was buried in the Byrom Chapel of the Collegiate Church. 



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204! AnTiaZa of Manchester. 



a8S9 



The centres of the arch of VlctorlA Bridge washed down by a flood* 
October 16. Mr. Gannon, the contractor. In endeavonring to secure them, had 
his leg broken* 

lir. A. W. Paolton delivered his first lecture against the Com Laws in the 
Com Exchange, October 25. 

The Ancoats Lyceum, Great Ancoats Street, was opened, October. 

The royal charter constituting Manchester a borough received, Nov. L 

The sum of £20,000 was raised at a meeting held in the Wesleyan Methodist 
Chapel, Oldham Street, November 7, for the purpose of commemorating the 
centenary of the founding of that religious body by the Bev. John Wesley. 

Carpenters' Hall, Garratt Road, opened November 12. This building, which 
cost about £4,600, was erected at the sole cost of the Journeymen whoee name 
it bears. 

The Chorlton-upon-Medlock Lyceum was opened December 8. 

The election of councillors for the fifteen wards into which Manchester was 
divided by the charter, December 14. Mr. John Hyde was the returning officer. 

At the first meeting of the Council, Mr. Thomas Potter was appointed 
mayor and Mr. Joseph Heron town clerk. December 15. 

The Manchester Chamber of Commerce sent a petition to Parliament to 
Abolish the Com Laws. December. 

A volume of Social Ilymns /or the Use of the Friends of a Rational 
System of Society was published at Salford. The compiler or author was Mr. 
G. A. Fleming. 

1830. 

Manchester ChronicU and Salford Standard published Jan. 5 by Joseph 
Leicester, 4, St Ann*s Street. This revival of Wheeler*s Chronicle lasted until 
December 31, 1842. 

The centres of the arch of Victoria Bridge, and the octagon chimney, 164 
feet 7 inches high, at Mr. Paten's works, Corabrook, thrown down during the 
tremendous gale, January 7. The latter was reared May 28, 1836. 

Bev. Samuel Knight died January 17. He was for some time curate at St. 
James's, where he succeeded Dr. C. Bayley as incumbent, but in 1816 he became 
vicar of Bradford. {Palatine Note-book, voL 3, p. 147.) 

A great Anti-Com-Law dinner held in the Com Exchange, January 23^ 

Mr. Darcy Lever, of Alkriaicton, near this town, died at his house, Heriot 
Bow, Edinburgh, January 22. He was the last direct male representative of the 
ancient family of Lever, of Great Lever, Darcy Lever, and Little Lever, but 
latterly of Kersal, Collyhurst, and Alkrington Halls. Mr. Lever, like his 
grandfather. Sir Darcy, and his uncle. Sir Ashton, was a liberal promoter of 
literature, science, and the arts. 

Mr. William Bate man, of Pendleton, died January 25, aged 73. He was the 
original founder and xealous supporter of the Deaf and Dumb Institution of 
this town. 

Prince Louis Napoleon Bonaparte visited Manchester, and inspected 
various manufactories and public buildings, January 29. 

Dr. William Hibbert died January 31, at Shukar Ghars, a Jungle in Scinde. 
He was an officer of the Queen*s Royals, and having gone out shooting with 



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igs^ Annals of Manchester. 205 

two other officers, and the jungle harlng been set on fire to force the wild 
RnimaLi from the covert, the wind changed and the three unfortunate men 
were sarrounded by the flames, in which they perished. There was some sus- 
picion of treachery. Dr. Hibbert, who was only 26 years of age, was a son of 
Dr. Hibbert- Ware. 

Elicabeth Potts, widow, daughter of James Barnes, of this town, died Feb. 
8, in the Manchester Workhouse, at the alleged age of 102. She was bom in 
May, 1737, and baptised at the Collegiate Church in September, it is said, of the 
same year. 

A fire occurred at the Manchester Cotton Mills, in IfiUer Street, in the 
occupation of Bfr. Beaver, February 1ft 

Bfr. Fergus O'Connor, M.P., was arrested in Manchester, and tried at York 
(Lssises, Bfarch 16, for seditious libel in the publication of three speeches in the 
Northern Star, one of them delivered at Bfanchester by William Dean Taylor. 
He was found guilty, and was sentenced to eighteen months* imprisonment in 
York Castle. 

George Whittaker, aged S3, attempted to murder his wife in Club Row, 
Oldham Road, March 17. He received sentence of death August 14, but this 
wsA commuted to transportation. 

The key-stone of the arch of Victoria Bridge was set by Mr. Humphrey 
Trafford, Bfarch 23. 

Benjamin Robert Haydon visited Manchester for the purpose of apprentic- 
ing his son Frank, as an engineer, to Fairbaim. He took lodgings for his boy 
at W,MiU Street, Anooats. March 25. 

Mr. James Chapman, attorney, appointed first coroner for the borough of 
Manchester, April 8. 

Colonel John Ford, formerly of Claremont, near this town, died April 15, at 
Abbeyfleld, near Sandbach, Cheshire. He was colonel of one of the Manchester 
Volunteer r^ments, and also one of the feoffees of Chetham's Hospital 

Anti-Corn Law Circular, Na 1, April 17, was published by the AnU-Com< 
Law Association. 

Bfr. J. F. Foster was appointed recorder of the borough of Bfanchester April 
18» but resigned in Bfay. 

2 Victoria. Act for effecting improvements in the streets and other places 
within and contiguous to the town of Bfanchester. April 19. 

A contribution entitled "A Week in Manchester** appeared in Blacktrood'a 
McLgaMine for April, and was immediately replied to in a pamphlet called A 
Ftw Days at Manehester^ by Whitewood and Ca, Bfanchester, 

The Hope Street Schools, Oldfleld Road, wero opened in ApriL 

The Bfanchester Institution for the Illustration and Encouragement of 
Practical Science was esliabUshed in ApriL 

The Ladies' Baaar for the benefit of the Female Penitentiary, Bfay 8 and 9, 
realised £1.000. 

Bfr. ThomM Cooper, M.D., LL.D., died at Columbia, South Carolina, May 11. 
Bom at London October 22, 1750, he waq educated at Oxford, was called to the 
bar, and also stsdied medicine. His democratic principles led him to France, 
and his four months in Paris he afterwards declared to be the happiest period 
of his life. Here be learnt a process for making chlorine from ooDuno& salt, and 



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206 ArmdU of ManchegUr. [xsst 

settled in Manchester as a bleacher. He became obnoxloiis to the Goyemment 
for his liberal sentiments, and his boose, with that of Mr. Thomas Walker, 
was attacked in a "Church and King" riot in 1790. He left England with Dr. 
Priestley, and in 1796 he estabUshed himself as a lawyer in Pennsylvania. In 
1709 he was imprisonedf)and fined for a libel on President John Adams. In 1806 
he became a land commissioner and afterward a judge, bat was removed in 1811 
on a charge of arbitrary conduct. He was professor of chemistry at two 
colleges, and wrote numerous works on politics and law. 

Major-General Daniel Seddon, the youngest surviving son of the late Mr. 
John Seddon, of Acres Bam, died May 18, in Paris, aged 78. Seddon, who was 
educated at the Grammar School, entered the army and was several years in 
the East Indies, and one of the few who survived thirteen months' imprison, 
ment in the dungeon of Chiteledroog. He afterwards served in Russia and 
Egypt; and during the rebellion in Ireland he received the thanks of the 
county of Antrim for his defence of the town of Antrim from the rebels. 
Sword in hand, at the head of 20 dragoons, he charged the rebels, who had 
posted themselves to the number of 500 in the principal street. He was one oC 
the only three who survived. He was afterwards appointed inspecting field 
oflloer in the northern district, and had the rank of mijor-general conferred 
upon him for training Portuguese troops. 

BCanchester and Leeds BaiLway was opened as far as Littleborough, June 4. 

2 Victoria, cap. 17. Act to enable the trustees of the estates devised by 
William Hulme, Esquire, to appropriate certain parts of the accumulated fund 
arising from the said estates towards the endowment of benefices, the building 
of churches, and for other purposes. June 14. 

The police, organised by the new corporation of the borough, commenced 
their duties, Monday, June 17. 

Mr. Richard Beswiek appointed head constable of the borough of Manches- 
ter, at a salary of £400 per annum, June 17. 

The Borough Police Court, Brown Street, was opened June 181 It was 
previously the Bianor Court Room. 

The Salford Lyceum held its first general meeting, June 10. 

Victoria Bridge was opened, with a grand procession, June 20. Outside the 
north battlementi in the panel over the key-stone, is this inscription: "This 
bridge was built at the expense of the inhabitants of the hundred of Salford, 
upon the aito of SalfUd Old Bridge, of three Gothic arches, erected In the year 
of our Lord one thousand three hundred and sizty*fiv«. The first stone waa 
laid tn the first year of the reign of Queen Victoria, and the bridge waa opened 
on the twentieth of June, In the third year of her reign, and in the year of our 
Lord one thousand eight hundred and thirty*nine, and was, by Her Majesty's 
permission, called * Victoria Bridge.*** Total cost £20,80a Hie first vehicle 
that croeaed the bridge was a wagon lielonging to Messrs. Lupton and 
Adamthwalte, bivwer^ Cook Street^ Salford. 

BIr. John Ogden, attorney, appointed first clerk of the pc«ce for the borough 
of Manchester, June dl. 

The first Quarter S<«tdons for the borough of Manchester waa held Juno 
M^ beftte Mr. HiUvrt Bay nee Arm»trong, recorder. 

2and9Vict^ia. Act to anahla the Manchester and Blrmln^a» Railway 



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2g^] Armala of Mamcheder. 207 

Ckimpany to vary and extend the line of their railway, and to amend the Act 
relating thereto. July i. 

The warehouse of Messrs. Nathans, Lloyd Street, was destroyed by flre» 
July 17. The damage was reckoned at £12,000. 

The first stone of the Hall of Science, Campfield, was laid August 6. 

The first Manchester cab was made by Mr. W. H. Beeston, of Tib Street, 
for Mr. William White, of Spear Street, who began to ply from Piccadilly, 
August 5; 

} The '* Chartist holiday " began August 12. There were riots in Manchester 
^ and the vicinity. 

A fire in a warehouse in Dickenson Street, occupied by Saalfleld and Co., 
August 15, caused damage to the extent of £20,000. 

2 and 3 Victoria, cap. 87. Act for improving the police in Manchester for 
two years, and from thence until the end of the then next Session of Parliament. 
August 20. 

Manchester Police Bill received the royal assent, August 27. Sir Charles 
Shaw, Knt., appointed commissioner, at a salary of £700 per annum, September. 
He took possession of the old and new police establishments, October 17. 

A full-length statue of Dr. John Dalton, by Chantrey, placed in the 
•ntrance-hall of the Royal Institution, August. 

Several of the Chartist leaders were tried at Chester Assises in August. 
' At Liverpool, Edward Riley was convicted of military training and rioting 
near Manchester. Messrs. Bronterre O'Brien, R. J. Richardson, Rev. W. V. 
Jackson, and others, were sentenced to various terms of imprisonment. 

The Unitarian Chapel, Brook Street, opened September L 

At the election for the borough of Manchester (under the precept of Ifr. T. 
Evans, boroughreev^), 5th September, the following were the numbers at the 
close of the poll : Mr. Robert Hyde Greg, 8,000 ; Rt Hon. Sir Geoige Murray, 
knight, 2,060 ; Colonel Feyronnet Thompson, 88. 

At the election for the borough of Manchester, held 0th September, under 
the precept of Mr. Thomas Potter, the mayor of the borough, the following 
were the numbers at the close of the poll : Mr. Robert Hyde Greg, 8^421 ; Bight 
Hon. Sir George Murray, 8,150. 

The clock of St. Ann's Church was lighted with gas, September 28. 

The Heaton Park Races were '* removed" to Liverpool in September. 

The SeraUi of the Future^ No. 1, Octobers, No. (and last), March 7, 1840. 
The editor was George Frederick Mandley. (See under date 1863). It includes 
contributions by J> C. Prince, and articles introducing him to the public. The 
six numbers were made up into a volume, but no author's name was attached. 

Sir Oswald Mosley, Bart, lord of the manor, laid the first stone of All 
Souls* Church, Every Street, Anooats, October 26. He generously gave land 
and property to the amount of £1,400 towards its erection and endowment. 

The Bianchester and Salford Junction Canal, connecting the river Irwell, 
near the Old Quay, with the Rochdale Canal, near the Albion Mills, was opened 
October 28. 

The Manchester (Geological Society held its first annual meeting, October 8L 

The Rev. Dr. Elsdale, high master of the Grammar School, resigned, and 
the Rev. J. W. Richards was appointed his successor, October. 



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S08 Annals of Manchester. ^^ 

Mr. Thomas Potter re-elected mayor of Manchester, November 9. 

Mr. William Mordock died November 22, at Handsworth, near Birming- 
ham, aged 86. This was the gentleman who first introduced gas into Man- 
chester, having commenced with Messrs. Philips and Lee's factory, in Salford* 
in 1803. Gas was first publicly exhibited in England by Messrs. Boulton and 
Watt, Soho Works, Birmingham, on the rejoicings for the peace of Amlfina 
in 1802. 

The Rev. William Robert Hay died December 10, at the rectory house, 
Ackworth, aged 78. His father, the Hon. Edward Hay, was the third son of 
George Henry, seventh Earl of Kinnoul, by Abigail, youngest daughter of the 
celebrated Harley, Earl of Oxford. He received his education at Oxford, and 
during the early part of his life devoted himself to the study of the law, and 
when a barrister on this circuit. In 1793, married Mrs. Astley, relict of the late 
Mr. John Astley, of Dukinfield. She was the daughter of Mr. Wagstaffe, of 
this town. Mr. Hay now entered into holy orders, and was presented to the 
rectory of Ackworth, in Yorkshire, by the Chancellor of the Duchy of Lan- 
caster. In the year 1803 he succeeded Mr. Thomas Butterworth Bayley a* 
chairman of the Quarter Sessions for the Hundred of Salford, which office be 
held until 1823, when he retired. Mr. Hay was presented to the vicarage of 
Rochdale by the Archbishop of Canterbury, at the solicitation of the Govern- 
ment, as a reward for the very active services he rendered during the stormy 
period of 1818-19, and especially for his share in the Peterloo massacre. There 
is a life of him in Howorth*s Lives of the Vicars of Rochdale, 

John Shawcross, for twenty-four years principal clerk to the BCancheater 
Police, died December 17, aged 06. 

The general committee of the Church of England Sunday Schools was dis- 
solved December 20. At this time only eight out of twenty-two churches were 
connected with the Union. (Bardsley's Memorialed p. 135.) 

St. Luke's Church, Cheetham Hill Road, was built by subscription. 

The Athenaeum, Bond Street, opened. The building was designed by Sir 
Charles Barry, and cost nearly £9,000. (See also 1837.) 

Fbst-offioe and other rooms added to the Exchange, of which the area alto* 
gether was over 5,606 feet. The Exchange was rebuilt in 1878. 

The Social Pioneer printed by Abel Heywood. 

The Chartist demonstration held on Kersal Moor was estimated by the 
Northern Star to have been attended by half a million people. This was, of 
course, a gross exaggeration, but it was larger than Its predecessor of Sept. 23^ 
which was said to number aQ0,00a (Gammage*s History of the Chartist Move- 
mentf p. 126») 

The Begensratar, a weekly, published at Manchester, to which FHnee and 
Procter were contributors. (Procter's Literary Beminiscenees.) 

The first edition of Festus was published anonymously in Manchester, 
where the author (Bir. Philip James Bailey) was then resident. {Book Lort^ 

voU i., p. 83.) 

The length of main pipes laid down by the Manchester Gas Company ainee 
the Gas Act of 18i4 was sUted to be 75 mUes 4Sb yards. 

St. Luke* Church was consecrated. 

8t^ John the Bvangelist's Church, Broughton, consecrated. 



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IHOl 



AnnaU of Maaichegter. 209 



1840. 

An Anti-Ck>m Law Banquet held in the Free Trade Hall, Peter Street, 
January 13, being the first public meeting held in that building. About 4,000 
persons attended. Mr. Daniel O'Connell, M.P., visited Manchester, and took 
part in the banquet. 

The Irwell overflowed 24th January. Captain Sleigh, chief of police, 
finding that some cottages were surrounded by water, constructed a raft out 
of palings and a gate, and succeeded in rescuing the inhabitants. For this he 
received the medal of the Royal Humane Society. 

A Conservative festival was held in Chorlton-upon-Medlock, January 27. 

The Operative Conservatives of Salf ord gave a dinner to Sir George Murray 
and Bfr. William Gamett, February 8. 

The first anniversary dinner of the Manchester Law Association was held 
at the Blackfriars Inn, February 7. 

The Manchester petition for church extension, with 10,206 signatures 
attached, was forwarded for presentation by Sir Robert Inglis, February 14. 

Mr. Jonathan Hatfield died, at Naples, 25th February. He was the son of 
Mr. Jonathan Hatfield, merchant, of Cheetham, and was educated at Trinity 
College, Cambridge. He was a lover of art, and resided in Italy for some years 
before his death, and presented to the Royal Institution casts from sculpture, 
which cost £2,000. (Baker's MemcriaJU, p. 104.) 

Bfr. Henry Wyatt, an artist of distinguished excellence, died February 27, 
aged 45. Mr. Wyatt was a native oi Thickbroome, near Leicester, and a pupil 
of Lawrence's. From 1817 to November, 1819, he was painting portraits at 
Birmingham ; he then removed to Liverpool and Manchester, where he con- 
tinued till 1825, when he removed to London, but in 1837 he returned to Man- 
chester to paint the portraits of a few friends, when he was seixed with an 
illness which proved fatal. His remains were interred at Prestwich, a locality 
to which he was particularly attached. 

BCr. Michael Wilscm died, February 27, aged 77. He was a furniture 
broker, and the author of some of the songs in The Songs of the Wilsons. 

The Victoria Gallery of Science was opened for the exhibition of models 
and the delivery of lectures, March 2. 

Messrs. Hilton and Bradshalgh and Messrs. Brookes and Dugdale's ware- 
houses, situate in Palace Street and Callendar Street, were destroyed by fire. 
March i. The damage was reckoned at £7,100. 

Bev. William Nunn, BLA., incumbent of St. Clement's Church, died 0th 
March. He was a native of Colchester, and was bom May 18, 1788. After 
several country curacies, he came to Manchester, where the living of St. 
Clement's was purchased for hiuL He was very active as a clergjrman, and 
acquired great influence. Several of his sermons have been printed. His 
Memoirs^ edited by Rev. B. Pym, appeared in 1842. 

Mr. James Bottomley died at Cheetwood, March 15, aged 78. He had been 
a lieutenant In the 15th Foot, and was the engraver of a number of Interesting 
local printa. 

Mr. George Beswick, one of the 72nd, or Manchester Volonteert, who 
served at the siege of Gibraltar, died at Bolton, March 25^ aged 79, 
o 



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210 Awnala of Mancheder. qmo 

A building sltnAted in Little Lever Street^ and ooeupled by Bir. Jonee, Bfr. 
Johnson, and Mesan. Elce and Co^ as macMne BhpiM» was destroyed by fire, 
Biarch31. The damage was £6,000. 

8 Victoria, cap. IS. Act to enable the Manchester and SaUord Jnndion 
Canal Company to raise a farther sun of money, and to alter, amend, and 
enlarge some of the powers and proTisions of the Act relating tothesaid canaL 
April 3. 

A poU took place for the election of chnrchwardens, there being two lists 
presented, one by Mr. George Clarke and the other by Bir. Richard Cobden, 
which terminated in favoor of lir. Clarke's Ust by a minority of 4,178^ the 
numbers being— for Ifr. Clarke's list, 9,912 ; for Mr. Cobden's list, S,704. April. 
Messrs. Benshaw and Co.'s flax mill, Adelphi, Salford, was destroyed by 
fire. May 3. The damage was estimated at £2,000. 

Mr. Adam Mort, of Davy hnime, one of the few surriving heroes of the 72nd, 
who served at the siege of Gibraltar, died May 81, aged 89. 

The Manchester and Birmingham Bailway was opened to the pablic as far 
as Stockport, June 4. 

Bev. Thomas Calvert, D.D., warden of the Collegiate Church, died June 4, 
aged 05. He was bom at Newsham, near Preston, and his father^s name was 
Jackson, but in 1810 he assumed the name of Calvert in consequence of a fortune 
left him by a friend of that name. Dr. Calvert was a pupil of Wilson at Clitheroe, 
and thence proceeded to St. John's College, Cambridge, where he was fourth 
wrangler. Lord Liverpool admired his preaching, and presented him to the 
rectory of Wilmslow, but the right of the Crown to this patronage was con- 
tested, and it was found to be vested in the family of TraflTord of Trafford, who 
were Boman Catholics. When the wardenship fell vacant it was offered to 
him. Several of his sermons have been printed. Dr. Calvert succeeded to the 
wardenship upon the death of the late Dr. Blackbume in 1823. He was 
interred in the Collegiate Church, June IL 

Bfr. W. Clarke, bookseller. Market Plaee, died at his residence, Plymouth 
Grove, June 15. 

The Bight Hon.: Thomas Reynolds, Earl Ducie, P.QJS., FJS.A., died 
at his seat, Woodchester, near Cirencester, June 22, aged 85 years. 

The Hon. and Bev. William Herbert* LL.D., B.D., was installed into 

the wardenship of the Collegiate Church upon the death of Dr. Calvert, July 9. 

Mr. W. S. Butter, the coroner for the district, appeared at the Borough 

Court to answer a charge of assault upon Mr. Chapman, the coroner for the 

borough, and was held to bail to answer the charge at the sessions. July 14. 

A meeting of Chartist delegates held 20th July, at which it was resolved to 
organise the ** National Charter Association of Great Britain." The Manchester 
delegate, William Tillman, was appohited secretary. (Gammage's JETistory ot 
the Chariisi Movement^ p. lOft) 

8 and 4 Victoria, cap. 30. Act for the mors equal assessment of police-rates 
in Manchester, Birmingham, and Bolton, and to make better provision for the 
r Mce in Birmingham, for one year, and to the end of the then next session of 
I'arli.iment. July 23. 

Two nephews of the King of Ashantee visited the town, and inspected tha 
T ju io u» manufacturing establishments and public buildings. July. 



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1S40] Anruda of Manchester. 21 1 

The tiUe of tlie warden and fellows of the Collegiate Chorch of Man* 
Chester was, by an Act of Parliament, changed to that of dean and canons, 
Angost 11. 

The Chartist leaders. Dr. Peter Murray MacDooall, and John Collins, on 
their release from Chester Castle Prison, entered Manchester in procession 
2^d August, and were entertained at dinner in Carpenters' Hall, under the 
chairmanship of the Bey. James Scholefield. (Gammage*s History of the 
Chartist MovemsrU, p. 202.) 

Mr. Thomas Jewsbury, the father of Miss M. J. Jewsbury (Mrs. Fletcher) 
and of Miss G. B. Jewsbury, died August 28, aged 79. 

The Old Quay Company commenced the deepening of the river Irwell up to 
Victoria Bridge, so as to enable vessels of 900 tons to come into the centre of 
the town* but the project was never fully carried out. August. 

A new Post Oi&oe, under the Borough Court In Brown Street, was opened 
for public business, September 7. 

Mr. Jeremiah Fielding died, September 7, aged 61 In 1812 he filled the 
oiBoe of boroughreeve of Manchester. 

The first stone of the Lancashire Independent College at Withington was 
laid by Bev. Dr. Baffles, of Liverpool, September 23. A large scaffolding 
erected for the convenience of visitors gave way, and many ladies were severely 
bruised, but fortunately none were killed. 

Mr. John Walton, for upwards of 60 years drawing master in this town, 
died at Croydon, in Surrey, September 90, aged 70l 

The Manchester and Leeds Bailway was opened from Leeds to Hebdcn 
Bridge, October 9. 

The Mormon missionaries and disciples in Manchester claimed to possess 
*' the gift of tongues,** and one of them was put to the test, 12th October. Elder 
James Mahon having declared to Mr. Thomas Taylor, of the Mason Street Saw* 
mills, that he was willing to appear before anyone who might be selected, and 
convince them of his inspiration, a formal meeting was held. Some Hebrew 
was read to him, which he could not understand. He then spoke what he 
declared to be Hebrew, but the teacher of languages, who was the referee, 
declared that there.was not a word of Hebrew in his Jargon.— {See An Account 
of the Complete Failure, Ac, by Thomas Taylor (Manchester, 1S40). 

A large building, situated in Peter Street, belonging to Mr. Hobson, carrier, 
but occupied by various tenants, was destroyed by five, October 15. The 
damage thus caused was between £4,000 and £5,000. 

Mr. David Bellhouse, builder, died October 18, aged 77. 
lir. William Neild elected to the mayoralty, being the second mayor, 
November 9. 

The following placard was posted in the town of Manchester : " The bell- 
man of Manchester and Sa\tOTd.^Notice is hereby given, that William Sher- 
man, postK>fflce keeper, of New Windsor, Salford, and of No. 3, Old Militate, 
Market Place, Manchester, is duly appointed to the office of bellman of the 
towns of Manchester and Salford; the appointment of which exclusively 
belongs to Arabella Penelope Elisa Hoare, wife of Peter Bichard Hoare, of 
Kelsey Park, in the county of Kent, esquire, as one of the descendants of the 
Chetham family, formerly of Clayton Hall and Turton Tower, in this 



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212 Annals of Manchester. ittt 

county. Any person found trespassing after this notice upon his rights and 
privileges will be prosecuted.~Barrett, Ridgway, and Ford, solicitors for 
Mr. and Mrs. Hoare.— Norfolk Street, Nov. 17, 18ia** {PaZcUine Note-book^ 
vol. ii., p. 221.) 

All Souls* Church, Ancoats, was consecrated November 18. It was erected 
at a cost of £4,000. The first stone was laid October 25, 1839. The first incum- 
bent was the Bev. Samuel Warren, who had been expelled from the Wesleyan 
Connexion, as the result of the Fly-sheets controversy. He was the father of 
Mr. Samuel Warren, Q.C., the novelist. 

The Union Carrying Company's warehouses, Piccadilly, destroyed by fire, 
and the damage was estimated at £30,000. December 20. 

The first election of guardians under the new Poor Law took place Dec 29. 

Mr. Charles Cudmore, professor of music, and composer of the Martyr of 
Antioch, an oratorio, died December 29, aged 63. 

The marriage of Queen Victoria was celebrated by public dinners at various 
places in Manchester and Salford, and the several public and private insti- 
tutions were thrown open to the public In the evening there was a partial 
illumination. 

The Derby Chapel, in the Collegiate Church, was repaired and new roofed 
at the expense of the Earl of Derby. 

Mr. Thomas Potter received the honour of knighthood upon presenting an 
address of congratulation, adopted by the Town Council, to the Queen, on her 
escape from assassination by Oxford. 

1841. 

Richard Dunstan, Governor of the New Bailey, resigned January 9, and 
was succeeded by Mr. Boult, March 11. 

A bazaar held in the Town Hall, in aid of the Salford, Chorlton, and 
Ancoats Lyceums, January 11, 12, 13, and 14. The proceeds amounted to 
£1,012 9s. 8d. 

Mr. Patrick M'Morland, artist, for many years resident in this town, died 
January 26, at Everton, aged 99. 

Messrs. Crafts and Stell's warehouse, George Street, together with other 
warehouses and private dwellings, were destroyed by fire, February 8. The 
damage was estimated at £1,800. 

Mr. Edward Give Bayley, son of T. B. Bayley, died at St. Petersburg, Feb. 
22, aged 65. His only son was the late Sir Edward Clive Bayley, K.C.S J., who 
was bom in St. Petersburg in October, 1821. He entered the Indian Civil 
Service in 1SI2. After holding various offices, he was, in March, 18B2, made 
Home Secretary to the Government of India, and in 1873 was appointed an 
ordinary member of the Supreme Council, which position he resigned in April, 
1878. He was created K.C.S.L on January 1, 1877, and died April 30, 1881. 
{JourruU o/Bayal AsiaHe Society, 18S4, pp. 8 to 5.) 

The Talidity of the charter for the incorporation of Manchester was con* 
finned by the Judges of the Court of Queen's Bench. February 22. 
Ifr. William Sharp, George Street, died February 23, aged 87. 
An ancient ford, near Broughton Bridge, was reopened by the surveyors 
of Salford and Bnmghton, February 27. 



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10411 



ATmala of Mcmchester. 218 



Manchestar and Leeds Bailwaj was opened thronghont, March 1. 

Mr. Hamer Hargreaves died March 6. This gentleman left upwards of 
iU,000, together with his valuable collection of music and musical instruments, 
for the formation of *' The Hargreaves Choral Society.** The first concert was 
given in the Wellington Booms, Peter Street, November 25. 

William Hampson attempted to murder Frances Bostock, a woman with 
whom he cohabited, by cutting her throat. The wounds subsequently caused 
her death, March 8. He was transported for life. 

Mr. Thomas Leeming Grundy, the well-known engraver in line, died 
March 10, in Camden Town. Mr. Grundy was bom at Bolton, January 6, 1808, 
and served his apprenticeship in Manchester, from whence he went to London 
for improvement, and subsequently engraved many fine plates. 

4 Victoria, cap. 8. Act to enable the Company of Proprietors of the Man- 
chester and Salford Waterworks to raise a further sum of money, and to 
amend the Acts relating thereto. April 0. 

Commodore Sir Charles Napier visited Manchester on his return to this 
country from the East, and attended a public dinner at the Town Hall, April 21. 

Mr. Benjamin Oldfield, of the White Bear, Piccadilly, died April 20. It 
was said of him that he *' might not inaptly be styled the Peter Pindar of Lan- 
cashire. His wit was keen and brilliant, his humour rough, but full of living 
nature. Had he been possessed of the advantages of a good education and 
more refined society in early life, he would have left a name in literature.** 

Bradahaufa Manchester JounuU^ No. 1, was pubUshed May 1. It was 
edited by George Falkner. 

Mr. Thomas Sharp, senior partner in the firm of Sharp, Roberts, and Co., 
died May 20. His remains were accompanied to the grave by 000 of the work- 
men of the firm, and by 150 of the principal gentry of the town. 

The seventh Socialist Congress (which was the second of the Universal 
Community Society of Rational Religionists) was held in May, and extended 
over seventeen days. 

A riot occurred between the Anti-Corn Law Leaguers and the Chartists, at 
a meeting held by the former party in Stevenson Square. June 2. 

At the election for Salford, July 2, when Mr. Joseph Brotherton was again 
returned, the numbers were : Bfr. J. Brotherton, 090 ; Mr. W. Garnett, 873. 

Lord Francis X^gerton and the Hon. Richard Bootle Wilbraham returned, 
without opposition, as representatives for South Lancashire, July 7. 

Fart of a wing of Messrs. Kelly and Gilmour's factory, in Bradford Road, 
fell down. Four men were killed. July 0. 

Messrs. Daintry, Ryle, and Co.*s bank stopped payment in July. 

Mr. Lin Dillon died August 21, aged 80. 

Mr. Thomas Joseph Trafford, of Trafford Park, created a baronet, Aug. 24. 

The first stone* was laid of St Bartholomew's Church, Regent Road. It 
was the first of ten new churches erected in this neighbourhood. The ground 
was given by Mr. Wilbraham Egerton. The style is Norman, after the design 
of Messrs. Starkey and CulBey, of Manchester. August 90. 

Lieutenant-Colonel the Hon. George Berkeley Molyneux, brother to the 
Earl of Sefton, died August 27, at London. This gentleman having expressed 
a wish to be interred where the 8th Hussars (his regiment) were then quar* 



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zi4 Annala of Manchester. risn 

tered, hia remains were brought to this town, and were boried at St. George^a 
Chnrch, Hnime, September 3. 

The first stone was laid of St Matthias's Church, Broughton Road, Salford, 
September 6w The style is Norman. The church was designed by Bfr. £. 
Walters. 

Charles Poulett Thomson, Lord Sydenham, died in Canada, 19th September. 
He was bom in 1700, and was M.P. for Bfanchester 1832-30. He was then 
made Governor-General of Canada, and on 19th August, 1840, was created 
Baron Sydenham, but died before he could take his seat in the House of 
Lords. 

The foundation stone of the National and Infants* School, Miller Street, 
laid September 29. The ground was given by Sir Oswald Mosley, Bart. The 
lower part is known as Leadenhall Market. The erection cost about £1,400, 
towards which Government gave £418, the National Society £250, and the rest 
was raised by subscription, lir. R. Goldsmith was the architect. 

A cartload of petitions, sent from Manchester, praying the Queen not to 
prorogue Parliament till the distress of the people was taken into consideration, 
October?. 

Mr. J. S. Thomas, late deputy-constable of Manchester,'died October 11. 

By the bursting of a steam boiler at Messrs. Elce and Co/s works, 
Jersey Street^ eight men were killed and several others wounded* 
October 13. 

The first stone was laid of St Silas*s Church, Higher Ardwick, Octo- 
ber 15. It was designed by Messrs. Starkey and Cuffley, and is in the 
Norman style. 

The foundation stone was laid by Mr. Hugh Hornby Birley of a church 
dedicated to St Simon and St Jude, Granby Bow. It was designed by Mr. E. 
Walters, and is in the early English style of architecture. October 2a 

Mr. George Condy, barrister-at-law, editor and Joint proprietor of the 
Manchester and Sal/ord AdverHser, and one of the Commissioners of Bank* 
ruptcy, died November 4. Bfr. Condy had the reputation of an accomplished 
schplar. He was a critic and dramatist as well as a politician. 

John Pollitt aged 62, and George Pollitt brothers, were interred at 
Rusholme Road Cemetery, November 10. They were followed to the grave by 
their venerable father, William Pollitt, of Dyche Street, who was said to have 
attained the ageof lOt He was accompanied by his great-great-grandson, 
aged 21 years. 

A meeting of 120 delegates from various parts of the kingdom was held in 
Manchester ** to consider the best means which should be taken previous to 
the reassembling of Parliament to promote the repeal of the Com Laws." 
November 17. 

The foundation stone of Holy Trinity Church, Hulme, laid, December 2, by 
the Hon. and Rev. William Herbert It was consecrated June 28, 1843, by Dr. 
Sumner, Bishop of Chester. The architects were Mr. (afterwards Sir) Gilbert 
Scott and Mr. Moflatt The cost of erection, over £18,000, was defrayed by 
MisA Eleanora Atherton. 

The Bridgewater Viaduct, Knot Mill, opened, December 3. Dr. William 
Fleming performed the ceremony by driving over the road In his carriage. 



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^gfU Annals of Mcmehester. 215 

John ICaMej died In the workhouse, New Bridge Stnet, and was buried 
at St. Mark's, Cheetham Hill, 6th December. He was bom 29th January, 1774« 
and was by trade a builder, but had some reputation as a teacher of music. 
He is said to have written about 26 psalm and hymn tunes. {City NewM Notes 
and Qu^rief, Toi. i, p. 27a) Some of his compositions appear in Holford's Foctf 
de Mdodia. 

A calender house, situated in Bateman*s Buildings, Deansgate, was burned 
down December 81. The damage was estimated to be between £4,000 and £5,000. 

Mr. Luke Hadfleld appointed GoTemor of Chetham's Hospital on the 
resignation of Mr. George Crossley. 

A fire at the BeehiTe Ootton Mill, Jersey Street, caused damage to the 
extent of £14,000. 

Mr. Mark Philips and Mr. Thomas Blllner Gibson were returned as repre- 
sentatives of Manchester. The numbers polled for the respective candidates 
were as follows: Philips, 8,606 ; Gibson, 8,ff75 ; Sir George Murray, 8,115 ; W. 
Bntwistle, 2,602. June 80. 

The Wesleyan Conference which met at Manchester this year resolved 
that unf ermented wine should not be used f6r the sacrament ; that no chapel 
should be used fbr total abstinence meetings ; and that no preacher should go 
Into another circuit to advocate total abstinence without first obtaining the con* 
sent of the superintendent. This bigoted and foolish action was, according to 
the epigrammatic phrase, worse than a crime— it was a blunder— and led to 
much controversy and unpleasant feeling. The policy it indicated has since 
been to a laige extent reversed. 

On the release of the Chartist leaders O'Conor and O'Brien, they entered 
Manchester in procession. 

Two vessels were towed by the Jack Sharp steamer to Victoria Bridge. 
These, which were laden with oats, cotton, ftc, were the first to arrive after the 
deepening of the river. The names of the vessels were the lingard and the Mary. 

A subscription was raised for celebrating the birth of the Prince of Wales ; 
but owing to the great distress existing among the working classes the 
amount (£2,800) was expended in blankets, coverlets, and flannel, and distri- 
buted by ticket to the most deserving. 6^600 tickets were issued. 

The first meeting at which Christian ministers appeared in any numbers ^ 
to advocate the repeal of the Com Laws was on the occasion of a tea party 
given to Mr. George Thompson in the Com Exchange. 

There were 1,267 public-houses and beerhouses in Manchester and Salford. 

Mr. Thelwell, silversmith, St. Ann's Square, charged with being concerned 
in the robbery of his own premises, he being then bankrupt. After several 
examinations he was discharged* The amount of property stolen was nearly 
£3,00a 

The population of the municipal borough of Manchester at the fifth census 
was 235,162 ; that of the Parliamentary borough was 242,063. The population 
of Salford, including Broughton, was 63,200, and of the Parliamentary borough 
66,024. 

Mr. James Clough, M.D., died at Torquay. He was bom in Manchester in 
1771. He was the author of Otk$ervatio7ia an JPrvgiunicy and the Dimnm$ 
Incident to thai Period. I'M. 



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216 Annals of Mcmchester. 



oeu 



1842. 

By a fire at Messrs. Fttrr, Curtis, and Co.'s m^hinft works. Store Street, 
damage was done to the extent of £9,000* January 4. 

fiCr. John Dickenson died January 11, at his residence, MisUey Hall, Essex. 
The family of Dickenson, of Birch, of whom the deceased was the survivor, 
had been long connected with this town. Their residence was fbrmerly in 
liarket Street ; and when Prince Charleft Edward arrived here in 1746 it was 
selected for his head-quarters. Mr. Dickenson married Mary, the only child of 
the Hon. Charles Hamilton, of Northampton, by whom he had one daughter, 
who married, in 1815, General Sir W. Hamilton, Bart., K.C.B., and died in 
1837, leaving seven surviving children. 

Mr. James Brierley, of Moesley Moss Hall, near Congleton, and formerly 
of Ardwick, died January 13. He acted for many years as a magistrate for 
this town, and served the office of boroughreeve two years consecutively, 
1820-21. 

Mr. John Fletcher, twenty -five years one of the directors of the Gentlemen's 
Concerts in this town, died January 10. 

A building in Alum Street, Great Anooats Street, was destroyed by fire 
January 24. The damage was about £1,500. 

A great Antl-Com-Law Baaar was held at the Theatre Royal, which had 
been fitted up for the purpose. The proceeds amounted to £9,000. January 81. 

Owing to the great distress existing among the working rlsfim^g, the 
Society of Friends opened a large soup kitchen in Bale Street January. 

The Phonographic Journal issued, January. This was the first phonetic 
paper ever issued. Mr. Isaac Pitman gave the following account, at a meeting 
held in the Town Hall in 1868: "Although phonography itself was not bom 
here, the Phonetic Journal was. In the winter of 1841 I was tjMM»htng classes 
and lecturing in this dty, and being in the office of Messrs. Bradshaw and 
Blacklock, two very good men whom I am happyfto see here to-night <Mr. John 
Barnes and Mr. Timothy Walker), who were then in the office, said : * We can 
do something to promote' your object in this way. If you will write a page of 
shorthand on a particular kind of paper, with a particular kind of ink, which 
we will supply, we will produce you an exact printed copy of it.' I did not 
know it could be done. I knew nothing of lithography then. I wrote It in Mr. 
Bradshaw's counting-house, and they directly put it upon the stone, and 
brought me a facsimile of my own writing. I took a sheet of transfer paper 
home to my lodgings, wrote out the first number of the Phonographic Journal^ 
as it was then called, which you see here [exhibiting to the audience the 
Journal for 18121 and they printed a thousand copies for me. I circulated 
several hundred of them during the remainder of my stay in Manchester, sent 
some to my London publisher, and took the rest to Glasgow.** 

Mr. William Grant, of Spring Side, a magistrate and deputy-lieutenant of 
the county, died Feb. 28, aged 72. Mr. Grant's benevolence was well known 
and extensively felt by hundreds of his poorer townsmen. His portrait, and 
that of his brother, have been well drawn by Ifr. Dickens, as the *' Brothers 
Cheeryble," in Nichoia$ Nieklebff. 

A petition, praying lor a repeal of the Com Laws, was despatched to 



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istt] Awnala of Mcmchester. 217 

London, signed by 76,000 women, and at the same time 1,800 other petitions 
were sent, emiuiftttng from as many dlfbrent firms in this town. February. 

A parcel containing 1,500 soyereigns and £500 in notes was stolen from the 
Blackbnm coach, Fetamary. It was the property of Messrs. Cunliib, Brooks, 
and Co., bankers. The robbers were oonvicted and transported for life. 

Ann, relict of the late Mr. Thomas Ainsworth, of this town, and mother of 
Mr. W. Harrison Ainsworth, died March 15, at Kensal Green, near London. 
She was the only daughter of the Bey. Balph Harrison, formerly one of the 
ministers of Cross Street Chapel. 

BIr. Fergus O'Connor, M.F., laid the foundation of a monument to the 
momory of Mr. Henry Hunt, the Badical Beformer, in Mr. Scholefleld's 
Chapelyard, Erery Street, Ancoats. March 25. 

Hatty's Circus, Great Bridgewater Street, was burned down March 20. 

Three men were killed by the bursting of a steam boiler at Messrs. 
Gisbome and Wilson's printworks, Pendleton, April 4. 

6 Victoria, sees. 2, cap. L Act to extend the proyisions of an Act of the 48th 
of King George the Third relatiye to the Manchester Boyal Infirmary, Dis- 
pensary, and Lunatic Hospital or Asylum, and to incorporate the trustees 
thereof. April 22. 

Mr. Donald Fraser, formerly quarter-master of the Lancashire militia, died 
April 22, aged 72. 

The Manchester and Birmingham Ballway was opened from Stockport to 
Sandbaeh, May 10. 

Bey. Francis Beardsall died June 25th on board a yessel bound for New 
York, and his body was committed to the waters. He was bom at the Tontine 
Inn, Sheffield, September 0th, 1790, and educated at the Baptist Theological 
Academy. In 1834 he became pastor of the General Baptist Chapel, Oak Street, 
and haying signed the temperance pledge, Sept. 8th, became a leader of the 
teetotal moyement. He manufactured an unfermented wine for sacramental 
use, and wrote a treaUse on S^pture Wines, and a Ten^i>erance Hjpmn Book, 
ot which many thousands haye been sold. He was co-editor with Bey. Joseph 
Barker of the Star of Temperance, Intending to yislt the United States, BIr. 
Beardsall embarked for New York, May 13th, 1842, but suffered much during 
the protracted yoyage, and did not reach the American shore. He was a man 
of ^ny»Mi*h and ardent temperament, who did much good in a too short life. 

The merchants of Manchester presented an address at the Town Hall to 
the Hon. Edward Eyerett, the American ambassador, who was staying with 
Mr. Alexander Henry at the Woodlands, June 25. 

St. Matthias's Church, Broughton Boad, Salford, was consecrated June 27. 

St Bartholomew's Church, Regent Road, was consecrated June 27. 

St Simon's and St Jude*s Church, Granby Bow, was consecrated June 28. 

St Jude*8 Church, Canal Street Ancoats, was consecrated June 28L The build- 
ing, a plain brick one, and preriously in the occupation of the Tent Methodists, 
has since been pulled down, and a stone edifice erected in Mill Street The 
site of the old building was afterwards deyoted to the day and Sunday schools. 

The twelfth annual meeting of the British Association for the Adyanco- 
ment of Science was held in this town, with Lord Francis Egerton as president 
The sittings terminated June 90. 



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218 Annals of Manchester. oms 

GUes Bedford, afced 90, died at Pendlebory, July 9. He was at the siege of 
Gibraltar, in tlie 72nd Regiment, or Bianchester Volunteers, from September 12, 
1779, to February, 1783. 

James Russell, a pugilist, killed in a flgbt with the " Chequer Lad,*' July 
11th. Russell was bom at Manchester, April 23, 1819. He is buried in the 
Cheetham Hill Cemetery. (Procter's Our Turf, &c., p. 88.) 

Mr. Richard Potter, formerly M.P. for Wigan, and brother to the late Sir 
Thomas Potter, died at Penzance, July 13. 

The distress In the manufacturing district led to a great strike. Thousands 
of men flocked into Manchester, August 9, with banners and bludgeons, and 
for three days turned the workpeople out of the miUs. On the 12th there was 
a meeting of 368 Chartist delegates of the factory districts held at Man. 
Chester, when 320 voted for the continuance of the strike until the Charter was 
repealed. Another meeting was held on the 15th, and on the 16th the delegates 
were dispersed by the police. The original reason lor this gathering was the 
completion of a monument to Henry Hunt. 

John Lord, who for upwards of forty yesrs was a bellringer at Trinity 
Church, Salford, died August 10, aged 77. 

Manchester and Birmingham Railway was opened throughout, August 10. 
The total cost of the railway was about £1,890,000. 

6 and 6 Victoria, cap. 117. Act to amend and continue until the first day of 
October, 1842, the Acts regulating the police of Manchester, Birmingham, and 
Bolton. August 12. 

The Salford old police oflSoe was sold for £40 and a chief rent of £21, Aug. 24. 

There were alarming riots in Manchester and neighbourhood, arising from 
want of employment and deamess of food. August. 

There was a six weeks' strike of the factory operatives. It began in 
• August. (City News Notes and Querits^ vol. i., p. 2B2.) 

Francis Bradley was executed September 8; at Liverpool* for the murder 
of his wife in Goulden Street, Manchester. 

Messrs. Kendal, Milne, and Faulkner, of the Basaar, Deanagake, first 
lighted their establishment with the Bude light, September 4. 

The first Manchester and Salford Regatta was held on the river Irwell 
September 12. 

Mr. P^ter Ewart died at the Royal Dockyard, Woolwich, Sept. IS, in conse- 
quence of a severe injury inflicted by the sudden breaking of a chain, while he 
was superintending the removal of a large boiler. He was bom at Troquain 
Manse, Dumfriesshire, but came to Bianchester before 1796, when he was elected 
a member of the Literary and Philosophical Society, of which he became vice- 
president in 1812. In 1835 he became chief engineer and inspector of machinery 
in Woolwich Dockyards. {Literary and PhiloBophieal Memoirs^ 8rd series, 
vol. vii., p. 121.) 

Messrs. Lockwood and Thornton's cotton mill, Blaekfriars Street, Salford, 
was burned down September 17. The damage was about £18,000. 

The control of the whole of the borough police force was transferred to the 
Corporation by Sir Charles Shaw, whose term of office expired September 30. 
Sir Charles was appointed by Government during the dispute as to the legality 
of the charter of incorporation. 



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iMt] ATmala of MaTichester. 219 

St Silas's Chuich« Ashton Old Road, was consecrated October 10. 
Messrs. Ellis and Norton's machine shop, opposite the New Bailey Prison, 
was burnt down October 15. The damage was estimated at £14,000. 

Captain Willis was appointed Chief Superintendent of the Manchester 
Police, at a salary of £450, and Mr. Beswick was retained as Saperintendent 
of the Detective Force, at a salary of £350. October 24. 

Sir John Cross died at London Nov. 6. He was bom at Scarborough in 1768, 
and having been appointed Attorney -General for the county palatine, resided 
in Manchester from 1801 to 1810. He wrote The Papal Supremacy, &c., 1820^ 
and A Treatise an the Alien Law* {Annwxi BegisteTf 1842, p. 900; Legal 
Observer^ vol. xxv., p. 88w) 

The large lamp, which then stood opposite to the Exchange, was lighted 
with the Bnde light, November 23. 

The animals, ftc., of the Manchester Zoological Gardens, Higher Broughton, 
were sold by auction, November 23. 

The Bev. Joshua lingard, M.A., first rector of St George's Church, Hulme, 
died Nov. 29, sged 44. He was bom in Manchester In 1708, and was In early 
life a contributor to the Manchester Iris* There is a sketch of him in the 
Manchester School Begister^ and his portrait is prefixed to his posthumous 
manual on The Holy Communion and Sucharistical Office* As curate and 
rector he was for fifteen years minister of St. George's. 

Mr. John Knowles became lessee of the Theatre Hoyal, which was placed 
under the management of Mr. Boxby, In November. 

The toUbar near the Manchester Workhouse was removed, after an 
existence of twenty-four years, December 6. 

The Bev. John Morton, I).I)., incumbent of St, Clement's Church, Chorlton- 
cum-Hardy, died December 27. In Higson's Oorton Historical Recorder it is 
stated that the Bishop of Chester took a dislike to Mr. Morton's appearance, 
and <m that ground alone refused his first application for ordination 
in 1817. 

The Manchester Chronicle discontinued December 31. This was the oldest 
existing Journal in the town, having been established in 1781. 

A Manchester claimant to the estates of Sir Andrew Chadwick had a 
curious correspondenoe with Sir Charles G. Young, Garter-King-at-Arms. 
These letters are printed in the Palatine Note-book, voL iv., p. 01. The history 
of this extraordinary litigation Is given in Reports on the Estate of Sir Andrew 
Chadwick, by Edward Chadwick and James Boardman, to which is prefixed 
the Life and History of Sir Andrew Chadwick, by John Oldfield Chadwick. 
(Manchester, 1881.) 

Mr. Thomas Cooper arrested fdr attending the Manchester Chartist Con- 
ference, and also on a charge of arson. On the latter indictment he was tried 
and acquitted at Staflbrd. 

The Mayor and Town Clerk of Manchester attended divine service at the 
Collegiate Church. This la the first time that the Corporation was recognised 
by the Churchwardens. The seats formerly used by the boroughreeves were 
now assigned to the mayor. 

The Bank of Manchester stopped payment. The losses were stated at 
£800,000; the llabiUtles £713,082. The faUure of this bank created a panic, and 



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220 Annals of Manchester. [I843 

the shareholders saffered immense loss. Bardekin, the manager, absconded 
to America. 

Mr. Thomas Cooke, Pendleton, appointed high constable of the Salford 
Hundred. 

St Biatthias*s Chnrch, Salford, was consecrated. It was enlarged in 1863. 

1843. 

BIr. James Emerson Tennant^ M.F., was entertained at dinner at the 
Albion Hotel, and was presented with a splendid seryice of plate, consisting ol 
106 pieces, and weighing [upwards of 3,000 ounces, January 27. It emanated 
from a subscription entered into by the calico printers of Great Britain (which 
amounted to £1,850), as an acknowledgment of his untiring services in procuring 
the bill for the copyright of designs. 

Messrs. Clayton and Gladstone's warehouse, Norfolk Street, was destroyed 
by fire, January 28b The damage was £20,000. 

The Free Trade Hall was opened January 30. The Anti-Com-Law banquet 
then held was attended by numerous M.F.*s and delegates from all parts of 
the kingdom. This was followed by a variety of meetings connected with Free 
Trade. The dimensions of the hall were— length, 135ft. 8in.; breadth, 102ft 6in.; 
containing an area of 14,000 square feet. 

BIr. William Bobinson, Goyemor of the Manchester Workhouse, died 
February 2. 

BIr. James Figot, of the firm of Figot and Slater, the indefatigable compiler 
of the NaHonaL Directories^ died February 15, aged 74. 

BIr. William Gamett, of Lark Hill, Salford, and Quermore Park, Lancaster, 
was appointed High Sheriff. When he set off from Lark Hill to attend the 
Assises, February 25, there was a procession consisting of sixty carriages, con- 
taining several hundred gentlemen of all shades of politics, accompanied by 
the town officers. 

An amateur performance took place for the benefit of the Royal Infirmary, 
Blarch 14. The proceeds amounted to £349 5s. One of the pieces played was 
written for the occasion by the Bev. Hugh Hutton, of Birmingham, and was 
entitled St AuffustirWa Eve, 

A tea-party was given Biarch 15, in honour of BIr. Isaac Pitman, the 
inventor of phonography. 

BIr. John Hull, BLD., F.L.S., died at Tavistock Square, London, Blarch 17. 
He was bom at Poulton in 1751, and graduated at Leyden 1702. He settled in 
Blanchester, where he was Physician to the Lying-In Hospital. He was a good 
botanist, and wrote The British Flora, 1700, and several medical treatises. 
(Munk*s Boll of the Royal College 0/ Physicians.) He is buried at Foulton- 
le*Fylde. 

The shock of an earthquake was felt in Manchester and neighbourhood, 
March 17. 

BIr. Fergus O'Connor and 58 other Chartists were tried at Lancaster 
Assises, Blarch 21. 

John Chesshyre, Vice-admiral of the White, died at Swansea, March 27, 
aged 85. Admiral Chesshyre was a native of Manchester, and was the brother 
ot the late BIr. Edward Chesshyre, He was made lieutenant in 1781, commander 



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1U31 



Armals of Manchester. 221 



in 1794, and post captain in 1799. He commanded the Plover sloop of war, and 
captured the Erin-go-Bragh French privateer, of ten gone, in the North Sea, 
October 28, 1798. During part of the war he was employed in the Sea 
Fencibles. 

Mr. John Young died March 29, aged 79. He was believed to be the oldest 
Sunday school teacher and visitor in the kingdom, having entered as a teacher 
In the Sunday schools of the Church of England in this town in 1786. 

The Chetham Society formed in March, with the object of printing the most 
• rare historical works, as well as all manuscript matter relative to the histories 
of the two counties palatine of Lancaster and Chester. The printing has been 
done from 1813 to the present time <1886) by Messrs. Simms and Co., on 
whom it reflects the greatest credit. The first president was Mr. Edward 
Holme, M.D. 

The first stone was laid by BIr. William Gamett, high sheriff, of the Man* 
Chester Union Moral and Industrial Training School, in the township of Swin- 
ton, April 2. The building is in the Elizabethan style, from a design by Messrs. 
Tattersall and Dixon. Mr. D. Bellhouse was the builder. The grounds, 
including site of buildings, are 23 acres in extent. The front is 458 feet in 
length, and the building will accommodate 1,500 children, but Is capable of 
considerable enlargment. The cost was about £20,000. 

Mr. Richard Arkwright^ only son of the late Sir Richard Arkwright, the 
inventor and improver of spinning machinery, died at WiUersley, Derbyshire, 
April 23. He was the richest commoner in England, and, it is stated, left 
personal and landed property to the amount of ten or eleven millions, 
the foundation of which immense sum was made in the cotton trade by his 
father. 

The Manchester Independent College, at Wlthlngton, was opened by the 
Rev. Dr. RalBes, April 20. 

The Rose light was put up in St. Ann*8 Square in Biarch, and first lighted 
May 1. It took its name from its inventor, Mr. Thomas Rose, at that time 
superintendent of the Manchester Fire Brigade. 

The first stone of St. Thomas's Church, Red Bank, was laid by J. C. Barter, 
Esq., May 5. It is in the Early English style of architecture, and was designed 
by Mr. Moseley, of London. The cost was £3,000. 

Rev. John Grundy died at Bridport, May 9. He was bom at Hinckley, in 
Leicestershire, 1781, and in 1810 became minister at Croes Street ChapeL He 
left Manchester in 1824 for Liverpool, where he was a colleague of the Rev. 
James Martineau. There Is a portrait of him in Sir Thomas Baker's Memorials, 
He wrote Evangelical ChriaHanUy Considered^ 1814, and other works. 

6 Victoria, cap. 17. Act for transferring to the Mayor, Aldermen, and 
Burgesses of the Borough of Manchester certain powers and property now 
Tested in the Commissioners for cleansing, lighting, watching, and regulating 
the town of Manchester. May 9. 

A desperate attack was made upon Messrs. Pauling and Hemfrey*s premises, 
Eoeles New Road, May 10, by an armed party of turnouts. Several of the men 
were taken up, tried, and underwent various terms of imprisonment. 

Riots occurred between several soldiers of the 15th Regiment and thepoUoe, 
In Oldham Road, BCay 23. 



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222 Armala of Manchester. [tau 

The flnt great meettog of the Laneaehiie and Cheshire Workmen's Singing 
Classes was held at the Free Trade Hall, Jnne 10. There were 1,500 perf6nnen» 
led by Mr. John Hollah, the inyentor of the system. 

A meeting took place at Newton, to oppose the education danses in the 
proposed new Factory Bill, Jnne 12. It was attended by 270 delegated 
Diaaenting ministers from all parts of Manchester. 

Trinity Chnrch, Stretford Bosd, was consecrated Jnne 28. The Bev. Thos. 
Todd was the ^rst incumbent. 

The surveyors of highways laid down wood pavement in St. Ann's Square. 
June. 

Messrs. Nightingale and Ca's warehouse, in Zara Street, Granby Bow, was 
destroyed by fire July 10. The damage was £9,000. 

The celebrated Father Mathew arrived in Manchester, and preached at St. 
Patrick's Chapel, Livesey Street, upon the occasion of the opening of the new 
organ, built by Messrs. Gray and Davison, of London, July 10. A tea party 
was given in his honour at the Free Trade Hall, when 8,000 persons attended. 
He administered the temperance pledge to many thousand persons. July 21. 

Mr. Thomas Arkell Tidmarah died at Manchester, July 30. He was bom in 
1819. His poetical writings have never been collected, but the specimens given 
by Procter show him to have had talent of a very high order. (See Procter's 
Literary SenUniseencea, p. 81, and Oema of Thought.) 

and 7 Victoria, cap. 91. Act for more elTectually repairing the road from 
the New Wall on the parade in Castleton, in the parish of Bochdale, through 
Middleton, to the mere stone in Great Heaton, and to the town of Manchester, 
and for wii^Wng a diversion in the line of such road. August 1. 

The Pendleton coalpits of Mr. J. P. Fitzgerald and Mr. John Knowles 
were flooded, August 2. The loss to the former was estimated at £o0,000. 

Mr. John Dyer, formerly editor of the Manchester Chronicle^ died at 
London, August 4. 

Bev. Adam Hurdus died at Cincinnati, August SO, in his Sith year. He 
was bom near Manchester, entered the Swedenborgian ministry in 1816, 
and was the first to preach the new church doctrines west of the AUeghany 
Mountains. (Hind marsh's iNse, ftc, p. 379.) 

Mr. John Sanderson presented £2,000 to the Lunatic Asylum, and £136 to 
various other charities in the town. He had been keeper of the above asylum 
sixty years. Being in bad healtl^ he resigned his situation, and adopted 
this method of disposing of his savLgs in order to avoid paying legacy duty. 
August. 

A newsroom at the Albion Hotel, for the use of the Manchester (Sentlemen's 
Glee Club, opened September 7. 

Bev. Charles PSnton Myddleton, M.A., Curate of St. Mary's, Manchester, 
died September la He was a native of Prescot, was bom in 1707, and published 
a Sermcn in D^enee of Sunday Schooh^ 1706^ Poems^ ftc {Manchester School 
Begi&ter^ toL ii., p. 67.) 

A great musical meeting held at the Ffte Trade Hall, Peter Street, 
September 11 and 12. 

Mr. S. N. Cooper, rule maker, of iniler Street, died September 18L He was 
the first to introduce rule making into Manchester. 



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2MS] Armals of Manchester. 223 

— 

Manchester made into an archdeaoonxy, the flnt archdeacon being the 
Bev. John Rnehton, Incumbent of Padlham. September. 

One of the old parish. registers diBCOvered at Messrs. Cooke, Beever, and 
Darwell's offices, in Salford, September. This register had been missing for 
npwards of sixty years. It contains the baptisms, deaths, and marriages from 
October, 1053, to July, 1602. 

A bazaar held in the Free Trade Hall, in aid of t&e Manchester AthensBmn, 
October 2 ; and on the following Thursday was held, in the same place, a soiree, 
which was presided over by BIr. Charles Dickens. The proceeds were £1,820. 
The speeches at the snccessiye soirees were collected into one yolome in 1877. 

Mr. George William Wood, M.P., died October 8. His decease, which was 
almost instantaneous, occurred in the rooms of the Manchester Literary and 
Philosophical Society, of which he was Tice-president. Mr. Wood was the son 
of the late Rev. William Wood, F.L.S., of Leeds, by Louisa Anne, daughter of 
Mr. Samuel Oatcs, and was bom July 26, 1781. He was destined for a commer- 
cial life, and was placed, at an early age, in the house of Philips, Oates, and Ca, 
of Leeds. Soon after the commencement of the present century he was 
introduced by Sir George Philips, then of Sedgeley, to the house of 
Messrs. Thomas Philips and Co., of Manchester, with whom he remained till 
1800. During the war he formed one of a deputation from Manchester end 
other towns for obtaining a revocation of the Orders in CoundL Through a 
long series of 3'ears Mr. Wood took a very active part in the aflkirs of this town. 
The Savings Bank, the Royal Institution, of which he conceived and developed 
the earliest idea, and the embelUshment of the principal thoroughfare of the 
town, bear witness of the untiring energies of his mind. About the year 1827 
an idea was generally entertained in favour of conferring upon Manchester the 
privilege of sending members, to Parliament, and the bill for this purpose was 
prepared almost solely by Mr. Wood. He was elected M.P. for South 
Lancashire, December 18, 1832, and sat till 1834, but was defeated in 1895. He 
sat for Kendal, July 23, 1837, re-elected June 3, 1841, and represented that con- 
stituency until his death. 

Mr. Thomas Lingard, for many years agent to the Old Quay Company, died 
October 4, aged 7a 

The coming of age of BIr. Alfred Nield, eldest son of Alderman Nield, was 
celebrated with great festivities at the Mayfleld Printworks, October 19. 

The high floods in the Irwell caused the temporary footbridge near the 
New Bailey to be washed down, October 28. 

Mr. James Hall, of Sunnyside, Ordsall, died November 1, in his QOth year« 
Mr. Hall was bom March 1, 1749. He was originally in humble circumstances, 
from which he raised himself to affluence. In 1785 he took a very active part in 
the repeal of the fustian tax. Mr. Hall, at his sole expense, erected Regent 
Bridge over the Irwell, which was opened to the public in 1806; and which will 
ever remain a monument of his high spirit and liberality. 

The Due de Bordeaux and his suite vidted Manchester, November lOl 
BIr. George Catlin visited the town with his exhibition of OJibiway Indiana. 
November 13. 

The Rum of £12,006 was subscribed at a free trade meeting in Mancheater, 
November 14. 



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224 ATmcds of Manchester. qsm 

The Rev. John Gatllffe, senior canon of the Collegiate Charch« and rector 
of St. Mary's, Parsonage, died at Brinkworth Hall, near York, November 22, 
aged 80. (Parkinson's Old Church Clock, p. 87.) 

A large chimney at Messrs. Clemson and Co.'8 dyeworks. Bed Bank, was 
blown down, November 22. 

Mr. Joseph Maiden, an eminent animal painter, died November 26, aged 31. 

A soiree held in the Town Hall, to celebrate the Saturday half-holiday 
granted by the merchants, &c, of Manchester, to the persons in their employ- 
ment, November 27. 

Mr. James Normansell, for seventeen years an officer in the Salf ord police 
force, died December 8, aged 00. In early life he was in the Boyal Horse 
Artillery. 

A five-act tragedy, by Mr. Thomas Smelt, acted at the Theatre ' Boyal. 
Fountain Street, December 20 and 28. It was not successful. 

Lord Francis Egerton purchased the Old Quay Carrying Company's concern 
for the sum of £100,000, being at the rate of £800 per share, December 21. 

The Bev. Bobert Cox CUfton elected a Canon of the CoUegiate Church, in 
the place of Mr. Gatlifb, deceased. 

Mr. Sims Beeves became a member of the stock company at the Theatre 
Boyal, Fountain Street, and remained there till the theatre was burned down 
in 1814. 

Chetham's Hospital was new roofed and thoroughly repaired. 

The Health of Towns Commission visited Manchester. 

1844. 

The Manchester and Leeds Bailway extension line to Hunt's Bank opened 
January 1. 

Mr. John Edward Taylor, proprietor and principal editor of the Guardian 
newspaper, died January 0, aged 62. Bir. Taylor was bom at Uminster, in the 
county of Somerset, on the 11th of September, 179L His father, BIr. John 
Taylor, undertook the education of his son, who was originally intended for 
the medical profession, but was placed with an estimable gentleman in the 
manufacturing business, and before he was of age his indentures were given 
up to him, and he was admitted into the concern as a partner. Mr. Taylor first 
appeared in public business in 1810, as secretary to the Lancasterian School in 
this town, and in 1812 he took a very active part in the discussions which so 
much agitated the public mind at that period. Cowdroy's Maneheaier OazetU 
was at that time the only organ of the Liberal party, and after a number of 
occasional contributions the columns of that paper were unreservedly thrown 
open to Mr. Tftylor. From 1810 to 1819 every intelligent account of the political 
transactions of the district was regarded with the liveliest interest, and sucfa 
accounts were abundantly furnished by the labours of Mr. Taylor. The elabo- 
rate pamphlet written by him on the political proceedings of 1810, and the 
melancholy aflklr of the 10th of August, furnished a striking proof of the calm 
and rational manner in which he could treat the most exciting topics of dis* 
cussion. In 1810 Mr. Taylor was sul^^cted to a prosecution for libel, which 
arose through an imputation cast upon him at a public meeting, which waa 
perfectly groundless: and after some effircs to procure an explanation, li« 



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2M4I AnTials of Manchester. 225 

resented the impntation in a letter addressed and sent to the party by whom it 
had been uttered^ and this letter formed the ii^ronnd of the action for libel, 
which was tried at Lancaster, March 29, 1819. On this occasion Mr. Taylor 
defended himself personally, with great ability, and with complete success; 
and the trial was remarkable as being the only one apon record in which the 
defendant indicted for libel was permitted to give evidence in Jostiflcation of 
his statements. In 1820, a number of gentlemen of Liberal politics determined 
to establish a newspaper advocating their views of political and local events. 
They urgently requested Mr. Taylor to become the editor, to which he con- 
sented ; and in order to carry out their object, a subscription was raised in 
1821 of £1,000, chiefly in loans of £100 each. This sum being entrusted to Mr. 
Taylor's management, formed the original capital invested in the establishment 
of the Ouardiariy the first number of which appeared May 6, 1821. Mr. Taylor 
was at all times an active and untiring advocate of public improvementa in the 
town, many of which owe their origin to him. 

BIr. George Wallis appointed master of the School of Design, upon the 
resignation of BIr. John Zephanlah Bell, January 15. 

Colonel John Drinkwater*Bethune, C.B., formerly captain in the 72nd 
Regiment of Royal Manchester Volunteers, and the author of the History of 
the Siege of Gibraltar, died January 10, at Thomcroft, Surrey, aged 81. 
Colonel Drinkwater was the son of Dr. Drinkwater, of Salf ord, and was bom 
near Latchford, June 9, 1762. He received his education at the Manchester 
Grammar School, and at the age of fifteen entered tlie army, receiving a 
commission in the 72nd Regiment, raised in this town. Though so young an 
officer, he adopted the plan of keeping a faithful account of every particular 
connected with his military service, and especially with the memorable attack 
on Gibraltar. From these memoranda he was enabled, on his return home, to 
publish that graphic History of the Siege of GibrcUtar [which has become a 
military classic. He wrote also an account of the battle of Cape St. Vincent, at 
which he was present. This contains some anecdotes of Nelson. Drinkwater 
was nearly, if not the last, of the surviving heroes of Gibraltar. 

The Rev. William Gadsby died January 27, at the age of 71. He was for 
38 years minister of the Baptist Chapel, Rochdale Road. This worthy preacher 
occupied a very warm place in the affections of the people, and in spite of somo 
eccentricities he was generally admired for his abilities and respected for the 
sincerity of his efforts to benefit those around him. 

Mr. Jesse Lee, of Hulme, died, February 17. He was a native of Rochdale, 
where he was bom Jan. 4, 1791, but came to this town in early life He was 
particularly conversant with the history of all the old Lancashire families. He 
also particularly excelled in copying old prints with the pen, in such a manner 
as to render It difficult to distinguish the original. Mr. Ijee had prepared for 
publication a new edition of Tim Bobbin's works, containing a great quantity 
of original Information, as well as the addition of nearly 700 words used 
In this part of Lancashire. His MS. collections are now in the Manchester 
Free Library. He published an annotated edition of Seacombe's House of 
Stanley. 

Mr. Robert Philips, father of Mr. Mark Philips, M.P. for Manchester, died 
March 14. at the Park, aged 81. The father of Mr. Philips was the second of 
P 



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226 Armals of Manchester. qbm 

three brothers, John, NathajideU and Thomas, who were aU iMffto 
Thomas was bom in 1728, and died in 1811, at the age of 83. Sir George Philips, 
Bart., was his son. Nathaniel, the father of the deceased, was bom in 1728, 
and died in 1808; and the sabject of this notice was bom April, 1780. Mr. 
Philips married Ifiss Needham, a sister of Mr. Matthew Needhani, of Lenton, 
near Nottingham, but had long been a widower at the time of his death. 
Mr. Philips was one of the original foonders of the Manchester Deaf and 
Dnmb School and Asylum, to which he was a mnniflcent contribator^indeed, 
there are few local charitable institations which had not received the 
advantage of his counsel and contributions. He was the oldest member of the 
Manchester Literary and Philosophical Society, having entered in 1783. He 
was also a liberal benefactor to the Manchester New College, having given 
upwards of £500 to that institution, of which he was president during the years 
1834-1837. His remains were interred at Stand Presbyterian Chapel, March 20. 

The premises of the Christian Knowledge Society, in Ridgefleld, were 
destroyed by fire, together with the stock of Bibles, ftc, March 14. 

Mr. William Vaughan died at Manchester, March 24. He was bom in 1700^ 
and became first master of the Manchester Deaf and Dumb SchooL He was 
author of a VoeaJbulary far the Deaf and l>um6, March, 182a {Norih of 
England Magagine, voL 1, p. 98, 1812.) 

A man was killed at the works of the Albert Bridge, by the breaking of a 
beam which supported the crane used in lowering the stones into their places. 
March 27. 

Mr. John Bum, well known as the author of Bu/mCa Commercial Qlanee^ 
and formerly of Manchester, died March 27, aged 68. 

A grand musical festival was held at the Free Trade Hall, April 8 and 9. 

The borough of Salf ord received a charter of incorporation April 18. Mr. 
William Locket was appointed first mayor. The grant of heraldic arms and 
supporters Is dated November 6 and 0. 

The first stone was laid of the Presbyterian (Covenanting) Church, In 
Ormond Street, Chorlton-upon-Medlock, May 2. This was the first place of 
worship erected in England by this particular branch of the Scotch Presby- 
terians. It was designed by Mr. A. Nicholson, snd is capable of seating 400 
persons. 

The Liverpool and Manchester Railway extension line opened to Victoria 
Station, Hunt's Bank, May 4. 

The Hon. Richard BooUe-Wilbraham, M.P., eldest son of Lord Skelmers* 
dale, and one of the representatives In Parliament of South Lancashire, died 
May 5. Mr. WUbraham was bom October 27, IHOl. In 1832 he married Mis* 
Jessie Brooke, third daughter of Sir Richard Brooke, Bart., by whom lie had 
issue several children. His eldest son succeeded as Lord Skelmersdale In 1853 
and was in 1880 created Earl of Lathom. He wan elected for South Lancashin 
lnl83S. 

The Theatre Royal, Fountain Street, was destroyed by fire. May 7. 

Mr. Isaac Crewdson died May 8, aged 04. He was bom at Kendal In 1780. 
but In early youth came to Manchester, and for many years resided at Ardwick* 
In 1830 he retired from business, and devoted his time and talents to the benefit 
of his fellow-men. In aid of this object he published an abridgment of Baxter's 



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^Mu Awnals of Mancheder. 227 

SainUf Best, of which 80,000 copies were drcalated. In 1836 he appeared as an 
aathor. His Beacon to the Society of Friends gave rise to controversy, the 
result of which was thatBir. Crewdson and many of his friends withdrew them- 
selves from that society. He Joined the oonminnion of the Angllcam Church. 

St Thomas's Church, Red Bank, was consecrated. May 13. 

An election for South Lancashire, May 87 and 28, caused hy the death of 
Bir. WUbraham. The candidates were Mr. William Brown, of Liverpool, in 
the Free Trade interest, and Bir. William Entwisle, of Busholme, a Conserva- 
tive, and the following were the numbers at the dose of the poll : Bir. William 
Sntwisle, 7,502; Bir. Brown« 0,064. 

Bir. William Mullis, for upwards of [thirty years sub-librarian at the 
Chetham Hospital, died June 1, aged 07. He was the author of A Brief 
Account of ChethanCa Foundation. 

7 Victoria, cap. 83. Act for opening certain streets and otherwise improving 
the town of Salford, and for amending an Act passed in the 11th year of His 
Biijeety King George IV., for better cleansing and improving the said town of 
Salford. June 0. 

7 and 8 Victoria, cap. 80. Act to alter and amend an Act of the fifty-third 
year of King George the UI., for the appointment of a stipendiary magistrate 
to act within the township of Bianchester and Salford. July 4. 

7 and 8 Victoria, cap. 31. Act for the warehousing of foreign goods for 
home consumption at the borough of Manchester. July 4. The first cargo of 
goods for bonding in Manchester arrived October 19, and consisted of wines 
and spirits, the property of Bir. Duncan Gibb, the gentleman who was the 
principal instigator of the BiU. The goods were conveyed by a fiat called the 
Express. 

7 and 8 Victoria, cap. 40. Act for the good government and police regula- 
tion of the borough of Bianchester. July i. 

7 and 8 Victoria, cap. 41. Act for the improvement of the town of Bian- 
Chester. Julyi. 

7 and 8 Victoria, cap. 43. Act to enable the Fftsident, Treasurers, Deputy* 
Treasurers, Benefactors, and Subecribers, of and to the Manchester Boyal 
Infirmary, Dispensary, and Lunatic Hospital, or Asylum to enlarge the said 
Infirmary, and to purchase and hold land for the erection of a new Lunatic 
Hospital or Asylum. July 4. 

8 Victoria. Act for making a railway from the Bianchester and Bolton 
Hallway, in the Parish of Eccles, to the Fsrish of Whalley, to be caUed the 
Bianchester, Bury, and Bossendale Bailway. July 4. 

The tenth annual conference of the Britiah Temperance Association was 
held July 0, 10, and IL Bir. John Bright resigned the presidency, to which he 
had been elected in 1842. 

A dinner given to Bir. John Knowles, Jun., at the Qneen*s Hotel, July IS, 
on which occasion his friends presented him with a handsome silver cup and 
two sUver salvers, in acknowledgment of his energetic and succeAsf nl efforts to 
revive the national drama in Manchester. Bir. Knowles was the lessee of the 
late Theatre Boyal before it was burnt. 

The King of Saxony visited Manchester, and inspected various establisb' 
menu and public buildings, July 10. 



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228 AnTiala of Manchester. [Ism 

Mr. John Dalton, D.C.L. Oxon, F.R.S.L. and E., president of the Literary 
and Philosophical Society of Manchester, died July 27, in his 78th year. Dr. 
Dalton was bom at Eaglesfleld, near Cockermouth, Cumberland, September 5» 
1766, of respectable parents, members of the Society of Friends. He gave early 
indications of mathematical ability. In 1781 he became a mathematical teacher 
in Kendal, from whence he contributed largely on mathematical, philosophical, 
and general subjects to the two annual works called the OentlemetCa Diary 
and the Ladies^ Diary. In 1788 he commenced his meteorological observations, 
which he continued throughout his life. In 1703 he published Meteorologieal 
Observations and Essays. In the same year he was appointed Professor of 
Mathematics and Natural Philosophy in the New College, Mosley Street, 
Manchester, and continued to hold this office until the college was finally 
removed to York . In 1808 he published A New System of Chemical Philosophy, 
and a second part in 1810. Ho also frequently contributed to Nicholsons 
Journal, the AnTUils of Philosophy, and the Philosophical Magazine, as well 
as to the memoirs of the Literary and Philosophical Society of Manchestar, of 
which, for fifty years, he was an active member, having been elected on the 
25th of April, 1794. Dr. Dalton had been president of this society since 1817. 
In 1826 he received the gold medal of the Royal Society for his sdentiflc 
discoveries ; and in 1833 the sum of £2,000 was raised by his friends and towns- 
men for the erection of a statute to perpetuate his memory. The task was 
entrusted to Sir Francis Chantry, who brought to the execution of his subject 
not only his artistic genius but a warm admiration of the man. The statue, 
when completed, was placed in the entrance haU of the Boyal Manchester 
Institution. The University of Oxford conferred on the septuagenarian 
philosopher the degree of Doctor of Civil Law. ** Though Dr. Dalton's great 
discovery, the 'Atomic Theory,*** says Whewell, **was soon generally 
employed, and universally spoken of with admiration. It did not bring to him 
anything but barren praise, and he contiuued in his humble employment when 
his fame had filled Europe and his name become a household word in the 
laboratory. After some years he was appointed a corresponding member of 
the Institute of France, which may be considered as a European recognition of 
the importance of what he had done. In 1833, at the meeting of the British 
Association for the Advancement of Science, which was held at Cambridge, it 
was announced that the King had bestowed upon him a pension of £160, which 
act of liberality enabled him to pass the remainder of his days in comparative 
ease.** Dalton was buried August 12, in a vault In Ardwick Cemetery. The 
body lay in state at the Town HaU, on Saturday, August 10, and the public 
were allowed to pass through the room during the greater part of the day, and 
it was supposed that nearly 40,000 persons availed themselves of this privilege. 
At eleven o'clock on Monday, the procession moved f robi the Town Hall in the 
following order: About 500 members of various societies, 22 carriages, 300 
gentlemen, 10 carriages, 100 members of various institutions, 36 carriages, the 
last of which contained the Mayor of Manchester (Mr. Alexander Kay,), the 
hearse drawn by six horses, six mourning coaches drawn by four horses each, 
containing the relatives and friends of the deceased, followed by the members 
of the Philosophical Society. The procession moved through the principal 
streets in the town, and was Joined, near the cemetery, by a large body of the 



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20M] Annals of Manchester. 229 

Sodety of Friends. Most of the mills and workshops were closed, as were also 
the whole of the shops in the principal streets of the town. The vault In which 
the hody was laid was allowed to remain open until five o'clock in the evening, 
daring which period many thousand persons viewed the coffin. 

The Irwell Buildings, in Blackfriars Street, partially destroyed hy fire, 
August 6. The damage was £20,000. During the fire two men were killed by 
the falling of a *' catrhead.** 

A great public meeting was held in the Town Hall, for the purpose of 
taking into consideration the formation of public parka in Manchester. A 
subscription was set on foot, which in a few weeks amounted to the sum of 
£8,000. Lord Francis Egerton, Sir Benjamin Heywood, and Mr. Mark Philips 
each subscribed £1,000, and six other gentlemen £500 each. August 8. 

The Venerable Henry Vincent Bay ley, D.D., died, August 12. He was son of 
Thomas Butterworth Bayley, and was bom at Hope Hall, Dec 0, 1777, and was 
educated at Winwick Grammar School, Eton, and Trinity College, Cambridge 
He was elected fellow of his college in October, 1802, and in 1803 ordained deacon 
and afterwards priest. He was presented to the Bectory of Stilton, made sub- 
dean of Lincoln In 1806, and in 1811 Bector of Messingham. There is some glass in 
Messingham Church which Dr. Bayley bought from the Manchester Cathedral, 
which was then being restored. In 1823 he was made Archdeacon of Stow, and 
received his D.D. degree from Cambridge. In 1826 he was made Rector of 
Westmaon. In 1828 he exchanged his sub-deanery for a canonry at West- 
minster. He was the author of A Sermon preciched at an Ordination in the 
Cathedral Church of Cheater, Sept. 2S, 1803, and a Charge delivered to the 
Clergy of the Archdeaconry of Stow, at the Visitation in May, 1820. {Memoir 
of H. F. Bayley, by Le Bas.) 

Albert Bridge was opened for foot passengers, August 10 ; and opened for 
general traffic, September 26. A procession of the corporate bodies of Man- 
chester and Salford took place at the inauguration. The total cost of the 
erection was £8.874 los. 5d. 

Mr. James Wroe, bookseller. Great Ancoats Street, and for many years a 
commissioner of police, &c., for this town, died August. (Procter^s Bygone 
Manchester, pp. 83, 84.) 

Professor Justus von Liebig, one of the most distinguished chemists in 
Europe, visited Manchester in September. 

John Carter, the *' Lancashire Hero,** died in Tame Street, Ancoats. Ho 
was bom at Manchester, Sept 13, 1789, and after working in a factory turned 
shoemaker and then navvy. He acquired renown as a pedestrian and pugilint, 
and went up to London, where Robert Gregson, the Lancashire poet-pugiliMt, 
introduced him to the fancy. He was champion of England for some time, 
defeated Oliver in 1816, and vras defeated by Spring in 1810. (Procter's Our 
Turf, &c., p. 83.) 

The Athenaeum soiree held in the Free Trade Hnll, Octolier 3. I'pwanis of 
3,000 persons attended. The chief speakers were Mr. B. Disraeli, Ml\, Lord 
John Manners, BiLP., and the Hon. Gooi^ Sydney Smythe, M.P. 

The Custom House, No. 73, Mosley Street, was opened for business, 
October 11. Mr. Powell, of Newcastle, appointed collector, and Mr. Shelly, of 
Liverpool, comptroller. 



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230 Annals of Manchester. dM^ 

Mr. Joseph Aston died at Chadderton Hall, October 13, aged 83. He was 
formerly proprietor of the Manchester Exchange Beraldf and was the author 
of several works of a local nature, including the Picture of Manchester (which 
went through several editions). Metrical Records of Manchester^ and many 
smaller contributions to the history of the town and neighbourhood. 

A large chimney belonging to Messrs. Tennants, Clow and Ca*8 chemical 
works, at Ardwick, fell down, November 2. The damage was £1,000. 

Mr. Holland Hoole died at Broughton, Dec 3. He was the author of a 
Defence of the Cotton Factories of Lancashire^ 1832. He was bom in Man- 
chester Blarch 9, 1796. (Manchester School Register^ i. 8.) 

A peal of eight beUs in St. Thomas's Church, Pendleton, opened Dec 6. 
They were cast by Charles and George MeaiB, London, and the cost was defrayed 
by subscription. 

Mr. B. J. J. Norreys, one of the magistrates for this division, and also a 
deputy-lieutenant of the county, died at Davyhulme Hall, December 13, aged 60. 

Sir Henry Pottinger visited Manchester, December 30, and attended a public 
dinner, at which he received congratulatory addresses upon the successful 
termination of the Chinese war. 

St. Bamabas*s Parish Church, situated at the comer of Elizabeth Street 
and Rodney Street, Oldham Road, was consecrated. This church was erected 
at an expense of about £5,000, which was raised by subscription. 

The Phonographic Magcuine was published in Manchester. The editor 
was William Hepworth Dixon. 

A large pUe of buildings in George Street and York Street^ consisting of 
ten warehouses, was completely burnt down, causing a destruction of 
property amounting to £140,000. 

A portion of the warehouse of Messrs. Horton and Co., called the Shrop- 
shire Iron Warehouse, fell down, when two men were killed. 

The amount of duty derived from the income tax in the Manchester district 
was £125,309. 

1845. 

Mr. Louis Schwabe, the eminent silk manufacturer and embroiderer by 
machinery, died January 11. Mr. Schwabe destroyed himself by poison whilst 
labouring under temporary insanity. 

The subscription raised in Manchester as a testimonial to Mr. Rowland 
HUl, for his advocacy of the penny postage, amounted to £1.532 10s. 6d., and 
was presented to Mr. Hill (who was staying at Hastings) by Sir Thomas Potter, 
together with a suitable address. January la 

Evan Prince, a young man in the employ of Mr. Percival, woollen draper. 
King Street, was charged with robbing his employer of £3,500. He was 
committed, January 20, and afterwards found guilty and transported. 

McMfs. Smith and Ingle's paper warehouse, situated in Piccadilly, was 
burnt down, January 21. 

A public dinner was given to Mr. Duncan Gibb, together with a service of 
plate valued at £oOO, January 24, as a testimony of his fellow-townsmen*sobliga* 
tion for the benefits conferred in the privilege of bonding being granted to 
Manchester. 



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^^ Armals of Mcmeheeter. 231 

An ezploeion of a loeomotire boiler at the Manchester and Leeds Railway 
engine-honse, Miles Flatting, January 28, caused the death of three men, and 
did considerable damage to the building. The ooroner^s Jury laid a deodand of 
£600 on tiie engine. 

An attempt was made by some person to bnm down the Qaeen's Theatre, 
in Spring Gardens, Febroary 0, bat it was fmstrated through the timely 
disoorery of the fire. 

Mr. Van Ambnigh's stud of trained animals, horses, ftc., were sold by 
auction, at the Roman Amphitheatre, Cooper Street, March 1& 

The Right Rev. John Allen, D.D., Rishop of Ely, died at the Palace, in Ely, 
March 20, in his 76th year. Rom November, 1770, Dr. Allen was a native of 
Manchester, his father being a partner in the firm of Ryrom, Allen, Sedgwick, 
and Place, bankers. The bank was situated at the comer of Rank Street and 
St. Ann's Square. He was educated at the Free Grammar School, whence he 
proceeded to Trinity College, Cambridge, and obtained a fellowship there. He 
•was soon afterwards appointed tutor to Lord Althorp, and was, shortly after 
the completion of his lordship's education, presented by the father of his pupil 
to the vicarage of Rattersea, Surrey, and also a prebendal stall in Westminster 
Abbey ; he was afterwards, in addition, appointed to the living of St. Rride*s, 
•London. On the advent of the Whigs to office. Dr. Allen, on the death of 
Bishop Gray, in 1834, was nominated to the bishopric of Rristol. In October, 
1890^ this bishopric being united to that of Gloucester, Dr. Monk, the bishop of 
the last-mentioned diocese, became bishop of the united diocese, while Dr* 
Allen was translated to the bishopric of Ely. 

Sir Thomas Potter, Knt., of Ruile Hill, died March 20, aged 70. He was 
bom at Tadcaster, in Yorkshire, 'April 6, 1774. He was the third son of Mr. 
John Potter, who rented a farm near Tadcaster, called Wengate HilL Thomas, 
when about sixteen, began to assist his father in the management of the farm ; 
. and when, after a few years, the farm was given up to him, it became one of 
the most highly cultivated and productive in the county of York. In or about 
the year 1803 he gave up farming and Joined his two brothers, William and 
Richard, who had previously settled in Manchester, and the three carried on 
business in partnership under the firm of William, Thomas, and Richard 
Potter, at Na 5, Cannon Street. About the year 1828 Mr. Potter began to take 
a very active part in the business of the town. After the passing of the Reforan 
Bill in 1832, and the return of his brother, Mr. Richard Potter, for the borough 
of Wigan, which oocssioned his absence from Manchester, Mr. Potter began to 
take not only an active but leading part in the local and general politics of the 
town and neighbourhood. It was, however, in the struggle for obtaining the 
charter of incorporation that Mr. Potter moet distinguished himself. In that 
most arduous struggle his courage, energy, and industry, were taxed to the 
uttermost, and had it not been for his unparalleled exertions the charter must 
have been abandoned. As an acknowledgment of his services in this respect 
he was not only elected first mayor of Manchester, but his term of office was 
extended, during which^namely, on July 1, 1840~HerBC^}esty conferred upon 
him the honour of knighthood. In his domestic relations he was a kind f^her, 
a good husband, a hospitable snd amiable neighbour. Charitable and munificent 
to a fault, there were many who felt his loss as a severe deprivation. About 



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232 Annals of Manchester. isib 

1820 Mr. Potter, At his own expense, established a day school at Irlams-o*th*- 
Height, which afforded education to seventy boys and Rirls. It was not the 
wish of the family to have a public funeral, but at the request of the Corpora- 
tions of Manchester and Saiford, as well as a number of gentlemen of the two 
towns, who wished to accompany the remains to the grave, the desire was 
acceded to. The funeral eartSgcy which was considerably augmented on its 
route by the corporate bodies of both towns, together with some hundreds of 
gentlemen in carriages and on foot, consisted of upwards of ninety carriages. 
Most of the shops in the line of procession were closed, and the streets were 
lined throughout by crowds of people, all anxious to take a last look of one who 
had stood their friend on all public occasions. The interment took place at the 
Ardwick Cemetery, March 27. (Baker's MemaritUs, p. 117.) 

The first stone was laid of St. Simon's Church, Springfield Lane, Saiford, 
Blarch 24. The building, which is of stone, is in the Early English style of 
architecture, and was designed by Mr. Richard Lane. The cost of the land and 
erection was £4,500. The stone was laid by Mr. Edmund Taylor, of Oldfield 
Boad, who contributed £500 towards the expense. 

The Town Council decided to purchase the manorial rights from Sir Oswald 
Mosley for the sum of £200,000, of which £5,000 was to be paid down as a 
deposit, and the Corporation was not to be compelled to pay more than £4,000 
a year, but with an option on their part to increase that amount to £6,OO0L 
The amount of income derived by Sir Oswald Mosley was stated by him to be 
£9,000. Various negotiations had been set on foot at different periods to pur* 
chase the above important rights, but in every instance had failed through 
disagreement as to terms between buyer and seller. March 24. 

The first sale of teas, &c, in bond took place in the Bonding Warehouse 
Company's establishment, in Saiford, March 27. 

The foundation stone of St. John's Church, Longsight, was laid by Miss 
Marshall, who, together with Mrs. Marshall, contributed £2,000 towards the 
erection and endowment. The church is in the Early English style, from the 
design of Mr. G. E. Gregan, and the total cost of the edifice was about £3,600. 
March 2a 

The committee for the formation of public parks in Manchester purchased 
the Lark Uill EsUte, now Peel Park, SaUoid, March 20, from Mr. William 
Gamett, for the sum of £5,000, from which was deducted £500, the amount of 
Mr. Gamett's subscription to the fund. It contained thirty-two acres, one-third 
being high and sloping land and the rest flat. In May they made the second 
purchase— the Hendham Hall Estate (now Queen s Park), Harpurhcy, consisting 
of about thirty acres, the property of Mr. Jonathan Andrew, for which they 
paid £7,250 ; and in the same month they made the third purchase^the Brad* 
ford Estate (now Philip's Park), consisting of thirty-one acres, from Lady 
Houghton, for the sum of £6,200. 

Mr. Benjamin Braidley died April 3. He was bom at Sedgfleld, Durham, 
AugUAt 10, 1792. He wrote Sundaif School Memorials^ from his experiences as 
teacher and superintendent of Bennett Street Sunday ^hools. He was 
boroughreeve in 1831 and 1832, and in 1835 twice unsuccessfully contested Man* 
che8ter in the Conservative interest. 

Mr. Junius Smith, of Stran^scwars Hall, died April X 



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1MB] Annals of Manchester. 233 

The first of a aeries of concerts for the working classes, conducted by the 
committee of the Lancashire and Cheshire Fhilharmobic Institution, was held 
in the Free Trade Hall, April 5. 

John Bracewell, of Young Street, died September 17, aged 88. He was 
supposed to be the last survivor of those who were in the action along with 
Admiral Rodney, at the destruction of the French fleet under the command of 
Comte de Grasse, in the West Indes, on April 12, 1782. 

A grand fancy dress ball, in aid of the funds for the formation of public ^ 
baths and wash-houses in Manchester, was held in the Free Trade Hall. The 
display was very picturesque and made a great impression. April 29. 

Mr. Thomas Wroe, formerly comptroller under the Manchester Police 
Commissioners, and subsequently manager of the gas works, died in ApriL 

Messrs. Ereleigh and Son*s hat manufactory, Greengate, Salfbrd, was 
burned down, May 1. The damage was between £8,000 and £10,000. 
. The Mayor and Corporation of Salford made a perambulation of the boun- ^ 
daries of the borough, and staked them out from the new Ordnance survey, 
Biayia 

The foundation stone of the Manchester Commercial Schools, Stretford 
Road, was laid by Mr. J G. Harter, June 19. 

Mr. Thomas Rose, superintendent of the Fire Brigade, exhibited a new fire 
escape, the invention of Mr. Dunn, in the Market Place, om>osite the Exchange, 
June 24, and again July 8. 

Mr. Henry Leigh Traflbrd commenced his duties as stipendiary magistrate 
for the Manchester division of the county, at a salary of £800 per annum, 
JulyL 

John HoU Stanway, who was one of the oflldal assignees of the Bankruptcy 
Court, absconded with a considerable sum of money, the property of various 
individuals, July 4. 

A public breakfast given to Professor J. H. Merle I^Aubign^ D.D., author 
of the History of the Reformation, July 7. 

Mr. Samuel William BuUer died July 17, aged 41. He was a native of 
Beverley, and almost from infancy was an actor. He acted at Hull and 
Beverley, at the Covent Garden Theatre, and in the United States; but in the 
latter years of his life was resident in Manchester, and in 1812 was the star of 
the Theatre Royal, Fountain Street. He is buried at Ardwick Cemetery, and 
an epitaph, by Charles Swain, is engraved upon his tomb. (Evans*s Samuel 
Wiiliam Butler, Trc^^ian^ 1870.) 

8 and Victoria, cap. 141. Act to elTect improvements in the borough of « 
BCanchester, for the purpose of promoting the health of the Inhabitants thereof. 
July 21. 

8 and 9 Victoria. Act for more effectually constituting and regulating the^ 
Court of Record within the borough of Manchester, and for extending the" 
Jurisdiction of the said court. July 21. 

Mr. Richard Beswick, chief superintendent of police, presented with a 
service of plate and a purse containing £113, as a testimonial for his services in 
the police establishment for fourteen years, July 3L 

Mr. Hugh Hornby Birley, of Broome House, a magistrate and deput> 
lieutenant of the county, died at Lytham, July 31, aged 68. Mr. Birley had for 



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234r Arvnala of Mcmcheeter. 



(18» 



many jMn taken a very aetlTe part in the management of the Tariona 
charitable inatitationa of thla town and neighbourhood. 

The first atone of the Bank of England Branch Bank, King Street, waa laid 
by Mr. Charles Cockerill, the architect of the Bank of England, and Mr. John 
Beid, the agent of the bank in Manchester, Jnly 31. 

The Manchester and Leeds Bailway Company (since incorporated in the 
Lancashire and Yorkshire) b^^an to arch over the river Irk below the College, 
to the length of 120 yards, for the purpose of erecting their general oflloea. Jnly. 

A subscription, amounting to upwarda of £0,000, waa raised in Manchester 
in aid of the suiTerers by the great fire at Quebec July. 

A rope, measuring 4,S74 yards, or nearly two milea and a half, waa made by 
Mr. Thomaa Briggs, of Blchmond Hill Bopery, for Messrs. 6. C. FauUng and 
Co., in connection with the works of the new Theatre BoyaL July. 

Abraham Tweedale, a prisoner in the New Bailey, waa murdered hy Wnu 
Clapham, also a prisoner, August 2. On the trial Qapham waa proved to b» 
insane, and waa ordered to be confined during Her Mjt^wtf^ pleasure. 

The premises of Mr. Thoa. Wheatley, cabinet-maker and timber merchant^ 
Pilling Street, Bochdale Boad, were burned down, August 5. The damage waa 
estimated to be from £3,000 to £4,000. 

The foundation stone of Trinity Presbyterian Church, in connection with 
the Synod of the Presbyterian Church of England, and for the use of the Irish 
Presbyterian Church assembling in the Com Exchange, waa laid by the Bar. 
Henry Cooke, D.D., of Belfaat, August 13. The church is situated in New 
Bridge Street, Strangeways. 

The construction of Corporation Street, extending from Market Street to 
Withy Grore, waa begun in August. 

At a dinner giren by the shareholders of the Trent Valler Bailway to Mr. 
Edward Tootal, September 20, he waa p r e s e nted with a service of plate, valued 
at 1,800 guineas, for his services in procuring the Act for the formation of that 
line. The service consisted of 117 pieces, weighing 2,000 ounces. 

The new Theatre Boyal, Peter Street, was opened September 20^ with 
DoDglas Jerrold*s new comedy of Time Works Wonders^ and a representation 
of Her Majesty's state ball, or Bal Cosiutni^ held at Buckingham Palace. The 
opening address, which waa written by Mr. Mark Barry, of London, wa» 
delivered by Mr. H. J. Wallack, the stage manager. The building holdF 
upwards of 2,000 persons. It is in the modem Italian style of arehitecture, and 
cost nearly £23,000. The proprietor was Mr. John Knowles. 

The Anti-Com-Law Basaar, held in the Free Trade Hall, began October 15, 
and continued for several days. The artidea sold were the remalna of the 
great basaar held in London, at Covent Garden Theatre. The proceeds were 
devoted to the £100,000 fund. 

This town was visited by Prince Hllal, son and heir of the Imaum of 
Muscat, who waa accompanied by his suite, October 17. 

A soiree was held at the Free Trade Hall of the members of the 
Athensum, which waa attended by Serjeant Talfourd, Doo^aa Jerrold, Mr. 
Samuel Lover, and othera. October 23. 

Rev. William Johns died at Higher Broughtoii, November 27. He was bom 
in 1771, and waa the author oi Um amd Origin of FigmrcUive Lamgmage^ 



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Armals of Manchester. 235 



March, 1806; Impartanee of the Seripturea, 1813; Origin of Verbs, 1833; and 
others. 

St. Clement's Schools, Chorltoiit rebuilt. 

The CommerciAl Association was formed* 

1846. 

Mr. Alexander Wilson died Jannarj 6» aged 43. He was the son of Michael 
Wilson, and was an animal painter and author of some of the verses that 
appeared in The Songe of the WiUone, (Harland*s Songe of the Wilsone.) 

A great meeting of the merchants, bankers, and manufacturers was held 
to consider the best means of furthering the purpose of the Anti-Corn Law 
League. A committee of gentlemen appointed to raise the remainder of the 
quarter of a million fund by personal canvass in Manchester. January 0. 

The Maneheeter Examiner, Na 1, January 10, was printed and published 
by Mr. Thomas Ballantyne, at No. 7, Pall Mall. 

The first annual meeting of the Manchester Commercial Association was 
held in York Hotel Buildings, Sling Street, when Mr. James Asplnall Turner, 
the president, occupied the chair. January 18. 

Mr. Jeremy Smith, the oldest block printer in the trade, died January 20, 
aged 09, highly respected, and retaining his mental faculties to the last 
moment. 

A numerous meeting of delegates from the Short Time Committee of Lan- 
cashire and Cheshire was held at the Woodman Hut, Great Anroats Street, 
January 24, at which petitions were set on foot praying for a Ten Hours 
Factory Bill for five days in the week and eight hours on Saturdays. 

A great meeting was held in the Com Exchange, under the auspices of the 
Peace Society, with a view to pass resolutions condemnatory of the proposed 
enrolment of the militia, and to petition Parliament against the same. Feb. 2. 

The first annual meeting of the Manchester Chamber of Commerce was 
held in the Town Hall Buildings, King Street, February 0. Mr. Thomas 
Basley presided. 

The Swinton Schools were opened in February. 

A meeting was held in the Town Hall on behalf of the Ten Hours Bill, 
March 2. Lord Ashley, Mr. Richard Oastler, and Mr. Thomas Fi^den were 
present. 

Mr. Charles Bwart died March 23, aged 77 years. For twenty-four years ho 
was in the Soots Greys, and at the battle of Waterloo was fortunate enough to 
take an eagle of one of the most distinguished divisions of the French infantry* 
For his gallantry on this occasion Sergeant Ewart received his commission as 
ensign in the Royal Veteran Battalion. His wife survived him ten years, and 
died 28th August, 1850. There is a long account of Ensign Ewart in the 
OentUmatCe ifajreuine, IMO, vol. L He is buried in the Bolton Street Grave- 
yard, Salford. 

The Manchester Court of Record for the recovery of debu up to £50 was 
opened before Mr, R. B. Armstrong, recorder, the mayor, Mr. Biaude, and 
several other magistrates. March 30. 

A fire broke out at the Theatre Royal during the performance, and 
destroyed some of the stage machinery. March 30. 



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236 ArtTials of Manchester. ^sm 

Hr. John William Atkinson died at Hambnrg, April 8, in his 23rd year. 
His talents were Tarious : as a marine painter he showed great talent. His 
** Phantom Ships" is said to be of a very high order. He was the son of Mr. 
T. W. Atkinson, at one time an architect in Manchester, bat better known as 
an Oriental traveller. 

Mr. Benjamin Naylor died 12th April, aged 84 years. He was educated at 
Warrington Academy, and from 1780 to 1806 was Unitarian minister at 
Sheffield, where he published, in 1803, a sermon on the Jtight and Duty of 
I>e/ensive War. Owing to the failing health of Ms brother-in-law, he gave up 
the ministry and became a merchant in Manchester. 

Mr. William Harter, Pendleton, appointed High Constable of the Man- 
chester Division of the Hundred of Salford. April 10. 

The Richmond Independent Chapel, Broughton Street, Salford, was opened 
by Dr. Baffles. April 22. 

A public meeting was held in the lecture-room of the Athenieum to advo- 
cate early closing in the Manchester houses of business. April 22. 

Shakspere*s birthday was celebrated at the Manchester Athensum by the 
delivery of an oration by Mr. George Dawson, M.A. April 23. 

In consequence of the scarcity of ice this season, thirty cartloads of snow 
were brought Into Manchester early one morning in April, and sold to the fish- 
mongers at 22s. per ton, to deposit in the ice-house under the Shambles. 

The Bishop of Chester restored rural deans throughout the archdeaconry of 
Manchester. ApriL 

The Synod of the Presbyterian Church in Bngland held its annual meeting 
in the Scottish Established Church, St. Peter*s Square, at the end of April. 

The purchase by the Corporation of Manchester from Sir Oswald Mosley of 
his manorial rights was completed, subject to the payment of the balance of 
the purchase money by instalments as agreed. May 5. 

A destructive fire at the Albion Bridge Mills caused damage to the extent 
of £3,500. May 9. 

« 9 Victoria, cap. 10. Act to enable the Company of Proprietors of the 
Manchester and Salford Waterworks to raise a further sum of money. May 14. 

Mr. David Holt, who was highly respected for his philanthropy, died at his 
residence in York Street, Stretford Road, May 30, at the age of 82. He was at 
one time very largely engaged in the manufacture of sewing cotton. He was 
the author of Miscellaneous Extracts^ 1836 ; Incidents in the Life of David 
Holty including a Sketch of some of the Philanthropic Institutions of Man* 
Chester during a Period of Forty Tears, 1813. (Manchester School Register 
VOL ii., p. 49.) 

The Whit-week races held on Kersal Moor for the last time. This race- 
course was first used in 1730. Mr. Procter has given the history in Our Turf. 
Stage, and Ring. The last meeting was marked by a fatal accident to Byrne, 
a rider in the hurdle race. 

The new organ in Cross Street Chapel was opened, June 1. 

The Jubilee Conference of the Methodist New Connexion was held in Man- 
chester in the first week of the month of June. 

Some confusion and disorder at a service in St. Patrick's Chapel, Uvesey 
Street, originating in the rcnaoval of the Rev. Daniel Hcame from St. Patrick^ 



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IBM] Awnals of Manchester. 237 

diBtrict to London. June?. Apablic meeting was held at the Free Trade 
Hall in his hononr. A testimonial was presented to him on the occasion, con< 
slating of a green silk purse containing 270 sovereigns, a large and splendid 
gold crucifix and chain, value £40, a beautiful gold watch, chain, and appen- 
dages, value £40, and an elegant silver breakfast service. June 15. 

Ibrahim Pacha, Viceroy of Egypt, and second son of Mehemet All, visited 
the chief manufacturing establishments of the town, June 17. 

and 10 Victoria, cap. 120. Act for more eilectuaUy regulating the Salford 
Hundred Court, for extending the Jurisdiction and powers of the said court, 
and for establishing and constituting it as a Court of Record. June 20. 

St. John's Church, Longsight, was consecrated, June. 

Trinity Church, Busholme, was built at the sole expense of the late Mr. T. 
C. Worsley, of Piatt Hall* It was consecrated in June, and cost £3,600. 

The Anti-Corn Law League was dissolved at a great meeting of its chief 
adherents in the Town Hall, July 2, in consequence of the passing of an Act of 
Parliament providing for the abolition of the Com Laws. 

An extensive fire in the cotton factory occupied by Mr. Rigg, Blackfriars, 
Salford, July 10. 

The Right Hon. Thomas Milner Gibson, having accepted office in the 
Government, was re-elected member of Parliament for Manchester by show of 
hands in St. Ann's Square, with only three dissentients. No other candidate 
appeared. July 13. 

The Manchester Markets Act, ISIO, received the royal assent July 10. By 
this Act the old manorial markets were placed upon an enlarged and more 
satisfactory footing. Butchers and fishmongers were empowered to sell in 
their private shops upon taking out an annual licence from the Corporation, 
and by the schedules to the Act the maximum rates of toll, stallage, and rent 
to be paid In respect of goods sold in the market and for space occupied therein 
were definitely fixed. The official reference to the Act Is and 10 Victoria* 
cap. 219. 

Mr. John Worthington, the inventor of the "Tide Water Power,** dropped 
down dead in his garden in Moss Lane, July 20. 

and 10 Victoria, cap. 267. Act for vesting in the Sheffield, Ashton-under- 
Lyne, and Manchester Bailway Company the Peak Forest Canal and the 
Macclesfield Canal. July 27. 

and 10 Victoria, cap. 271. Act to enable the Company of Proprietors of 
the Manchester, Bolton, and Bury Canal Navigation and Railway to raise an 
additional sum of money, and to amend the Acts relating to the compa n y. 
July 27. 

Mr. John Owens died 28th July, aged 66. He was the son of Mr. Owen Owens, 
and was bom in lianchester in 1790, and became his fathet^s assistant and ulti- 
mately his partner In the business of manufacturer of hat linings, furrier, and 
currier. In 1834 Owens became a partner with George and Samuel Faulkner, 
in the firm of & Faulkner and Co., as spinners, but he soon retired from part* 
nership. In 1844 Owen Owens died, and John Owens inherited the whole of 
his father's property. In politics Owens was a Radical, and in favour of the 
abolishment of University Tests, and so, when Owens, finding his end 
approaehlng, offered the bulk of hia property to George Faulkner, the latter. 



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238 Annals of Manekesier. OMt 



with a noUe dUntercrtediiess, dedined it. ''My boy. John.'lie nid, ''is 
dead, and aa I have aa mndi money or man than I ahall ever require, why 
ahoiUd yoa not foond a cdteee in tUa dty, and cany o«it in ita foundation 
those princtplea that yon have so earaeBtlyprodaimed daring yoor lifer This 
advice vraa aeted apon, fte John Owens, by his vrill, dated 8Ut May, 1812, 
directed that the reaidne of his personal estate ahoold be aiqjiUed to the found- 
ing of an educational institotion, which was called Owena Collie. The 
amount of the property thua left was over £100^000. John Owens waa never 
married. His death waa caused by the rupture of a UoodvesseL {Papencf 
ManehuUr Literary Clvb, voL iv^ pu 186; CiiyHewt^ voL U^ta;OidSauiK- 
Ed8t Laneaahire^ p. 34.) 

Lower Broughton waa first lifted with gaa. August 8. 

The repeal of the Com Lawa vraa commemorated by a general holiday and 
an immense procession, fdUowed by gnat ftastivitiea and an illumination. 
Augusts. 

9 and 10 Victoria, cap. 306. Act to enable the Manchester and Leeds 
Bailway Company to make several Branch Hallways, and to authorise the 
amalgamation of the Preston and Wyre Hallway, Harbour, and Dock Company 
with the Manchester and Leeds Hallway Company. August 8. 
V and 10 Victoria, cap. 378. Act to incorporate the Company of Proprietors 
of the Manchester, Bolton, and Bury Canal Navigation and Bailway with the 
Manchester and Leeds Hallway Company. August 18. 

and 10 Victoria, cap. 88. Act to unite and to incorporate the trustees of 
certain charitiea established by Mr. Humphrey Booth, the elder, and by 
Mr. Humphrey Booth, his grandson, respectively, and to amend an Act of 
Parliament made and passed in the fifteenth year of Hia late Mi^Jesty King 
George the Third, intituled an Act to enable the trustees of certain Charity 
lands belonging to the poor of Salford to grant building leases thereof, and to 
make further provision for the beneficial management and administration of 
the several charity estates and charities of the said Humphrey Booth, the 
elder, and Humphrey Booth, his grandson, respectively. August 18. 

and 10 Victoria, cap. 380. Act for enabling the Huddersfleld and Man* 
Chester Hallway and Canal Company to make a branch railway from their main 
line of railway to Oldham. August 1& 

Charlotte Bront« visited Manchester 21st August, in company with her 
father, upon whom the operation of the extraction of the cataract was per- 
formed. The Hev. Patrick Bronte and his daughter remained for about a 
month lodging in one of the suburbs. On the day when the operatiea was per- 
formed ahe received from a London publisher a curt refusal of Th0 Frofe8S9rt 
which had been ofliBred for publication. (Gaskell's Life ofBranti.) She visited 
Manchester earlier in the month with her sister Emily. (See also under date 
June, 1851.) 

The public parks of Manchester and Salford— Fdel Park, Queen's Park, 
and Philips Park— were opened with a great procession and festivities, 
August 22. 

Mr. John Palmer died at Manchester S3rd Augusk He was bom at Bishop 
Middieham, Durham, 1783, and lived in Manchester for 83 years. Ha waa 
author of MUtorp of ikt Sitgt of Mamckesiar and ArthiUciwrQl J)$9cripHcn 



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Armala of Manchester, 239 



of the CoOegiaU Church. He was an architect by profeeslon. (Procter^s 
Maneheater Streets, p. 191.) 

The Dochesa of Gloaoeater visited Manchester on her way to Worsley Hall, 
Octobers. 

In the course of ezcaTations at New Ooss seyeral skeletons were dis* 
coyered. In the earlier part of the century it was customary to bury suicides 
at this place. 

The boroughreeTes ceased to be elected, their functions merging in those of 
the mayor. The last who served the office was Mr. Alexander Kay. 

. 1847. 

Mr. James Crowther died at Bfanchester January 0. He was bom at Man- 
chester June 24, 1768, and was remarkable for his knowledge of botany. He 
was one of a remarkable group of Lancashire artisans who attained distinction 
as naturalists. (Cash's Where 1 here's a WUl, &c.) 

Mr. Turner Prescott died at Manchester March 8. He was a native of 
Wigan, and was bom Oct. 17, 1800. He was the author of The Law of Distress 
for Rent on Property not the Tenanfs Considered and Condemned, 1848. 

Mr. OttiweU Wood died at Liverpool, March 4, aged 87 years. He wss 
treasurer of Manchester College. His son John was elected M.P. for Preston, 
in 1820, and in 1830 was appointed Recorder of York. 

The Manchester Races first held at Castle Irwell, May 2S. 

The Very Rev. and Hon William Herbert, LL.D., died in London, May 
28. He was a son of the first Earl of Carnarvon, and was bom Jan. 12, 1778. 
He received his education at Eton and Oxford. In 1814 he was presented to the 
Rectory of Spofforth, in Yorkshire, a living he retained till Us death. On 
the 10th of July, 1840, he was instaUed Warden of the Collegiate Church. On 
the Collegiate Church being constituted a Cathedral he became ite first Dean. 
Dr. Herbert was an eminent classical scholar and botanist. His principal 
published works were Musee Etonensis, 1706; Ossiani Durthula Greece 
reddita, 1801; Select Icelandic Poetry, 1804; Miscdlaneaus Poetry^ 

1805, 8 vols. ; Hedin, or the Spectre of the Tomb, 1880 ; The Wizard 
Wanderer of Jutland, a Tragedy; u<th Julia Montalban: a Tale, 1822; The 
Guahiba: a Tale, 1822; Iris, 1826; Amaryllidaeeeu, 1897; AttHa, King of the 
Huns, 1837. In 1848 his works were collected and issued In 3 vols. There is 
an account of Dean Herbert as a botanist in the Proceedings of the lianchester 
Literary and Philosophical Society, vol. xxv., p. 43. Dean Herbert married, in 

1806, the Hon. Letitia Emily Dorothea Allen, who survived her husband, and 
died June 14, 1878, aged 94. Dean Herbert's eldest son was Henry William 
Herbert, who emigrated to New York, and became well known under the 
pseudonym of ** Frank Forrester** as a writer on sporting and natural history, 
and also as a novelist. H. W. Herbert committed suicide May 17, 1858. 

10 Victoria, cap. 14. Act to amend some of the provisions of the Man* 
Chester MarkeU Act, 1840. June a 

The restrictions on bonding in the port of Manchester were removed, 
June 21. 

Dr. Charles W. Bell was elected physician to the Royal Infirmary by the 
board of that institution, in the room of Dr. Satterthwaite, resigned, July L 



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240 Anrude of Ma/nchester. ^^j 

Mr. James Smith, bootoBeUer, St. Ann's Place, committed suicide, July L 

Independent Chapel, Pendleton, opened by the Bev. Dr. Baffles, of liver- 
pool, and the Bct. James Parsons, of York. July 4. 

The Grand Duke Constantine, second son of the Emperor of Russia, arriTed 
in Bianchester, attended by Baron Bmnow, the Bosslan ambassador, and suite, 
including Vice- Admiral Lutke, If. di Berg, Secretary to the Embassy, Baron 
Eharppes, Bear- Admiral Heiden, Count Orloti; Colonel Losikowsky, and Pro- 
fessor Grimm. The Grand Duke and suite visited some of the principal manu* 
factories in the town. JulyO. 

The foundation stone of the south wing of the Boyal Infirmary laid by 
Mr. Thomas Markland, who had been thirty years treasurer to that institution. 
The ceremony was followed by a public dinner to Mr. Markland, at the Albion 
Hotel, in recognition of his valuable services to the institution. July 8. 

10 and 11 Victoria, cap. 169. Act to incorporate the Huddersfleld and BCan- 
zhester Bailway and Canal Company and the Leeds, Dewsbury, and Manchester 
Railway Company with the London and North- Western Bailway Company. 
JulyO. 

10 and 11 Victoria. Act to enable the mayor, aldermen, and burgesses of 
the borough of Manchester to construct waterworks for supplying the said 
borough and several places on the line of the said intended works with water, 
and for other purposes. JulyO. 

Mr. William Hardcastle, cloth-dresser. Back Piccadilly, died July 12, from 
leaping through Us bedroom window in his sleep. He was 07 years of age, 
and had been for some time a somnambulist. 

Thomas Price, a climbing-boy, aged seven years and seven months, died, 
partly from the effects of suffocation and burning whilst rfAMii<«g a flue at the 
premises of Messrs. Tennant, Qow, and Co , Jackson Street, ChorlUm-upon- 
Medlock, and partly from ill-usage by his master, who was committed to 
Kirkdale Gaol to await his trial on a charge of manslaughter. July IS. 

Bev. G. H. Bowers, B.D., the new Dean of Manchester, read himself in at 
the Collegiate Church, at morning and afternoon services, bef6rs numerous 
congregations, July 18. 

The Bight Hon. Thomas Ifilner Gibson and Bfr. John Bright, elected 
members of Parliament for Manchester. The hustings wero in St. Ann's 
Squaro. July 20. 

The Roman Catholic Chapel, Cheetham Hill Boad, was consecrated by Dr. 
Brown, Vicar Apostolic of the Lancashiro district, to the honour of the Blessed 
Virgin and St. Chad. The altar in the Ladye Chapel was consecrated by Dr. 
Briggs, Vicar Apostolic of the Yorkshiro district. It was the successor of St. 
Chad's, Rock Street. (See under date 1774.) August 8. At the opening, August 
4, in addition to the above named, sixty Roman Catholic clergymen took part 
in the ceremoniaL 

Joseph Speed committed f6r trial, for the murder of his two children and 
attempting to murder his wife, August 4. 

A dangerous flro broke out on the premises of Messrs. Mouncey and Stead* 
man, packing-case makers. Joiner Street, St. Andrew's Lane, August flw Tha 
damages wero estimated at £1,120. 

The members of the Jewish community In Manchester presented a con* 



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1M7) Annals of McMchester. 241 

gratnlatory addreM to Btfon Botluchfld on his eleetion m one of the repre* 
sentatiTes of the dty of London, Angiiet fL 

A Are broke out in the works in Hergreaves Street* Bed Bank, ocenjiied by 
Messrs. Groom and Whittaker, calico printers, Angnst?, by which the interior 
of the premises was wholly destroyed. 

A destmcUTe Are took place in the pile of buildings fronting Market 
Street, and situate between Pool Street and New Brown Street The damage 
was estimated at £80,000. August U. 

Mr. James Holt Heron, father of Sir Joseph Heron, the first town clerk of 
Manchester, died August 10, upwards of 70 years of sge. 

A new lamp and fountain erected in Smithfleld Market, Shudehill, Aug. 21. 

The Count de Montemolin, the eldest son of Don Carlos, and the Infante 
Don Juan Carlos, visited Manchester, August 2i, and were conducted through 
the principal manufactories. 

Mr. William Brown, M.P., requested by a meeting of the Free Traders of 
lisncashire to represent them at the Free Trsde Congress of All Nations, to be 
held at Brussels on September 16w August 28. 

Jenny Lind made her first appearance in Manchester, August 28. She 
performed as Amine in La SannanUnUa. On August 81 she was serenaded by 
the Liedertafel at Busholme House, the residence of Mrs. Sails Schwabs, 
whose guest she was. She appeared as BCarian in La Figlia, September 2. 
During her stay she was often seen riding on horseback in the direction of 
Didsbury. 

Mr. Hichard Porter Hewitt died at Blanchester, September 1. He was bom 
at Chester in 1790, but had spent the greater part of his life, as a working 
cabinet maker, in Manchester. He was author of Odes, RefUetivt and 
Historical. 

John Jones, a brewer, of Camp Street, scalded to death at the Grecian's 
Head, Dea n s g ate, September?, by falling into a mashtnb of boiling water. 

The Lancashire Public School Association began operations at No. S, Cross 
Street, September 14. Mr. Edwin Waugh was the first secretary. 

The Bev. James Prince Lee, M.A., Head liaster of King Edward's Free 
Grammar School, Birmingham, appointed bishop of the new see of Manchester. 
October. 

Sir George Philips, Bart., M.P., died October a. Sir George was the son of 
Mr. Thomas Philips, of Sedgeley, and was bom March 24, 1700^ and married his 
cousin, October 17, 1788. He was created a baronet on February 21, 1828L He 
was a member of the iirm of J. and N. Philips, Church Street, and was succeeded 
by his only son. Sir George Hichard Philips. Sir George was the author of a 
pamphlet on TKe Neeeasity of a Speedy and EJfeetuai He form in Parliament^ 
Bfarch, 1782, in which he is said to have had the assistjince of Dr. Ferriar. 
He advocated in it the admission of women to the franchise. {Genileman'g 
Majatine^ December, 1817, p. 080.) 

When the Marquis of Lansdowne, on June 8, moved the first reading of the 
Bishopric of Manchester Bill, Lord Brougham rose and examined the «*bill* 
which had been brought in, on which he showed that it was composed of blank 
sheeU of paper ! This ludicrous Incident Is not mentioned in Hansard. {Man* 
ehe$t€r Guardian Local A'oies and QiMries, No. 088.) 



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242 Armals of Manchester. n^^ 

Ralph Waldo Emenon visted Manchester, where he anrired October 20, and 
was received at Victoria Station by Mr. Alexander Ireland, who has written an 
Intereating biographical sketch of his friend. Emerson came by inyitation to 
lecture before Tarions Mechanics' Institutions and other literary associations, 
and the arrangements were made by Mr. Ireland. For some months Emerson 
resided in Manchester, from whence, as from a centre, he went forth to lecture. 
** During his stay in Manchester,** says Mr. Ireland, "and Just before going to 
London, to pay a round of visits and to lecture, he invited a number of friends, 
from various parts of the country, to dine and spend an evening with him at 
his lodgings in Lower Broughton. His guests were principally young men, 
ardent, hopeful, enthusiastic, moral and religious reformers, and independent 
thinkers, gathered together from Birmingham, Sheffield, Nottingham, Liver- 
pool, Huddersfleld, Newcastle, and other towns. One of them, a man of erratic 
genius and of very straitened means, but nevertheless an inveterate smoker, 
who not many years ago died in a lunatic asylum in New York, trudged on foot 
all the way from Huddersfleld to be present, and next day performed the same 
feat homeward. He has left behind him a detailed description of this gathering, 
written in a rather sarcastic spirit, but curious for its life-like sketches of his 
fellow-guests. One of the finest spirits assembled on that occasion, Henry 
Sutton, of Nottingham, whose little volume of poems, in Emerson*s opinion, 
contained pieces worthy of the genius of George Herbert, and who, happily, is 
still living amongst us, honoured and beloved by his friends, says that the 
impression on his mind was that the affair went oC admirably ; that all 
seemed delighted to have had such an opportunity of coming into closer con* 
tact with Emerson; that no one could but feel gratified by his kindliness and 
gentle dignity; and that his conduct and manner were perfect. 'Any critidsm 
to the contrary could only excite pity for the writer, if it did not too strongly 
call for disgust.* It was a memorable symposium. With Us fine graciousness 
of manner and delicate courtesy, Emerson listened with serene amiability and 
an inefiably sweet smile to everything his young guests had to say, and made 
them feel, as was his wont, that he was the favoured one of the party, and that 
he specially was imbibing much wisdom and benefit from their discourse. In 
the course of the evening, being urgently requested to do so, he read his lecture 
on Plato^ then unpublished, but now in his BepreaenUUive Ifen.** Emerson 
in his English Traits has several references to Manchester, and passes a fine 
eulogium upon Mr. Ireland. The soiree of the Manchester Athenseum, in 
November, was presided over by Sir Archibald Alison, and attended by Richard 
Cobdea, George Cmikshank, and others. Emerson made a remarkable speecli, 
which, as printed in the English Traits, differs, to some extent^ from the 
apparently verbatim report in the Manchester Guardian^ 

The foundation stone of the Manchester Royal Lunatic Asylum laid at^ 
Stockport EtcheUs, by Mr. Thomas Townend, treasurer to the institution. 
November 8. 

The premises occupied by Mr. Charles Healey, clothes dealer, Shudehill, 
completely destroyed by fire, December 23. Mr. Healey's daughter, sged 0. and 
a servant woman, aged 60, were burnt to death by this fire. Damage to stock 
and building estimated at £1,400. 

Mr. J. H. Nelson, the sculptor of "Ycnns Attiring,** died at his temporary 



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2M0] Annals of Manclieder. 243 

residence, Mary Street* Strangewmys, December 26. He was a native of Man- 
chester. 

Mr. Edward Holme, M.D., died Nov. 28. He was bom at Kendal, Febmary 
17, 1770, and was a student at the Manchester Academy, whence he proceeded 
to Gottingen and Edinburgh UnlTersitles, and graduated MD. at Leyden. His 
thesis was printed. He began practice in l£anchester in 1794, and was one of 
the physicians at the Infirmary from 1794 to 1828. He was president of the 
Literary and Philosophical Society* first president of the Chetham Society, 
collected a large library, and had the acquaintance of Dr. Samuel Parr and 
other learned men. He left some property to the Bev. J. 6. Robberds, and 
£2,000 for the support of the Unitarian ministry. A portrait of him, by Wm. 
Scott, in the rooms of the Literary and Philosophical Society, has been 
engraTed by J. R. Jackson. (Baker^s Memorials, p. 117.) A biographical 
notice of him was read, by Dr. W. C. Henry, before the Provincial Medical and 
Surgical Association, 1848. 

The Manchester Probate Court instituted. Mr. John Burder was appointed 
registrar. 

The Branch Bank of England, King Street, erected after a design by Mr; 
C. R. CockeriU. 

Mr. William Fell died at Clifton, Westmoreland. He was bom at Swindale, 
Shap, Westmoreland, in 176B, and resided successively at Manchester, 
Warrington, and Lancaster. He was the author of several books and pam- 
phlets, amongst them being— JSTIyUs en the Instruction of Yovih^ Manchester, 
1798; System of Political Philosophy, Salford, 1808; Defence o/ Athletic 
Diversions, Lancaster, 1818; and Remarks on the Claims of the Chartists, 1839. 

184a 

Mr. Charles Clayton Ambery, bookseller, died January 4. 

A great banquet was held at the Free Trade Hall, to celebrate the triumph 
of the Anti>Com-Law League, January 27. 

Mr. Paul Dyson, who was well known in sporting circles, found drowned 
near Holt Town reservoir, February 1. 

The foundation stone of St Margaret's Church, Whalley Range, was laid 
February 11, by Dr. Lee, Bishop of Manchester, immediately after his enthrone- 
ment at the Cathedral on the same day. The consecration took place April 8, 
1849. Mr. T. P. Harrison, of London, was the architect. The first rector was 
the Rev. John Button Crowder, who died at Bromsgrove, October, 1883, 
aged 63. 

A boiler explosion on the premises of Bfr. Thomas Riley, spindle and fly 
maker, 7, Medlock Street, Ardwick, February IL Twelve persons were 
kiUed. 

A copy of The League newspaper, in three volumes, presented to Miss 
Todman, King Inn, Oldham Street, with the following inscription in gold 
letters : " Presented to Miss Todman, as a small tribute of respect and esteem 
for her laudable exertions in the great cause of commercial freedom.** 
February 14. 

Mr. David Stott, of Butler Street, died February 20, aged 00. He was the 
founder of SC Paul's Sunday School, Bennett Street, at one time the laigest of 



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244 Armala of Manchester. OMg 

its kind in the county, nombering 2,000 scholan, and was connected with it as 
an active and zealona labourer from ita commencement in 1801 to the time of 
hia death. He first originated the Sunday School Sick and Burial Society, 
which he established in the above school, and which had dispensed pecuniary 
relief to its members, during the 35 years preceding his death, amounting to 
more than £7,000. {Bennett Street MemariaU.) 

Serious riots occurred in the neighbourhood of New Cross, when some of 
the mills in the neighbourhood were attacked by the mob. Seven of the rioters 
were committed for trial at the assises, charged with being concerned in an 
attack on Messrs. Kennedy's mill, Ancoats. March 8, 0. 

Blackfriars Bridge was opened to the public by Mr. William Jenkinson, the 
mayor, and the other public authorities of Salford. The gates were lifted off 
the hinges, whilst the bars and lamp were demolished and removed, and the 
bridge declared " free to the public for ever." The proceedings were witnessed 
by a large crowd. March 10. The opening of the bridge was celebrated by a 
cold collation in the large room of the Salford Town Hall, March 11. About 
125 of the principal inhabitants were present. 

A great Chartist meeting was held in front of the Salford Town Hall, 
March 13, to move a congratulatory address to the people of France on their 
establishment of the republic 

A great meeting was held In the Free Trade Hall, March 17, to promote 
a fratemiBation between the Chartists and the Irish Repealers. On the Satur- 
day there was a soiree at the Town HalL Messrs. F. O'Connor, M.P., Boberta 
and T. F. Meagher were amongst the speakers* (Gammage's History of the 
Chartist Movement, p. 319.) 

A great demonstration in the Town Hall, King Street^ March 18, in favour 
of the Repeal oi the Union between England and Ireland. 

A meeting of the friends and congregation of Dr. John William Blassie 
was held to express their esteem for him, previous to his departure for London 
to undertake the dutieH of secretary to the Home Missionary Society. March. 
A conference between the unemployed operatives and the mayor and 
magistrates of Manchester was held in the Town Hall, April 1, respecting the 
privations of their class and the means of relieving them. The deputation was 
requeated to furnish the guardians with a list of persons requiring relief. 

Mr. Joseph Roebuck, of Great Jackson Street, Hulme, died April 1, aged 87 
years. He had been a member of the Wesleyan Methodist Society sixty-two 
years, and a teacher in the Bridgewater Street Sabbath School forty-five years. 
At the Chartist National Convention, which opened 4th April at London, 
Manchester was represented by Daniel Donovan and James Leach, who in one 
of the debates said he should *' say nothing ol physical or moral force, but leave 
that to the chapter of accidents.** (Gammage*s History of the Chartist Move- 
meni, p. 335.) The Salford representative was J. Hoy. 

A Chartist meeting was held in Stephenson Square, April 4, for the purpose 
of petitioning Parliament for the liberation of Frost, Williams, and Jones. 

Richard Baron Howard, M.D., died at York, April 0. He was 
educated at Edinburgh University. Immediately after taking his degree 
he settled in Manchester. He was one of the physician's clerks In the 
Infirmary, and was afterwards successively physician to the Ardwick and 



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IMS] 



Awnals of Mcmehester. 245 



AaooaU Dispensary and the Boyal Inflnnary. He wrote a treatise on the 
morbid eifecta of insoffldent food, and was selected by the Poor-law Com- 
missioners to prepare a report on the sanitary condition of Manchester. In 
this Talnable production he was Uu$ first to point out many causes of disease 
which lurk in crowded localities. 

A Temperance conference was held in Manchester on April 13 and two 
following days. 

A Chartist meeting was held on Sunday, April 10, at Smithfleld, and was 
said to haTe been attended by 100,000 persons. On the 17th it was stated in the 
National Conyention that the Chartist petition from Bfanchester had received 
170,000 signatures. 

Mr. Edwin Butterworth died of typhus ferer, at Busk, Oldham, April 19, 
aged 96. He was the author of a variety of publications relating to the local 
history of South Lancashire, and assisted Bfr. Edward Baines in the compila- 
tion of the History of Lancashire. Mr. Butterworth'a TaXnda Mancunienais 
may be regarded as the foundation of the AnnaXs of Manchester, There is a 
notice of him in the Dictionary of National Biography. 

At the Warwick Assixes, in April, the Bishop of Manchester prosecuted 
Mr. Thomas Gutterldge, a surgeon, for libel. Mr. Gutteridge had charged the 
Bishop with harshness, partiality, and acts of intoxication. After a long trial 
the Jury returned a verdict for the Bishop. 

Serious apprehensions were felt of a Chartist rising, and in consequence 
the number of special constables sworn in to assist in keeping the peace of the 
town amounted to about 12,000. April. 

The Right Hon. T. M. Gibson, M.P., resigned his oiBce of Vice-President of 
the Board of Trade. AprU. 

A great Irish Repeal meeting was held in Stevenson Square, liay 18, **for 
the purpose of expressing the opinions entertained by the great democratic 
body in Blanchester and Salford respecting the incarceration and pending 
prosecutions of Messrs. O'Brien, Meagher, and Mitchell.** 

Turn-out of the Tib Street oakum pickers on account of an increase in their 
hours of labour. May 19. 

Under the south gallery of St. John*a Church, Deansgate, is a mural 
monument of Caen stone, with the inscription, "In memory of William 
Marsden, who presided over the committee which obtained for Manchester, in 
1843, the Saturday half-holiday. He died May, 1818, aged 27 years. In alTee- 
tionate remembrance of his private worth, and in commemoration of the cause 
in which he felt so deep an interest, this monument is raised by the contribu- 
tions of those who have been benefitted by his efforts. * Cast thy bread upon 
the waters, for then shalt thou find it after many days.* ** 

11 Victoria, cap. 3. Act for the consecration of a portion of the Manchester 
General Cemetery. June 9. 

Mr. Thomas Fleming died at Broughton View, Pendleton, June 20. lie was 
bom in Water Street September 20, 1707, and was a succeHsful merchant and a 
man of public spirit. To him is said to be largely due the improvement of 
Market Street in 18(20, and the erection of Blackfriars Bridge in the preceding 
year. To him also is due the appropriation of the gas profits to public pur> 
poses* He was president of the ** Sociable Qub,** and a member of John Shaw's 



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246 Armals of Mcmchester. ^tv^ 

dub. He was buried at the Blind Asylum Chapel, Old Trafford. There is a 
statue of him by E. H. Bailey in the Manchester Cathedral. 

The first annual dinner of the Bfanchester Licensed Victnallers' Societjt at 
the Albion Hotel, Piccadilly, JiUy 19. 

^ 11 and 12 Victoria, cap. 8G. Act for vesting in the Manchester, Sheffield, 
and Lincobishire Railway Company the canal navigation from Manchester to 
or near Ashton-nnder-Lyne and Oldham. July 22. 

. 11 and 12 Victoria, cap. Oi. Act for vesting in the Manchester, Sheffield, 
and Lincolnshire Railway Company the Sheffield Canal. July 22. 

« 11 and 12 Victoria, cap. 101. Act to alter, amend, and enlarge the powers 
and provisions of the Manchester Corporation Waterworks Act, 1817. July 22. 

At the July sessions of the Central Criminal Court, Williams, Jones, 
Francis Looney, and other Chartists were tried. 

Mrs. Henry Burdett died at London in July. She was the elder sister 
(Fanny) of Charles Dickens. Her husband was a distinguished operatic singer, 
but having conceived conscientious objections to the stage, he settled in Man- 
chester as a teacher of music Both husband and wife were members of the 
Congregational Church at Rusholme Road, and conductors of the choir there. 
They were visited by the elder Mr. and Mrs. Dickens, as well as by Charles 
Dickens, who, from their little deformed child Harry, took his first idea of 
Paul Dombey. Fanny Dickens is buried in Highgate Cemetry. (Forstei's 
Life 0/ Dickens; Griffin's Memories of the PaeU PP. 165-210; Dickens*s 
Letters.) 

The rumours and alarming events connected with the Chartists and Irish 
Confederates about this Ume induced the magistrates of Bfanchester to take 
strong measures for breaking up the secret clubs and organisation of these two 
bodies. At ten o'clock on the night of August 3 a force of three hundred police 
constables was concentrated at the Oldham Road Station, and there formed 
into five divisions under the command of Captain Willis, Mr. Beswick, and 
the diiferent superintendents of the Manchester force. These bodies of police- 
made a simultaneous visit to the Chartist dubrooms in the neighbourhood of 
Ancoats and Oldham Road, and arrested the following persons : James Leach, 
Thomas Whittaker, Henry Ellis, Daniel Donovan, John Joseph Finnigan, 
Patrick Devlin, Michael Corrigan, George Rogers, Thomas Rankin, Joshua 
Lemon, Henry Williams, George Webber, George White, Thomas Dowlin, and 
Samuel Keams. 

The Roman Catholic Cathedral Church of St. John the Evangelist, in 
Salford, opened August 9. Eight Roman Catholic bLshope-Dr. Briggs, Dr. 
Wareing, Dr. Wiseman, Dr. Brown, Dr. Morris, Dr. Sharpies, Dr. Devereux, 
Dr. Daniel Devereux— the Rev. Dr. Milley, the Rev. Wm. Cobb, father pro- 
vincial of the Society of Jcnas in England, and one hundred and thirty priests, 
tooii nart in the ceremonial of the day. The Earl of Arundel and Surrey, the 
Hon. Charles Langdale, Count D* Alton, the Hon. Thomas Stonor, Sir William 
Lawson, Sir Thomas and Lady de Trafibrd, and a large number of Roman Catholic 
gentry were present. Dr. Wincman preached. At the close of the services 
upwards of 300 ladles and gentlemen partook of a cold collation in the large 
room of the Salford Town Hall. 
N U and 12 Victoria, cap. 5. Act to authorise grants in fee and leases for 



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it40) ATmals of Mcmchtster. 247 

long temw of yean, for building pnrposefl, of the denied estate of Mr. 
John Newton, deoeaaed, aitnate at Gorton, in the parish of Blanchester. 
Angoatll. 

U and 18 Victoria, cap. 148. Act for altering and amending an Act passed 
for maintaining the road from Crossfleld Bridge to Manchester, and a branch 
connected therewitb. Angi(8tl4. 

11 and U Victoria, cap. 14S. Act for continuing the term of an Act passed 
in the eighth year of the reign of King George IV., inUtoled an Act for more 
efTectually repairing and maintaining the road from Holme across the river 
Irwell, through Salf ord, to Eedes, and a branch of road communicating there- 
witli, so far as relates to the road from Hulme to Ecdes, for the purpose of 
enabling the trustees to pay oflT the debt now due on the said roads. August 14. 

Alderman William Burd died at his house in Higher Broughton, August 18, 
aged 69. He had been one of the aldermanic body since the incorporation of the 
town, and in that capacity he represented successively the Cheetham and the 
Kew Cross Wards. Mr. Burd was an ardent reformer, and a lealous sup* 
porter of the principles of civil and religious liberty, and he took an active 
interest in the operations of the Anti-Corn Law League. 

Jenny Lind again visited the town, and appeared as Lnda, September 
9th, and as Amina on the 11th. In this and in a preceding visit she was sup- 
ported by F. Lablache. » 

Forty-six Chartist leaders and orators were indicted for conspiracy, and a 
true bill found against the whole by the grand Jury of the South Lancashire 
Assises at Liverpool, and bench warrants issued for their apprehension* The 
best known of the prisoners was Dr. P. M. M'Douall, who was sentenced to 
two years* imprisonment. The remaining trials did not come on untU December* 
when various sentences of imprisonment were passed. August 2S. 

Bobert Houdin, the coii^urer, at the Theatre Royal, from August 2S to 
September A. He gives a very amusing account of his first appearance in 
Manchester in his Memoirs, vol. ii., pp. ia7-147« 

Mr. Russell Scott Taylor, B.A., died at his house, the Laurels, September 16> 
aged 26. He was the eldest son of the late BCr. John Edward Taylor, and was 
one of the proprietors and editors of the ManeKetter Ouardian^ with which 
Journal he had been actively connected since the death of his fattier. He was 
held in the highest esteem by all who knew him, for his amiable dispositioa 
and intellectual acquirements. Previous to his attendance at the Londoa 
University, where he took the degree of B JL in the session of 1815, he was 
honourably distinguished on various occasions at the examinations of the Man- 
chester College. 

The Duchess of Cambridge and suite visited Heaton Park, the seat of the 
Earl of Wilton. There was a grand review in the park of all the troops 
stationed at Manchester, September 22. 

The inscription stone of the Borough Gaol, Hyde Road, laid by Mr. Elkanah 
Armitage, mayor, October 9. 

An elegant candelabrum presented to MiK|orOeneral Wemysa, at the 
residence of Mr. KIkanah Armitage, The Priory, Pendleton, November 8, as a 
public testimony of his services as military commander of the district from 1836 
to 1842. 



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248 Annala of Mcmcheater. o^g 

Colonel Geoige Hibbert^ C3.« died in T<ondoD» November 12, at the age of 
06. He Joined the 40th regiment (the old XL's), at Tonlonae in 1814 and ftmi^t 
at Waterloo. Mr. Hibbert romnianded hie regiment in Af giii»it«#;M> in 18384S 
with ability that led the Duke of Wellington to place hie nephew. Dr. Hibbert- 
Ware*a son« amongst the candidatea for a commission withont pnrchaae, which 
he accordingly recelTed. He was wonnded in the Crimean War. Coloiiel 
Hibbert was appointed C.B. in 1842. He waa buried at Ardwick Cemetery 
with miUtary honours. (Life of 8. Sibbert-Ware ; PaiaHne Nate-book^ 
YoL L, p. 87.) 

The Gaythom Cotton Works, belonging to Mr. James Fenley, cotton 
spinner, were destroyed by fire, November 16. Damage, £21,000. 

Arthur Sidney Matthews, the son of Mr. Sainnel Biatthewa, snzgeonf died 
NoTcmber 29, aged 4 years and 9 months. He was an infant prodigy, remark* 
able for the largeness of his body and the rapid development of his mental 
powers. 

Mr. Samuel Hibbert- Ware, M.D., died December 80. He waa bom at Man- 
cheater, April 21, 1788» and waa the aon of Mr. Samuel Hibbert, a merchant. He 
achieved distinction alike aa geologist and arduaologist. « He served for six 
years as lieutenant of militia. After graduating M.D. at Edinburgh, he visited 
the Shetland Islands, of which he published an account in 1820. He resided for 
some years at Edinburgh, but the later part of his life waa spent at Hale Baraa 
near Bowdon. In 1^37 he assumed, by royal licence, the name of Ware, aa 
representative of the family of Sir Jamea Ware, the historian of Ireland. Hia 
principal work is the HiUarp of the CcUegiate Church of ManehtaUr 
(forming part of the work known aa the FoundoHona of Manchester), and the 
MemoriaU of the Bebeilion ofLanecuhire in 172S, The Life and Correspond 
dence of the late Samua Hibbert-Ware, by Mrs. Hibbert- Ware, Manchester, 
1882, containa a full accoont of Us sdentiflc and literary labours, and much 
interesting information aa to the aflkirs of the locality in the century following 
the rebellion of 1746. A briefer notice of him« with a portrait, ia given in the 
PalaitfM iVofe-^ooit, vol. L, p. 87. He ia buried at Ardwick Cemetery. 

The Begent Bridge, Salford, which aince ita opening in 1806 had been a pay 
bridge, waa made free of toll. 

Mr. Ernest Jones waa arrested at B£anchester on a charge of sedition, for 
the words of a apeech at the Chartist meeting on Kennington Common. 

A large Chartist meeting held in the Hall of Science, attended by some 8^000 
people. The object waa to hear from Fergus O'Conor a reply to some charges 
made against him, in connection with the land acheme, by some of his aasorJates 
and by Alexander Somerville in the Manchester Examiner. The meeting 
waa enthusiaaUcally in favour of 0*Conor. (Gammage*s History of the Chartist 
Movemtni, p. 8ia) 

It was probably in 1848 that a small book appeared entitled Original 
Bfmnsfor the Use of the Peopie called Nasarenes^ wherein the Spiriiualitp 
or Internal Signification of the Sacred Scriptures are laid open. By J. 
Stuart, Junior. Printed at the Nasarene office, 14, Foster Street, Ardwick. 
The author of this curious work is perhape the Joseph Stuart, of Foster 
Street, who is described aa a portrait painter in the Manchester Dirsetarg 

ofisia 



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1849. 

The Salford Borough Museum and Llhnry.BBel Park, wee opened to the 
public, January 9. The dreumatanoea of its foundation are detailed in 
Edwards's Free Town LibrarUa. 

A great meeting of the Liberal electors was held in the Free Trade Hall* 
January 10, for the consideration of the question of flw^nH^^i reform and 
retrenchment, and for deciding upon the best means of speedily and efleciiTely 
reducing the enormous expenditure of the country. Five thousand five 
hundred persons were present. Messrs. Cobden, Bright^ and the Hon. T. M. 
Gibeon addressed the meeting. It was resolTed to co-operate with the Liver- 
pool Financial Reform Assodation and other bodies in their efforta to reduce 
the expenditure to at least the standard of 1835. 

Three men were killed by the fall of one of the South Junction Railway 
arches at the bottom of Gloucester Street, behind Little Ireland. January 20, 

Lieutenant-General Sir Thomas Arbuthnot died January 20^ aged 72. He 
waa bom in 1770, entered the army as an ensign in the 29th Foot in 1794, 
and seryed in the Oape of Good Hope, in the Peninsula. He was twice wounded. 
He was created a K.C.B. in 1815. In 1826 he was sent to Portugal in command 
of a brigade. He afterwards commanded a district in Ireland, and having 
attained the rank of Lieutenant-General, in 1838, waa appointed general in 
command of the Northern Bfidland Districts, which command he retained till 
his death. Sir Thomas had a considerable military reputation, and the good 
opinion which the Duke of Wellington entertained of his Judgment and 
eiflciency was proved by his having selected him for the newly-constituted com- 
mand at Manchester at a time when the CharUsts were causing a good deal of 
anxiety in this country. A memoir of Arbuthnot will be found in the 
DieHonary of NctHanal Biography, vol. 2, p. 67. 

A banquet was held at the Free Trade Hall, January 81, in celebration of 
the final repeal of the Com Laws. Upwards of three thousand persons were 
present, including twenty Members of Parliament and two hundred merchants 
and persons of influence. Mr. George Wilson presided. 

The new church of St. Simon, Springfield Lane, was consecrated by the 
Bishop of Ifanchester, February 26. This waa the first parish church erected 
under Sir Robert Peel's Act. The architect waa Mr. Richard Lane, and the 
cost was £0,040. 

Barl Cathcart waa appointed to the military command of the Northern 
District, and arrived in Manchester March 1. 

The incumbency of the new church of St. John the Evangelist, Broughton, 
presented to the Rev. Frank Bowcher Wright, of Handborough, near Oxford, 
by the trustees, March 2. 

The Manchester Exchange was opened by a full-dress ball in aid of the 
funds of the Public Baths and Washhouscs. March 18. 

A meeting, convened by the mayor, was held at the Town Hall '* to consider 
the propriety of petitioning Parliament in favour of the establishment of a 
general system of secular education in this country, to be supported by local 
rates, and managed by local authoritiea elected by the ratepayers specially for 
that purpose." March 29. 



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250 Anruds. of Mahcheder. (184» 

Mr. George Henry Lewes was in Manchester in March and ApriL In addi- 
tion to lecturing on " Speculative Philosophy *' at the AtheniBum, he appeared 
as Shylock, at the Theatre Royal, March 10, and in his own play, The NobU 
Heart, on April 16 and 19. His conception of Shylock— that of the v i n d ication 
of his oppressed race— was not r^^arded as a success. 

James Robinson, " the Ebony Phenomenon,** a well*known pugilist, died of 
cholera June 11, in his twenty-first year. He is buried in Rusholme Road 
Cemetery. *' A real genius in Us profession '* is the verdict of Procter. {Our 
Tur/, Ac, p. 87.) 

The town was again visited by Asiatic cholera. The first death occurred 
In Redfem Street, Miller Street, June 11. The cholera was prevalent in 
September. 

Broughton Silk Mills, Broughton Road, completely destroyed by Are, June 
10. The damage to stock and building was estimated at £40,000. 

Mr. Robert Rose, the '* bard of colour,** died in St Stephen Street* Salford, 
June 19. He was a West Indian creole, bom in 1806, and long resident in 
Manchester. He wrote The Car&naHon, 1838, a variety of occasional verses. 
Some amusing particulars are given of him in Procter^s Literary Seminieeeneea 
and Lithgow's Life of J, C Prince, p. 134. 

Sir Robert Peel died at his residence, Whitehall, July 2, from iiUvries 
received by a fall from his horse. He was bom on the 6th of February, 1788, at 
Chamber Hall, Bury, near Manchester. His career belongs to English history, 
and it is not necessary here to detail the career of a statesman who preferred 
the claims of the nation to those of his party. His name will ever be associated 
with the Repeal of the Com Laws, and with the establishment of Free Trade. 

Day and Sunday schools in connection with Cavendish Street Chapel were 
opened July 5. 

Mr. John Greaves, Justice of the peace and a deputy lieutenant of the 
county of Lancaster, died at his residence, Irlam Hall, July 8. 

The B£anchester Law Clerks* Friendly Society was established In July. 
MancKeater Temperance Beporter. No. 1 of this periodical was Issued 
in August. About a score of weekly numbers followed. It was edited by Mr. 
Samuel Pope (afterwards Q.C.). The contributors included Alexander Somer- 
ville, Edwin Waugh« J. C. Prince, and others. {City Newe Note$ and Queries, 
vol. i., p. 201). 

The Revds. James Everett, Samuel Dunn, and William Griffiths were 
expelled from the Wesleyan Connexion by the Conference then sitting in 
Oldham Street Chapel. August. 

A meeting convened by the Biayor was held In the Town Hall to condemn 
the Interference of the Russian and French Governments in the aflkirs of 
Hungary and Rome. August 9. 

Tbe foundation stone of a new Wesleyan school, in connection with 
Ebenezer Chapel, Red Bank, was laid by Mr. Francis Pamell. August lOL 

Tbe Rev. James Bardsley appointed to Sie incumbency of the new St. 
Philip's Church, Bradford Road, by the trustee^ August 13. 

Colonel Walters arrived in town commissioned to undertake the oommaDd 
of the Royal Engineers In the Manchester district, August 21. 

Rev. Samuel Wood, B.A., Unitarian minister, died at T/ffn^ftP, August 23. 



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ISM) Annats of Manchester. 251 



He was bom %t Blanchester, Jannary 1, 1797. He was the author of Prayers 
for Sunday SehooU, etc.; Bible Stories^ 1831; Scripture Geography; The 
Convent and the RaUway ; a Sermon^ 1845. {ChrieHan Reformer^ November, 
1849.) 

The Bev. William Shelmerdine died, August 30, aged 90. He had been 
for sixty years a preacher of the Gospel In oonnection with the Wesleyan 
Methodists. 

The f oondation stone of the Temperance Hall, Chorlton-npon-Medlock, was 
laid by Mr. Willism Morris, September 1. 

A dreadful thunderstorm occurred in Mft^fhiwt^r and the neighbourhood, 
September 1. 

The Episcopal Chapel in Heathfleld, Greenheys, put up for sale by auction, 
by Mr. George Robins, of London, at £3,000, but there was not a single bid in 
adTsnce, and the sale could not be effected. September 4. 

John Richardson, of Ardwick, was killed by being stabbed with two pieces 
of red-hot iron by a blacksmith named Lee, September 6. 

The foundation stone of the Presbyterian Church and Schools, Grosrenor 
Square, was laid September 12. 

In accordance with the plan laid down by the Vioe-Clianoellor of England, 
in Us decree of January 10, new trustees of the Manchester Grammar School 
were selected from persona residing in the town of Manchester. The following 
gentlemen were the members of the new trust: Sir Elkanah Armitage, 
Messrs. John Mayson, E. R Langworthy, R N. Philips, Robert Barbour, 
Thomas Hunter, W. B. Watkins, Oliver Heywood, C. H. Bickards, Thomas 
Armstrong. John Peel, and J. C. Barter. September. 

Mr. W. C. Mftcready made his farewell appearance at the Theatre Boyal in 
the character of Hamlet on October 9. He delivered a farewell address, which 
was interrupted by frequent applause. On the day preceding, an address was 
presented to him by the Bianchester Shaksperean Society. His father was 
lessee 1806-0. When Macready had made his name as an actor he performed in 
the town in 1823, 1824, 1828, 1830, 1833^, 1845-49. There are many references to 
the town in his Reminieeeneee. 

Mr. John Brooks died at hU residence, Claiendon House, Cheetham Hill, 
Oct. 27. He was the son of Mr. Wm. Brooks, of the firm of Cunliffe and Brooks, 
bankers, and brother of Mr. Samuel Brooks, of Whalley House, Bianchester, 
the successor of their father in the bank. He was bom at Whalley in 1780^ and 
began business as a calico printer in 1809, in partnership with Mr. Butterworth 
Mr. Brooks's experience gave him an advantage in the discussion of commercial 
politics over men more practised in eloquence— as, for instance, his examination 
of Lord Stanley, at Lancaster, in 1841, silenced Ids lordship on mercantile 
statistics for several years after. His mode of speaking, and embodying his 
speeches with facts, was original and forcible, and strikingly characteristic of 
the blunt plainness and truthfulness of the man. He was one of the earliest 
and most zealous members of the Council of the Anti-Com-Law League, and 
till its dissolution continued to be one of the hardest workers. In May, 1818, 
being impaired in health, by the unresting strain upon his physical and mental 
energies, he went for change to the United States, but returned without 
deriving permanent benefit. He was not only liberal with his purse and his 



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252 Awnala of MoTicheder. 



rum 



penoDAl seryioes for fayonrite politleal measures and men, bat tolerant of other 
men's opinionB. He was remarkably generous to his dependents. On one 
occasion. Information reached him that he had lost the sun of £70,000, lent to a 
person who seemed to have large property, and who assured him it was unin- 
cumbered. It turned out that the property was mortgaged to its full amount 
when the assurance was made. Mr. Brooks went to his warehouse chagrined, 
and told his manager that he had been so deceived that he was resolved to 
cease to lend money— to stop his charitiea— and spend nothing. While he was 
yet speaking, a woman with some ragged children were observed in the passage. 
Apparently unconscious of what he had said, he ordered a shilling to be given. 
The derk reminded him of his resolution. '* Well, weU," said he, ** but don't 
begin with this woman and her children." He never did begin such a change 
Death only closed the charities of a life that was as benevolent as it was manly ' 
and upright. 

Mr. John Isherwood died, October 20. He was possessed of a pure bass 
voice of rare compass, a refined taste, and correct Judgment, and lacked 
nothing but the necessary practice to place him in the highest rank of vocalists. 
He was among the best glee singers of his day, and for many years devoted 
himself gratuitously to tho services of the Choral Society and Glee Club of this 
town. 

Mr. Benjamin Bawlinson Faulkner died in London. He was bom at Man* 
cheater in 1787, where he was a portrait painter, and exhibited at the Boyal 
Academy. 

Harriet Martlneau visited Ifanchester, and was the guest of Mr. S. D. 
Darbishire. {AtUobiographyt "^oL iii., p. 864.) 

1850. 

A lady, named Novelli, residinginHigherBroughton, was murdered by her 
brother-in-law, Mr. A. Novelli, who was insane, and who afterwards hung 
himself from the bed-post January 80. 

A meeting of the Financial and Parliamentary Reform Association was 
held in the Free Trade Hall, January 20^ under tho presidency of Mr. G. 
Wilson. 

A hurricane of a more destructive nature than any known in England for 
many years visited this neighbourhood, February fi» 

A fire at All Saints' Church, Oxford Boad, destroyed the greater part of tho 
structure, February 6. The fire arose from the burning of Christmas decorations 
in the stove. Some embers lodging in the flue are thought to have set fire to 
the wooden workplate. The damage caused was between £3,000 and £4,000. 
An engraving of the disaster is given in the Illustrated London News, Febm- 
ary lA. The church was reopened September 20. 

Temperance Exporter and Journal of Useful LitercUure^ No. 1, February 
9. Five or six numbers appeared. The editors were Samuel Pope and Joseph 
Johnson. (City News Notes and Queries^ vol. i., p. 201.) 

Bateman's Buildings, Deansgate, were destroyed by fire, March 9. The 
damage was estimated at £2,00a 

The Blanchester I'oor Law Union dissolved March 25. It was replaced by a 
Board of Guardians elected annually. The first election was in May* 



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Armals of Manchester. 253 



Lord John Riuaell and 1^7 BaaaeU ylsited Manchester, April 2. During 
their stay of four days they ylslted the principal works, and add r esses were 
presented to them by the Corporations of Blanchester and Salford. They were 
the guests of Sir Benjamin Heywood, Bart., Claremont. 

St. Philip's Church, Bradftyrd, was consecrated by Bishop Lee, Aprils. The 
architect was Mr. E. H. SheUaid, and the ooat of erection £4,230. IthaalOOO 
sittings. 

The Hall of Science, Campfleld, purchased bj Aldennan John Potter (Mayor 
of Manchester), for £1,200, for the purpose of a Free Librsry. April. 

Mr. Francis Philips died May 0. He was bom at Manchester, September 27, 
1771. He was the author of History of Johnny Shuttle and hU Cottage : a Tale 
Interesting to the Inhabitants of Manchester, 180O; EoDposure of the CeUuni' 
nies against the Magistrates and Yeomanry ^ 1810, ftc. (Oentleman's Maga- 
sine, August, I860, p. 217.) 

The North of England Tulip and Horticultural Show held in the Com 
Exchange, May 28. This is said to have been the first show of the Und held in 
Manchester. 

The Orion steamship was wrecked on her passage from Liverpool to 
Glasgow, when Mr. John Boby, of Bochdale (author of the Traditions ofLan- 
eashire), and 40 other persons were lost. A narratiye of this disaster was 
published, written by the Bev. Joseph Clarke, M.A., of Stratford, one of the 
sarrlTors. June. 

A meeting was held in the Town Hall, July 8, for the puipoae of considering 
the propriety of a monument in memory of Sir Bobert Peel. 

Mr. BeAJamin Stott died at Manchester, July 20. He was bom at Man* 
Chester, November 24, 1813, and after being educated at Chatham's College was 
apprenticed to a bookbinder, in which trade he worked all his life. He was 
author of 8(mgs far the Million (with memoir), Mlddleton, 1813. 

Two sermons were preached in St. John's Catholic Church, SaUord, July 28, 
by Dr. Wiseman, previous to his setting out for Boma to .xeoeiya a cardinal's 
hat from the Pope. 

13 and 14 Victoria, cap. 41. Act to authorise the division of the parish of 
Manchester in several parishes, and for the i^tpUcaUon of the revenuea of the 
Collegiate and Parish Church, and for other purposes. July 20. 

Bev. BobinsonElsdale, D.D. (Oxford, 1838), died at Wrington, August 8, 
aged 67. Dr. Elsdale was the son of Captain Bobinson Elsdale, the hero and 
partly the author of Captain Marryat's Privateersman, Dr. Elsdale was bom 
March 28, 1783, and became second master and in 1838, or 1897, head master of 
the Bisnchester Free Grammar School, but failing health compelled his retire* 
* ment in 1810. In addition to his scholastic work Dr. Elsdale performed that of 
a parish priest, having been successively curate of Cheetham Hill and Chorlton, 
and from 1810 to his death was incumbent of Stretford. {Manchester School 
Register, vol. ill., p. a) 

13 and 14 Victoria. Act to enable the Council of the borough of Manchester 
to determine their liability to defray the expenses of customs in respect of 
goods warehoused in the said borough, and to authorise the Commlnioners of 
Her Majesty's Treasury to direct the discontinuance of the further warehousing 
of goods in such warehouses without payment of duty. August 14. 



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254 Awnala of Manchester. oaso 

The seventh meetiug of the Britiah Archsological Association was held in 
the Town Hall, August 19, and five following days. Mr.;rames Heywood, M J*^ 
F.R.S., and F.S JL., presided. 

Mr. Charles Ken worthy died July 31. He was bom in Manchester, Sept. 12, 
1773, and was a pattern-maker by trade. EUs first poetical fancies were printed 
in the Manchester Gazette. In 1806 he published a pamphlet of poetry and 
politics, entitled A Peep into the TempU. This was followed by other small 
ventores. In 1847 he issued his scattered verses under the title of Original 
Poems on Miscellaneous Subjects. He is buried at Rusholme Boad Cemetery, 
and on his gravestone is the epitaph, "Here slumbers Sorrow's child." (Proc> 
ter*s Reminiscences^ p. 106.) 

Mr. A* J. Soott, Professor of English Language in the London University, 
was appointed first principal of the Owens College, October 22. 

A conference of delegates, from various parts of England, on Seculat 
Education, held in the Mechanica' Institution, Cooper Street, October 30. 

A public meeting, in connection with Secular Education, was held in the 
Com Exchange, Hanging Ditch, October 81. 

At a conference of the Lancashire Public School Association, November 1, 
the name of the association was changed to the National Public Schods 
Association. 

The Royal Museum in Peel Park formally opened by the Mayor of Salf ord, 
in the presence of Mr. Joseph Brotherton, M.P., and other influential gentle- 
men, November 4. 

The National Pnblie Schools Aaaodatlon held its first meeting under its 
new name, November 4. 

At a meeting of the Chamber of Commerce, November 7, it was resolved to 
send out Bir. Alexander Mackay on a mission to India, to ascertain the real 
obstacles preventing an ample supply of cotton from that country. 

The Protestant inhabitants of Manchester held a meeting in the Free Trade 
Hall, November 21, to consider what steps should be taken in regaid to the 
territorial designations adopted by the Roman Catholic prelates. The action of 
the Papacy was denounced as an unwarrantable aggression, and the Ecdeai. 
astical Titles Bill was passed in hot haste. 

The Church Reform Association dissolved November 24. It was formed 
March 12, 1817. 

Mr. Thomas Wilson died at Woodhouses, November, aged 02. He was a silk 
weaver kit Middleton, who engaged in discussion with Richard Carlile and other 
Freethinkers. Wilson was a Swedenborgian, and shortly before his death gave 
a series of theological lectures in Hulme, which have been printed* {The 
i>aim, July 17, 1884.) 

The extension of the Manchester Exchange was completed in November. 
The cost was £80^000. 

Bir. William Sturgeon died Dec 8. He was bom in 1783, at Lancaster 
where his father was an idle shoemaker. At one time he was an artilleryman, 
and a terrific thunderstorm turned his curiosity in the direction of electrical 
science, and his discoveries were of great importance. He was "without doubt 
the originator of the electro-magnet.** He eame to Manchester in 1838 to super- 
intend the Victoria Gallery of Practical Science, which failed. Throughout hia 



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Annals of Mancluster, 265 



life, labour and poverty were his lot, and at last a Goyemment pension of £50 
was granted to him, bat he only ei^oyed it for a year and a quarter. He founded 
and conducted the AnnaXs of JSUetricity^ in ten Tolumes. In 1849 his 
•dentiilc papers were oolleeted in a large quarto Tolnine. (Smith's Centenary, 
p. 900.) • 

The Hon. Abbott Lawrence, United States Minister, Tisited Manchester, 
December lOu 

A ball in aid of the Salford and Pendleton Dispensary realised £701 

The Manchester Borough Gaol, in Hyde Boad, was completed. 

Springfield Lane Bridge was builti 

A fire occurred at Messrs. Westhead and Co.'s, Piccadilly. A fireman was 
killed, and another died shortly afterwards, from the iojuries he received. The 
damage was estimated at £90^000. 

The private carriages in Manchester and Salford numbered 1,000, drawn by 
1,300 horses. There were 64 omnibuses, drawn by 387 horses; 074 horses for 
riding, and 2,108 draught horses ; 187 hackney coaches and cabs, drawn by 408 
horses— making a total of 1,200 public and private vehicles, drawn by 3,877 
hones. 

A Chartist meeting was held in the People's Institute, at which it was 
resolved to adopt a proposal of 0*Conor^s for a conference to be held in this city 
on New Yearns Day following. This suggestion had been opposed by Mi; 
Ernest Jones, who lectured frequently in Manchester at this time. 

1851. 

A meeting was held in the Mechanics' Institution, January 2, to consider 
the subject of co operation and associative labour. The Bev. T. G. Lee pre* 
sided, and the Bev. F. T. Maurice, Mr. Thomas Hughes, Mr. Lloyd Jones, and 
others addressed the gathering. 

The model statuettes sent in competition for the monument to Sir Bobert 
Peel were exhibited in' the Boyal Institution, January 3. 

The mill of Messrs. Wallace, Watchurst, and Thompson, in Chepstow 
SUeet, was destroyed by fire, January 10. The damage was about £30,000. 

Canon Stowell delivered a lecture on the Papal Aggression, in the f^ee 
Trade Hall, January 10. 

Two floors fell in the warehouse of Messrs. Ormrod and Hardcastle, in 
Pall Mall, January 20, and caused serious damage. 

The Oddfellows' Secular School in Faulkner Street was established, Jan. 20. 

Mr. Bobert Thorpe, surgeon to the Manchester Infirmary, died January 21, 
aged 88. He was a son of J. Thorpe, surgeon. 

Mr. J. S. Heron, late secretary to the Lancashire and Yorkshire Bailway, 
died January 26. ( 

The Chartist Conference was held January 26^ but only four localities were 
represented. 

Sir Henry B. Bishop gave two lectures on music, in the large room of the 
Town Hall, February 11 and 13. 

A boiler explosion occurred on the premises of Mr. CL Hunt, Miller's Lane, 
Greengate, Salford, February 20. 

A public meeting of working men was held in the Free Library (late Hall 



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256 Armals of Momchester. dan 

of Sdence), Gampfleld, Febmary 20^ for the pnrpoae of hearing an explanation 
of the origin and ptogreas of the institution, &c 

A fox was canght in a lane adjoining Peel Park, Salford, Febmary 27, 
tiaving been hunted by men and dogs oat of the park. 

Dr. B. G. Tiatbam commenced a coarse of lectares at the Royal Inytitation 
on " The Ethnology of the British Colonies and Dependendes.** February 2BL 
About 280 of the seamen who were " on strike" at Liverpool visited this 
town, March 6. 

The Owens College was opened March 12. It was founded, in accordance 
with the will of Mr. John Owens, for the education of young persons of the male 
sex in such branches of learning and science as were then and may be hereafter 
usually taoght in the English Universities. The first principal was Mr. A. J. 
Scott, and the first home of the college was in a house at the Junction of Quay 
Street and Byrom Street. « 

A boiler explosion occurred at the steam sawmills of Mr. Thomas William- 
son, in Riga Street, March 25. Nine persons were killed. The coroner's Jury 
letumed a verdict of manslaught4*T against the owner and his engineer, Thomaa 
Sgerton, April 10. 

Mr. W. B. Carpenter, M.D., commenced a course of lectures in the Royal 
Institution on *' Bficroscopic Research." March 28. 

According to the return of the Parliamentary census, issued March SI, the 
borough of Manchester contained 303,358 inhabitants. By the same return 
there were 68,007 houses, and the annual value of property was given at 
£1,204,241. 

At the Chartist CoAventlon, which met 81st March, in London, Manchest^ 
was represented by Mr. Feargns O'Conor, M.P., and Mr. 6. J. Mantle. 

Samuel (** Sam") Butter died, April 12, at his birthplace. Bank Top, in the 
2Bth year of his age. He was a pugilist, of whom BelT^ Xi/e remarked : "Sam 
has fought twenty battles in the P.R, and never lost the battle money." He 
is buried in Rusholme Road Cemeteiy. (Procter^s Our 2Vr/, ftc, p. 71.) 

A great meeting in the Free Trade Hall was held on Parliamentary Reform, 
April 10. Mr. 6. Wilson presided. 

Captain James West, of the Awiari<»^« steamship Atlantic, was enter- 
tained at dinner at the Albion Hotel, April 10. 

Greenheys United Presbyterian School was opened April 20. 

Mr. George Dawson, M.A., of Birmingham, delivered the first of a course 
of lectures at the Mechanics* Institution on '*The Mythology of Nations." 
AprU25. 

The Methodist New Connexion Chapel, Bury New Road, Strangeways, was 
opened April 20. 

The foundation stone of St. Paul's Church, Kersal Moor, was laid by 
Colonel Clowes, April 28. 

A meeting was held in the Town Hall, EJng Street, April 30, for the par- 
pose of advocating a half -holiday for milliners and dressmakers. The bishop 
presided. 

The Diocesan Church Building Society was instituted May 1. 

Mr. Uenry Day died May 1. He was a surgeon, and took a warm interest 
In the Marhsnics * Institute, of which he was a director and honorary secretary. 



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Annals of Manchester. 237 



14 Victoria, cap. 10. Act for relief to the several townships in the parish of 
Manchester from the repair of highways not situate witliin sach townships 
respectively. May 20. 

The Manchester Jews' School, Cheetham Hill Road, Inaugarated Biay 22. 

The foundation stone was laid of a Baptist Chapel in Great George Street, 
Salford, May 29. 

Mr. George Viney died, liay. He was bom in Brownlow Street, Drury Lane, 
London, in 1774, and after an adventurous life as a saUor, he settled in Man- 
chester, where he died, an earnest member of the congregation of Rev. William 
Gadsby, whose Calvinistic doctrines he had adopted in their extremest form. 
He saw the famous sinking of the French ship ** Vengeur.** Previous to the 
building of the Salford Dinpensary, Viney practised medicine, for which he had 
no doubt that his seafaring life and carpenter's trade had excellently prepared 
him. The story of his career is told in autobiographical form in The Sailer^ the 
Sinner , the Saint: The Utotable and Eventful Life of Oeorge Viney, late of 
Mancheeier (London, 1853). This was edited from his papers by John Bosworth. 
He is buried in Irwell Street Chapel graveyard. 

14 Victoria, cap. 41. Act to continue the term of the Act of the sixth year 
of George IV., cap. 51 (local), so far as relates to the turnpike road between 
Manchester and Audenshaw, in the parish of Ashton-under-Lyne, and to make 
better provision for the repair of the road, and for other purposes. June 5. 

The fotmdation stone of St. Mark's Church, City Road, Hulme, was laid» 
June 16, by Mr. John Sharp. The consecration took place on Ascension Day, 
May 10, 1852. The architect was Mr. K H. Shellard, of Manchester. The 
ecclesiastical district of St. Mark's was formed in 1810 under " Feel's Act.'* 
The church was the first erected after the passing of the Ifanchester Rectory 
Division Act, 

A storm of thunder and lightning visited the neighbourhood June 22. 

Charlotte Bronte paid a two-days* visit to Manchester at the end of June, 
staying with Mr. Gaskell. (See under date April, 1863.) 

A meeting was held in the Town Hall, July 17, to memorialise the Forei(?n 
Secretary for the exertion of his infiuence for the lil)eration of Kossuth. 

14 and 15 Victoria, cap. 79. Act for the further amendment of the Acta 
relating to the M&nchestcr Corporation Waterworks. July 24. 

Cardinal Wiseman consecrated two Roman Catholic bishops In St. John's, 
Salford, July 2S. The bishops elect were Rev. Dr. Turner, St. Augustine's, and 
Rev. Dr. Errington, St. John's, Salford. 

The Teetotaller, edited by Joseph Johnson. The price of tUs monthly was 
cue halfpenny, but it came to an end In July, when nearly forty pounds had 
been lost by the venture. {City News Notes and Queries, vol. L, p. 202.) 

14 and 15 Victoria, cap. 119. Act for paving, lighting, cleansing, and other- 
wise Improving the several townships and places in the borough of Man- 
chester, and amending and consolidating the provisions of existing local Acts 
relating thereto. August 1. 

Thunderstorms, aooompanled by heavy showers of rain, visited this neigh- 
bourhood, August 6. 

Mr. Joseph Adahead's plan of Manchester, showing the municipal divlalona, 
in 24 maps, was completed. August 9. 
B 



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268 AwMds of MaTtcheder. 



a*si 



Mr. John Blllott Drinkwatcr Bethnne died ftt Calcutta, Aoffast 12. He was 
eldest eon of Colonel John Drinkwater Bethnne, and was horn 12th July, 1801, 
and educated at Cambridge. He was called to the bar, and in 1848 was 
appointed fourth ordinary member of the Supreme Council of India. This 
office he retained until his death. His greatest achievement in India was the 
establishment of a school in European hands for native females of the higher 
classes. He was author of The Maid of OrUana, translated from Schiller, 8to, 
1836 ; and Speeimena of Swedish and Oerman Poetry TrandcUed. 

A soiree of the friends of the Manchester and Salf ord Boroughs Educational 
Bill, in the Town Hall, August 28w 

Fifty-two Sardinian workmen visited Manchester, September 14, 15, and 16. 

Presentation of a service of plate of the value of 1,000 guineas to Mr. John 
Potter, Mayor of Manchester. September 22. 

A deputation of the National Parliamentary and Financial Reform Asso- 
ciation held a meeting in the Free Trade Hall, September 27. 

The inaugural address of Mr. A. J. Scott, as Principal of Owens College, 
was delivered in the large room of the Town Hall, October 3. 

The Liverpool and Manchester Agricultural Society held their show at 
Manchester, October 8. 

Queen Victoria and Prince Albert visited Manchester, October 10. The 
Royal party stayed at Worsley New Hall, where they arrived October 9. In her 
disry for that date the Queen says : " From one o'clock in the morning Albert 
was very unwell— very sick and wretched— and I was terrified for our Man- 
chester visit» Thank God I by eight o'clock he felt much better, and was able 
to get up. • • • At ten we started for Manchester. The day was fine and 
mild and everything to a wish. Ifanchester is called seven miles from 
Worsley, but I cannot think it is so much. We first came to Pendleton, where, 
as everywhere else, there are factories, and great preparations were made. 
School children were there in profusion. We next came to Salford, where the 
crowd became very dense. It Joins Manchester, and is to it» in fact, as 
Westminster to London. . . • The mechanics and workpeople, dressed in 
their best^ were ranged along the streets, with white rosettes in their button- 
holes; both in Salford and Manchester a very Intelligent but painfully 
unhealthy-looking population they all were, men as well as women. We went 
Into PMl Park before leaving Salford, the mayor having got out and received 
us at the entrance, where was indeed a most extraordinary and, I suppose, 
totally unprecedented sight— 82,000 school children. Episcopalians, Presby- 
terians, Catholics (these children having a small crucifix suspended round 
their necks), Baptists, and Jews (whose faces told their descent), with their 
teachers. In the middle of the park was erected a pavilion, under which we 
drove, but did not get out, and where the address was read. All the children 
sang "God Save the Queen** extremely well together, the director being placed 
on a very high stand, from which he could command the whole park. Wo 
psssed out at the same gate we went in by, and through the principal street of 
Salford, on to Manchester, at the entrance of which was a magnificent arch. 
The mayor, Mr. Potter, who went through the proceedings with great com- 
posure and self-possession, beautifully dressed (the mayor and Corporation had 
till now been too Radical to have robes), received us there, and presented me 



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1851] 



AiMuds of Mcmchester. 259 



with ft beantifol bouquet. We dioTe through the prindpal streeta. In which 
there are no very fine baildings— the principal large houaea being warehonaea 
— «uid atopped at the Sxchange, where we got out and received the addreaa, 
again on a throne, to which I read an answer. The atreeta were immenaely 
full, and the cheering and enthoaiaam moat gratifying. The order and good 
behaviour of the people, who were not placed behind any barriera. were the 
moat complete we have aeen in onr many progreaaea through capitala and 
citiea— London, Glaagow, Dnblln, Edinborgh, &c— for there never waa a run- 
ning crowd. Nobody moved, and therefore everybody aaw well, and there waa 
no aqueedng. We returned aa we came, the aun shining brightly, and were 
at Woraley by twa** The next day Her liajeaty wrote in her diary : '* The 
mayor (now Sir John Potter, he having been knighted after preaenting 
the Manchester address) told me laat night that he thinka we aaw a 
million of people between ICancheater and Salford« There are 400,000 
inhabitanta in Mancheater, and everyone aaya that in no other town could one 
depend ao entirely upon the quiet and orderly behaviour of the people aa In 
Manchester. You had only to tell them what ought to be done, and it was 
sure to be carried out.** On the 11th of October the Queen paased through 
Manchester on her way from Woraley to the aouth. (Martin'a Lift of the 
Prince Consort^ voL ii., chap. 43.) 

A grand ball in honour of the Queen's visit waa given in the Royal 
Exchange, October 13. 

Mrs. Bexter, an American lady, delivered a lecture on " Bloomeriam and 
Dress Reform," in the Mechanica* Institution, October lA. 

The furniture, decorations, ftc, used on the occaaion of the Queen*a visit 
were sold, October 29, and realised £328. The original cost waa £800. 

Louia Koasuth, ex-Governor of Hungary, visited Mancheater, November 
11, and was received with the aodamationa of the people. 

The Earl of Shaftesbury visited Manchester, November 2/K An addreaa 
waa presented to him by the factory operativee for hia own aervloea in the 
paaaing of the Ten Hours BilL 

Messrs. Richard Birley, John Morley, and Thomaa Cleggi ex-churchwardens 
of Mancheater, were presented with a aervice of plate, in reoognitlon of servicea 
rendered in obtaining the Parish of Manchester Division Act. The presenta- 
tion was made at a dinner at the Queen's Hotel, November 23, 

Mr. Peter Clare, F.R. A.S., died November 24. He waa bom in Ifancheater, 
and in 1810 became a member of the Literary and Philosophical Society, and 
soon became a member of Council. In ISll he became F.RA.S. He was an 
active opponent of alavery, and waa a member of the Society of Friends, in 
whose burying-ground in Mount Street he was buried. He wrote a number of 
scientific papers. {Literary and PhUoeophical Society TranelationSj 2nd ser., 
voL X., p. 203.) 

A meeting of the General Council of the National Public Schoola Asaoda- 
tion was held, December 1. 

A meeting of the friends of the Manchester and Salford Educational Bill 
was held in the Free Trade Hall, December 2. 

A conference and public meeting on the sulijeot of Parliamentary reform 
was held, December 3. 



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260 Annals of Manchester, 



[1852 



A conference of delegates was held at the Spread Eagle, December 3, to 
consider the proposed Reform Bill of Lord John Rossell. 

A pablie meeting in the Free Trade Hall, December 3, declared in favour of 
honsehold suffrage, triennial Parliaments, redistribution of seats, and the 
baUot. 

A deputation from the Manchester and Salf ord Committee of Education 
waited upon Lord John Russell, December 4, in reference to the Education Bill. 

The total number of day scholars in Hanchester and Salf ord was 33,663. 
December. 

The population of the municipal borough of Bianchester at the sixth census 
was 303,382, and that of the Parliamentary borough 316,213. The population of 
municipal Salford was 63,850, and of Parliamentary Salford 85,10a 

1852. 

A meeting of the unemployed machlnemen and labourers was held in the 
People's Institute, Heyrod Street, Ancoats, January 19. 

A meeting was held in the Town Hall in advocacy of an ocean penny 
postage, January 20. The project was explained by Mr. Elihu Burritt, "the 
learned blacksmith," and received warm approvaL 

A meeting, presided over by Mr. George Wilson, was held in Kewall's 
Buildings, to consider the proposals of the Government for Parliamentary 
reform. January 20. 

A meeting was held in the Free Trade Hall, to petition against the Govern- 
ment grant to Blaynooth, January 22. 

Father Gavazzl delivered several orations at the Free Trade Hall. January. 

In consequence of heavy rains having fallen for several days, the rivers 
overflowed their banks, February 6, causing considerable damage. Lower 
Broughton Road, Great Clowes Street, Hough Lane, and other streets in the 
neighbourhood were flooded, and their inhabitants on returning from work had 
to be taken home in boats. The lower part of Peel Park was covered with 
water to a depth of four feet. The Medlock, Irk, Mersey, Goyt, and Black 
Brook also overflowed and did considerable damage. 

A Musical Festival in the Free Trade Hall began February 23, and lasted 
five days; after which the hall was closed previous to being pulled down to 
make room for the new Free Trade HalL 

A public meeting was held in the Town Hall, February 26^ to take into 
consideration the relief of the sufferers by the Holmflrth catastrophe. A 
subscription was commenced at this meeting. 

In consequence of fears that the Conservative Government would resort to 
Protectionist measures, a meeting of the Council of the Anti-Com-Law League 
was held in Kewall's Buildings, March 2. Mr. O. Wilson was in the chair, and 
the subscriptions promised amounted to £27,520. 

A meeting of the Council of the League was held in Newall's Buildings 
March 2. Mr. George Wilson presided, and it was resolved to reconstitute the 
Antl-Com*Law League, under the rules and regulations by which that body 
was formerly organised, and £27,700 was subscribed, within half-an-honr, by 
the meeting towards carrying out the ol^ects of the revived league. Among 
the speakers were ICessrs. B. Cobden, M.P., T. Milncr Gibson, MJ*., Ja 



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18M] AnnaJU of Manclieater. 2G1 

Hey wood, M.P., Alderman Harrey, John Bright, M.P., Henry Ash worth, and 
Jamea Kershaw, M.P. 

A great fire occurred at Messrs. Cooper Brothers, patent candle mann- 
facturers, Hatton's Court, Chapel Street, Salford, April 13. 

Mr. Thomas Ingham died, April 20^ aged 60 years. He was the son of a 
Wcsleyan minister, and was educated at the Edinburgh UnlTersity, and owing 
to his scanty means passed three of the Tacations as surgeon to a whaling 
vessel. He settled In practice at North Shields, but lost the modest fortune he 
had amassed, and with broken health came to Manchester as the resident 
medical officer of the Fever HospitaL He had been three years resident at the 
time of his death. He is buried at Ardwick Cemetery. 

The Peel statue, in Peel Park, Salford, was inaugurated May a 

A public meeting was held in the Com Exchange, May 20, and adopted a 
memorial to the Queen for the periodical inspection of nunneries. 

St. Paul's Church, Kersal, consecrated by Bishop Lee, May 20. E. H. 
Shellard was the architect, and the cost of erection £5,000. 

Signor Giuseppe Lunardini, an aeronaut, was killed during an ascent from 
Belle Vue Gardens, June 3. 

Mr. John Knowles allowed the gratuitous use of the Theatre Royal for six 
nights' performances* and having paid all expenses, the gross receipts were 
given to the local charities. A committee was formed, and this Dramatic 
Festival commenced on June 7. Among the performers, who gave their servioea 
gratuitously, were Miss Helen Fancit and Mr. and Mri. Charles Dillon. The 
total receipts were £070. 

Lady Potter, widow of Sir Thomas Potter, died June 10. She was the 
daughter of Mr. Thomas Bay ley, of Booth Hall, and was bom March 1, 1777. 

The town and neighbourhood were visited by a severe thunderstorm, 
June 21. 

Mr. Cyrus Armitage died at his house, in Ormond Street, on June 24, aged 71 . 
He was bom at Failsworth, and was a cotton manufacturer in Dukinileld. He 
wrote Some Aoe&unt of the Family of the Armitttgtat from l€6t to thepreaent 
time, liondon, 1850 ; and also the hymn commencing "When sickness, sorrow, 
grief, and care." (Christian Reformer^ 1862, p. 516.) Mrs. Cyrus Armitage 
died April 14, aged 72. Their son, Cyrus Armitage, Junior, late of Ceylon, died 
at his father's house, on December 14, aged 31. 

Mr. Thomas Wilson died July A. He was the son of Bfichael Wilson (see 
under date February 27, 1840), and was educated at Chetham College. He was 
apprenticed to a firm of smallware manufacturers. In 1828 he went into part- 
nership with his brother William, as manufacturers of hat trimmings. The 
firm failed in 1842, but eventually paid a good dividend. He was the most able 
and prolific song writer of his family. (Harland*s Songn of the WiUom.) 

Mr. John Bright and the Right Hon. Thomas Milner Gibson wei« elected 
as members of Parliament for Manchester; and Mr. Joseph Brotherton was 
elected member for Salford. July & 

A Vegetarian banquet was held in the Salford Town Hall, July 22. Mr. 
James Simpson presided. 

Four men were killed in Bidgeway Street, Bradford Road, during a terrific 
thunderstorm, August lOi 



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262 Annals of Manchester. oass 

Richard Davies died August 10, aged 56. He is buried at Harpurhey 
Cemetery. His fight with Toung Dutch Sam in 1827 made him famous, though 
be was defeated. In his later years he kept the Coach and Horses in Todd 
Street* where Brassey, the pugiUst, died suddenly in 1846. 

At the poll for the establishment of a Free Library, taken August 14, the 
adoption of the Act was sanctioned. Only forty adverse votes were cast. 

A grand banquet was held at the Athensum, in aid of the Guild of Litera- 
ture and Art, August 31. Sir E. B. Lytton, Messrs. Charles Dickens, Charles 
Knight, and James Crossley were amongst the speakers. 

A marble statue of the late Mr. Thomas Fleming was erected In the 
Cathedral, to commemorate his long and valuable services in promoting the 
improvement and prosperity of the town. September 14. 

At a meeting held in the Town Hall, September 28, a resolution was 
adopted to erect a statue of the Duke of Wellington in Manchester. 

The medals awarded at the Great Exhibition to the Manchester exhibitors 
were distributed. September. 

The Manchester Public Free Library, Campfield, opened. This library was 
established by public subscription in the third year of the mayoralty of Mr. 
John Potter, who was the most active person in its formation. The building, 
originally known as the Hall of Science, was built by the working classes at 
an outlay of more than de5,000, but was purchased with freehold for its present 
use for the sum of £2,147, which, with an additional outlay of £4,816 6s. 2d. for 
repairs, alterations, and furnishing, made a total of £6,963 6s. 2d. The number 
of volumes in the reference department at the time of opening was 16,018, and 
in the lending department 5,300, making a total of 21,300 in the library. Mr. 
Edward Edwards, of the British Museum, was appointed librarian. 

A meeting of the friends of the Irish Church Missions to the Roman 
Catholics was held in the Com Exchange, October 6. 

The twelfth annual meeting of the Bilanchester and Salford Protestant and 
Beformation Society was held in the Free Trade Hall, October 21. 

A grand banquet of the Free Traders and Reformers was held in the Free 
Trade Hall, November 2. 

A severe shock of earthquake was felt in Manch'ester and the neighbourhood, 
November 0. 

Sir Thomas Joseph de Trafford, first Baronet, died November 10. He was 
buried at the Manchester Cathedral, November 19, and succeeded by his son 
Sir Humphrey de TraflTord. 

Mr. John Easby died November 18, aged 40. He was a frequent contributor 
to periodicals, and had in his time played many parts as Journalist, actor, and 
local preacher. Some details of his career are given in his Scenes /rem the Life 
of a Green-Coated Schoolboy, 1861. (Procter's Manchester Streets, p. 224.) 
He it buried at Ardwick Cemetery. 

Rev. George Benjamin Sandford, M. A., died at Southport, December 9. He 
was bom at Blanchester, January 10, 1811, being the youngest son of William 
Sandford. (See under date 1821.) After attending the Grammar School he 
went to Brascnose College, Oxford, where he graduated B.A. on May 0, 1A33, 
and M.A. on March 10, 1830. Mr. Sandford was Hulmeian Exhibitioner in 1833, 
and in 1835 became curate to Rev. T. Blackbume, successively Vicar of Eocles 



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X868] Afmcds of Manchester. 268 

and Prestwich. In 1810 he was presented to the perpetnal cnracy of Chnreh 
Minshnll, Cheshire. Mr. Sandford was author of a number of religions works, 
and also of a history of his parish of Chnreh Minshnll, which is a model of what 
a country parson could do towards a complete history of places and families^ 
Mr. Sandford married Felicia, daughter of the BeT* J. Smith, "DJ}* One son, a 
clergyman, survived him. 

New bye-laws for the regulation of hackney carriages within the borough 
of Manchester came into operation, December 10. 

New omnibuses were introduced, which were larger and more oonomodlous 
than those previously in use. They were without doors, and were drawn by 
three horses abreast. 

A conference, to consider the re-organisation of the Chartist body, sat for 
five days at Manchester, which was represented by William Orocott and E. 
Clark Cropper. 

Richard Baines, author of Budget ef CcmioaliHes^ died about 1862. 
(Procter's Manchester StreeU.) 

1853. 

The Manchester and Salford Waterworks Company dissolved, January 4. 

A public dinner was given in the Town Hall to the Hon. J. R. Ingersoll, 
American Minister Plenipotentiary at the Court of St James's, January 7. 

A meeting of the Peace Society vras held in the Ftee Trade Hall, January 
28, Mr. George Wilson in the chair. ' 

The trustees of the Manchester Infirmary held a meeting respecting the 
site for the Peel statue, February 8. 

A Social Reform and Free Trade 90iree was held in the Free Trade Hall, 
Februarys. 

The foundation stone of a new chapel connected with the Manchester 
Domestic Mission laid on the west side of Rochdale Road, February 14. 

Mr. John Bill died at Farley, StaflTordshire, February 18. He was the son 
of Mr. John Bill, one of the surgeons to the Infirmary, and was educated at the 
Grammar School. He was a barrister, but did not practice, and having 
Inherited an estate from his uncle, was noted for his charity and also for hit 
eccentricity. He wrote The English Party's Excursion to PariSj to %thich is 
added a Trip to America, 1850. 

The shop of Mr. Howard, jeweller, Market Street, was robbed at mid-day, 
March?. 

Another extensive robbery committed at the shop of Mr. Olllvant, jeweller, 
comer of Exchange Street, March 0. 

Manchester was created a city by Royal charter, March 20. 

Charlotte BronUS visited Manchester and stayed with her friend Ifrs. 
Gaskell, at the close of April. Mrs. Gaskell has left an interesting account of 
the susceptibility to music, and of the nervous dread of strangers, which she 
showed. (Gaskell's Life of Bronte.) 

" WiUiam Starkie, actor, died April 10, 1863, aged 61," is the epitaph In 
Harpurhey Cemetery on the grave of a warper, who was a favourite strolling 
pertormer. Procter has given a notice of him In Our Turf, Stage^ and Ring, p. 26. 

The ratepayers of the townshio of Broughton held a meeting at the Grifi&n 



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264 Anndle of Manchester. osss 

Inn, Lower BrooghtoD* April 20, to consider the bill for incorporating the 
townahipe of Bnmghton and Pendleton with that of Salford. 

A bazaar was opened in the Exchange Booms, April 26, in aid of the fond 
for promoting tlie ocean penny postage. 

Cardinal 'Wiseman gave a lecture on Art, in the Com Bzchange, April 27. 

The Northern and Midland Connties Chess Association held a meeting in 
the Exchange, May 6. 

The United Kingdom Alliance for the total and immediate suppression of 
the Uqaor Traffic was formed Jane 1. The inangoral meeting was held 
October 28. The movement did not at first command the adhesion of even 
teetotallers, but its growth has since been very remarkable. Ita founder was 
Nathaniel Card, who died March 22, 1866 (see under that date). The secretary 
appointed was Mr. Thomas Holllday Barker, who was bom at Peterborough, 
July 8, 1818, and was apprenticed to a wine and spirit merchant, but after 
hearing a lecture by John Cassell, the Manchester Carpenter, in 1836, he signed 
the pledge. He has lived In Manchester since 184i. 

A oonversaslone was held at the AthenaDum, June 1, " for the purpose of 
arriving at some safe conclusion about table turning." The Bev. H. H. Jones 
presided, and Dr. Braid, after a series of experiments had been gone through, 
expressed his belief that the turning of the tables was to be explained by Dr. 
W. B. Carpenter^s theory of idea meter power. 

A public meeting held in the Town Hall, June ^ to hear addresses from 
several gentlemen on the Wesleyan "mediation movement,** which had for its 
otject to explain the differences between the Conference and the reformers and 
the efforts that had been made to heal them. 

16 and 17 l^ctoria. Act to authorise the Mayor, Aldermen, and Citisens of 
the City of Manchester to make certain new streets, and to amend the Acta 
relating to the said dty, and for other purposes. June 81 

16 Victoria^ cap. 32. Act for the extension of the boundaries of the 
Municipal Borough of Salford, and for other purposes. June 14. 

Mr. Thomas Jarrold, M.D., died at Greenhill Street^ Greenheya, June 24. 
He was bora in 1769, and was the author of DisBertaiians on Maf^ in answtr 
to MMhuBt 1806; Instinct and Beoaon, 1836; Anihropoloffia^ ftc He ia 
buried in the Congregational graveyard, Grosvenor Street, Fiocadilly. 

16 and 17 Victoria, cap. 102. Act to repeal an Act for making and main- 
taining a road from the top of Hunt's Bank, in the town of Manchester, to join 
the Manchester and Bury turnpike road in Pllkington, In the county of 
Lancaster, and to substitute other provisions in lieu thereof. July 8. 

A meeting was held in the Cora Exchange, July S7, presided over by Mr. 
B. N. Philips, at which petitions were adopted in favour of the Sunday opening 
of the Crystal Palace. 

Mr. Sails Schwabe died at Glyn Garth, on the Menai Straits, July 23, in his 
S4th year. He was buried at Harpurhey Cemetery July 30, and was followed 
to the grave by the Bishop of Manchester and many of the leading peraona of 
the city. 

16 and 17 Victoria, cap. 135. Act f6r more effectually repairing and 
improving several roads leading to and from the town of Salford, through 
Pendleton, and other places in the county of Lancaster. August 4. 

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AwnaU of Manchester. 265 



Id and 17 Victoria, cap. 128. Act to render Talid certain marriagee In the 
Church of the Holy Trinity in the township of Hnhne and pariah of Manchester. 
* AugnstflO. 

Mr. GsoiKO Bradshaw died at Chrlstlania, Norway, September 8, aged 63. 
He was the head of the firm of Bradshaw and Blacklock, pnbUshers of the 
Railway OtUdea which have given the name of the benevolent Qoaker printer 
world-wide enrrency. . The cause of Ids death was an attack of cholera. 

Mr. J. B. Gongh lectured in the Lever Street Chapel, September 88. 

The district soffBred from severe gales of wind, September 8B. 

The new boilding of the Salf ord Free Library and Museum was opened, 
October 1. 

The Right Hon. W. B. Gladstone (then Chancellor of the Exchequer) and 
BIrs. Gladstone visited ICanchester, October 10. 

Inauguration of the statue of Sir Bobert Peel, In front of the Inflrmary, 
October 12. BCr. W. B. Gladstone took part in the proceedings. 

A marble statue of Humphrey Chetham, by Theed, was placed in the 
Cathedral at the cost of Mr. George Pilkington (formerly one of the blue coa( 
boys in the College), at a cost of £1,000. October. 

A public meeting was held in the Com Exchange to ex p res s the sympathy 
of the inhabitanta of Manchester with Turkey in her struggle with Bussia. 
November lOL 

St Stephen's Church, Chorlton-on-Medlock, was consecrated by Bishop Lee, 
December 80. The architect was Mr. B. H. Shellard, and the eost of erection 
£3,900. It was enlarged in 1863. 

Mr. Thomas Gibbons, head gardener of Peel Park, was drowned in the 
IrweU, whilst endeavouring to save a vroman who had attempted to drown 
herselt He was 48 years of age, and left a vridow and three children, for 
whose benefit there was a subscription. 

Mr. Francis Nesbitt McCron died in the hoepital at (Seeloog. He was bom 
at Manchester in 1800, but was educated by a clergyman near Cork, and was 
intended for the profession of a surgeon, but he abandoned this fbr the stage, 
but left it at the Instance of his friends in 1810 to settle in Ireland. In less 
than a year he eloped, and with his wife went to Fdrt Jackson, where he 
landed in January, 1841. Unable to find oommerdai employment he again 
went on the stage, and *' from that time till his death held undisputed sway % 
in the colony. In 1848 he went to San FranciMO, where he became for a time 
a gold-digger. He returned to Sydney in 1862, and thence to Victoria, where 
he was seised with illness when performing " William Tell** at (Seelong. He 
was carried oiT the stage, and died in the hospital at the age of 44. A monu- 
ment was placed over his grave in 1836 by 6. V. Brooke. (Heaton*s Australian 
Dictionary of Dates, 1879, p. 271). McCron's stage name was Nesbitt. 

1854. 

In consequence of the heavy snowstorms which occurred at this time, 
railway and other traffic was much impeded, January OL 

Bev. William Parr Oreswell died JanuaryI12: He was bom at Chester, 
176ft, and was incumbent of Denton for sixty-three years. He wrote Msmairs 
OS Angdus Politianus, and others^ 1801'; Parisian Typography^ 1818; 



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266 Annala of Manchester. [um 

Monastery of Si, Werburgh^ a poem, 1828; Early Parisian Oreek Press^ 1833. 
(Booker's DenUmr-^hethanCs MiseeUany^ toI. 2.->p. 100.) 

A public meeting of the National Pnblio Schools Association was held in 
the Mechanics* Institution, Cooper Street, January 18L 

Bev. Oswald Sergeant, M. A., Minister of St. Philip's, Salford, and Canon of 
Manchester, died February 12. He was bom at Manchester, May 28; 1800. He 
published A Funeral Sermon on the Death of T* CcUvert^ D,D.^ with brief 
Memoir, and varioas other sermons and tracts* 

The warehouse of Messrs. Bylands and Sons, New High Street, was 
destroyed by fire, March 1. 

Bev. John Oooch Bobberds died April 21. He was bom at Norwich, May 10, 
1780, and educated at the Grammar School there, and at Manchester New 
College, York. In 1810 he became co-pastor of Cross Street ChapeL There is a 
portrait of him in Sir Thomas Baker's Memorials. He wrote Christian Festivals 
and NcUural Seasons^ which appeared posthumously in the year of his death. 
Many of his separate sermons were also printed* 

The Old Factory, Miller's Lane, Shndehill, was entirely destroyed by fire, 
April 28. 

The Bishop of Bfanchester laid the comer stone of the new building intended 
for a day school lor the boys of St. Matthew's Church, Bfay 2i. 

17 Victoria, cap. 20. Act to repeal an Act of the fifty-third year of King 
George UI., cap. 72, and an Act of the eighth jrear of Her present Majesty, cap. 21, 
and for making provision for the i^pointment and for renumeration of a 
Stipendiary Justice for the division of Manchester, and of clerks to such Justice 
and the Justices for the borough of Salford, and for other purposes. June 2. 

17 and 18 Victoria. Act for enabling the Bfayor, Aldermen, and Citlaens of 
the City of Manchester to widen certain streets in and otherwise improve the 
said city ; to raise a further sum of money, and for other purposes. June 2. 

A meeting was held in the Town Hall, July 13, to determine what measures 
should be taken to further the objects of the International Exhibition at Fsris 
inl86S. 

* The Manchester and Salford Temperance Society held a meeting in the 
Friends' Meeting House, Mount Street, July 21, when resolutions were passed 
in favour of closing public-houses on Sundays* 

An Anti-Slavery meeting was held in the library hall of the AthensBum. 
August I. 

Bev. John William Whittaker, D.D., Vicar of Blackburn, died there 
August 8. He was bora at Bianchester, 17BQ. He was the author of Inquiry 
into the Interpretation of the Hebrew Scriptures, 1810-20; Statutes and 
Charier ofBivington Schcolf 1837; Sermon to the Chartists, 1830; other works, 
sermons, pamphlets, and papers. (Oentleman*s Maoasine, October, 1864, p. 30S.> 

Bev. B. M. Master was admitted Archdeacon of Manchester, September 2. 

The foundation stone of St Paul's Church, Stretford Boad, Hulme, was 
laid, September % by Dr. J* P. Lee, Bishop of Manchester* The church was 
opened for divine service, by licence, on June 20, 1855, but was not consecrated 
until January 10, 1850. This has been caUed the Working Man's Church, for 
the reason that the cost of building was defrayed almost entirely by membera 
of the humbler < 



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2sa8) Annals of Manchester. 267 

Bfr. Jtanw Sheridan Knowles, who, after attaining diBtlnction as a 
dramatist, had tamed hia attention to theology, gave the first of a series of 
lectores on Popery, in Lever Street Chapel, September 4. 

Much damage was done to property hy heavy storms of wind, October 17 
andl& 

An extensive fire broke oat in the warehouse of Bliessrs. F. H. Theode and 
Ca, Smithy Lane, Lower King Street, October 2S. 

Mr. W. C. Macready, the tragedian, gave readings from the poets, in the 
Mechanics* Institution, November 18. 

A public meeting was held at the Town Hall, December 18, for the purpose 
of establishing the Manchester and Salf ord Baths and Laundries Company. 

Canon Stowell gave a lecture in the Mechanics' Institution, December 18^ 
on " The Causes of Poverty, ftc, among the Working Classes.** 

Bev. Jeremiah Smith, D.D., died at Brewood, Staffordshire, December 21. 
He was bom at Brewood, July 22, 1771. He was for many years High Master 
of Mandiester Grammar School, and the author of A Vindicati&n o/ Defensive 
War^ a sermon before the North Worcester Volunteers, 1805. (Manchester 
Sehooi BegisUr^ vol. iii., p. 2.) 

17 and 18 Victoria. Act for the extension of the Manchester Corporation 
Waterworks and for other purposes, and of which the short title is "The 
Manchester Corporation Waterworks Act, ISM." 

1855. 

The Town Hall, Cheetham, was opened, January ff. 

A soirte was given to the members of Parliament for Manchester, in the 
Cora Exchange, January 19. Mr. O. Wilson presided. 

A testimonial was presented to Mr. J. C. Harter, in the shape of a 
portrait, to remain in the boardroom of the Infirmary, February 22, and a copy 
of the same was presented to the members of Mr. Harter^s family. 

A meeting in favour of peace with Bussia was held in Newall*s Buildings, 
February 27, which was followed by several others, extending over a period of 
many weeks. 

The final meeting of the Manchester Committee of the Patriotic Fund was 
held April 13. 

The Bev. James Scholefleld died at Every Street, April 21. He was bom 
at Colne Bridge, near Huddersfleld, in 17D0, and having adopted the views of 
the Bible Christians, preached for many years In the Bound Chapel, Every 
Street. For the last forty-four years of his life he was a vegetarian. His 
pamphlet on '* Vegetarianism,** published about 1861, was translated into Ger- 
man by Emil Weilshaeuser, under the title of Der Menseh—Kein Baubihier 
(Berlin : Orieben). He was a Badical Beformer, and was tried at Lancanter 
Assises BCareh 21, 1843, for allowing the Chartist Conference of 1842 to be held 
in his chapel. He was acquitted. 

Sir H. G. W. Smith distributed medals, at the Begent Boad Barracks, 
Salford, June 4, to those officers and men of the Slst Begiment who fought tn 
the Burmese war. Colours were presented to this regiment by Lady Wiltshire. 
Jnnefi. 

18 and 10 Victoria. Act for enabling the mayor, aldermen, and dtliens of 



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268 Annals of Manchester. 



[1885 



the city of Manchester to make a new street from Manchester, across the 
Irwell, into Salford, and authorising arrangements with the Corporation of 
Salford in reference thereto, and for other purposes. June 15. 

A great open-air meeting was held in SteTenson Square for the purpose of 
re-organising the Chartist movement, July 15. 

M. A. C. 6. Johert died at Ste. Foy, July 17. He was a native of France, 
and a pupil of Hauy, but settled in Manchester as a teacher of languages. 
Haying become partially paralysed in the organs of speech, he sought relief by 
travel, but his constitution was shattered. His widow, an English lady, was 
left destitute, and in aid of a fund for her Mr. B. Waterhouse Hawkins, F.G^^ 
lectured in Manchester, December 18. Jobert was the friend of Cuvier and 
Murchison, and wrote PhUosophie de la GMogie and other works. 

The stAtue of Dr. Dalton, in front of the Royal Infirmary, was inaugurated, 
July 26. 

A beerhouse-keeper in Pendleton, named Booth, caused the death of a 
woman named Behan, who lived with him« by beating and kicking her. 
August 7. 

A robbery was committed at the Manchester Stamp OiBoe, Cross Street, 
August 8, when property to the amount of £1,700 was stolen. 

A conversazione of the lianchester Photographic Society was held at the 
Royal Institution, August 10. 

The foundation stone of St Mary's Hospital, in Quay Street, was laid by 
the Bishop of Bfanchester, September 3. 

The foundation stone of the new Bfanchester Workhouse was laid 1^ Mr. 
C. H. Rickards, September 5. 

The chancel of St. John's Roman Catholic Church was opened Sept. 87. 

Mr. John Kennedy, author of Miacellaneous Papers^ 1849, died at Man- 
chester, October 30. He was bom at Knockmall)ng, Kirkcudbright, July 4, 
1760, but resided at Chowbent and Manchester from 1784^ He came to Man- 
chester in 1791 and began business. The firm of Sandford, McConnel, and 
Kennedy were machine makers and mule-spinners, and Mr. Kennedy made 
some improvementa in Crompton's mule. He realised a large fortune. He 
was a man of scientific tastes, and read a number of papers before the Literary 
and Philosophical Society. There is a memoir of him by Sir W. Fairbaim in 
Memoirs of the ManehesUr Literary and Philosophical Society , Srd series, 
vol. i., p. 147. 

The inaugural dinner of the Railway Club took place at the Clarence Hotel, 
Spring Gardens, November 2. 

The Bishop of Manchester commenced his second visitation of the diocese, 
December 5. 

A destructive fire broke out in High Street and Marsden Square, Dec 5. 

At a meeting held in the Town Hall the erection of a statue to James Watt, 
in front of the Royal Infirmary, was resolved upon, December 11. 

The Church of St. John the Evangelist^ Miles Platting, was consecrated by 
Bishop Lee, December 27. The architect was Mr. O. Shaw, and the cost of 
erection £5,000. 

Margaret Oldham died in the workhouse. She claimed to be the first 
Sunday scholar In Manchester, and stated that in 1780 MoUy Scholes, the 



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18M] 



Annals of Mancheeter. 269 



keeper of a dame's echod In Press House Steps, Blackfriars, told her pupils 
that she was about to open the school on Sunday for religions instruction, and 
promised the first comer a slice of currant bread I ICargaret, going early, 
found one Betty Hyde a step in advance, but pulled her back by the hair, and 
claimed the prise. Molly contented them by giving each a slice. {Manchester 
Gtuirdian Local Notes and Queries^ No. 8M.) 

1866. 

Mr. James Heywood, M.P., F.R.S., delivered a lecture in the Athenieum, 
on ** Administrative and Academic Reform.** January 14. 

A public meeting held in the Town Hall to promote the Nightingale 
Fund, January 17. 

The first number of Phoiographio lUuatraHona, by Membera of the 
Manchester Photographic Society, was published by George Simms in 
January. 

A public meeting to oppose the Government Police Bill was held in the 
Salford Town Hall, February 27, convened by the mayor, Mr. S. Heelis, who 
presided. A petition against the Bill was adopted. 

Mr. Nathaniel Card died at Manchester, March 22. He was bom at Dublin 
in 1805, and was a member of the Society of Friends. When the cholera was 
raging in his native city, in 1831-2, he visited and relieved the afflicted at the 
peril of his own life. He settled in Manchester, where he was highly esteemed, 
and represented Chectham Ward in the city Council from November, 1854, until 
his death. Having heard an address in which Dr. F. R. Lees spoke of the 
success of the prohibitory liquor law in Maine, he determined to attempt 
to organise a movement for the same purpose in England. From this arose 
the " United Kingdom Alliance for the Total and Immediate Suppression of 
the Liquor Traffic" (See under date June 1, 1853.) 

The first game of chess by telegraph in England was played between the 
Chess Clubs of Liverpool and Manchester, March 28. 

Mr. John Armitage died at his residence in Manchester on April 17, aged 48. 
He was the son of Mr. Cyrus Armitage, and was bom at Failsworth, September 
27, 1807, and shortly after he came of age he accepted an engagement under 
Messrs. Philips, Wood, & Co., and was sent by them to their branch establish- 
ment in Rio Janeiro. While here he wrote a History of Brazil from IbOS to 
1831, which was published in two volumes. He returned to England, and In 
1830 proceeded to Ceylon, where he was a merchant, and member of the 
Legislative Council. The climate of Ceylon had, however, ii^ured his health, 
and on August 30, 1855, he sailed for England. Before he left Ceylon he was 
presented with an address and a testimonial of silver plate. On his return he 
established himself in Manchester, and was interred at Dukinfield Old 
tChapel. (CArlsfian iZf/ormer, 1850, p. 317.) 

Canon Stowell lectured in the Com Exchange before the members of the 
Manchester and Salford Reformation Society, on the Maynooth Grant, April 21. 

The annual Whitsuntide procession of the children of the Church of 
England Sunday Schools, May 12. The number in the procession was 11,740. 

A meeting of the subscibers to the guarantee fund for the Exhibition of 
1867 was held in the Town Hall, May 20. 



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270 Armala of Mcmcheeler. qsm 

There were great rejoidngs and demonatration in consequence of peace 
being proclaimed between England and Rnasia, May 29. 

William £ntwi8le,M.P., died Bfay 30. HewasbomatRnaholmcFebroary 
9; 1809. He was the author of pamphlets on edacation« liarch, 1851-3. 

Mr. Richard Gardner, M.P., died June 4. He was bom at Manchester in 
1814. He was educated at the Manchester Grammar School, and was M.P. for 
Leicester from 1847 unlU his death. {ScJiool BeaisUr, iii. 108.) 

A meeting was held in the Town Hall, June 27, for the purpose of opening 
a subscription list for the relief of the sufferers by the recent floods in 
France. 

Bands of music were placed in the public parks of lianchester and Salfofd 
to play for the recreation of the people on Sundays. The opposition on the 
part of the Sabbatarian public was so strongly expressed that the experiment 
was soon abandoned. June 29. 

Mr. William Lockett died at Lytham, July 7, in his 79th year. He was the 
first mayor of Salf ord. 

St. Thomas's Church, Paddington, Salf6rd« was consecrated by Bishop Lee, 
July 20. Mr. K H. Shellard was the architect^ and the cost of the erection 
was £6,000. 

The formal ceremony of laying the base for the first pillar of the buflding 
for the Art Treasures Exhibition at Old Trafford was performed by Mr. 
Thomas Fairbaim, August 13. ' 

The statue of the Duke of Wellington, in ^tmt of the Infirmary, was 
inaugurated, August 30. 

The Exhibition of Art Manufactures at the new building of the Mechanics* 
Institution, David Street* was opened, September 0. 

The spire of the Independent Chapel in Bury New Road, Broughton, fell, 
doing damage to the amount of £1,000, September 24. 

The new Free Trade Hall was inaugurated October 8. Mr. George Wilson 
presided. The cost of the building was £40,000. 

( St. Mary*s Hospital, in Quay Street* was formally opened by the Countess 
of Wilton, who presided. October 10. 

An accident occurred at the Exhibition building, Old Trafford, by which 
one man was killed and several were seriously injured, October 31. 

A meeting in favour of the abolition of capital punlBhment was held in the 
Free Trade Hall. November 20. 

Rev. David Howarth died, December 26tli, aged 67. He was the successor 
of Mr. Hind marsh as minister of the Swedenborgian Temple, Bolton Street, 
Salford. iHindmarsh's JBtse, p. 420.) 

Rev. William Stewart, MJL, died at Hale, December, aged 72. He was 
bom at Manchester, and was peipetual curate of Hale, near ChildwalL He 
was the author of MemcriaU of SaU (pamphlet), Liverpool, 1848. (Procter^s 
MancheaUr Streets, p. 120.) 

Baths and washhonses were opened in Greengate, Salford. 

Public washhonses and baths were opened in Miller Street. 

McmeheHer Lectures delivered before the Young Men's Christian Associa- 
tion. (London, J. F. Shaw; Manchester, Durham.) This volume '■«'*»^w 
lectures b^ Rev. J. Baldwin Brown, Rev. J. B. Owen, Canon Stowell, Rev. 



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ggoT] Awnals of Manehester. 271 

Luke WlMman, A. J. 8oott» BeT. W. Amot, BeT. Berkeley Addison, and BeT. 
Alexander Thomson* 

1867. 

Mr. Joeeph Brotherton, M.P.9 died inddenly, Jannary 7, whilst In an 
omnibus on his way from Pendleton to Bfanchester. He was bom May 22, 1789, 
at Whlttington, near Chesterfield, bnt his father removed to Manchester In 
1780 and became a snooessfnl cotton spinner. The son became a partner, bnt 
retired, in 1819, In order to devote himself to public work. He was an advocate 
for factory legislation, for Parliamentary reform, and for Free Trade. He 
3eIonged to the Bible Christian Church, whose members abstain from intoxi- 
cants and animal food. He was one of the committee who helped the sufferers 
from the Peterloo massacre. It was largely owing to his Influence that Salford 
was enfranchised, and h * was elected its first representative, and held that 
position until his death. In Parliament he had great Influence, and as chairman 
of the Private Bills Committee was remarkable for the steady integrity and 
ability of his course. He was minister of the Bible Christian Church and con* 
ducted the services there on the last Sunday of his life. He was buried at the 
Salford Cemetery, January 14, and the public funeral testified to the universal 
respect In which he was held. There is a bust of him In the Manchester Town 
Hall, and a bronxe statue by Mr. Matthew Noble in Peel Park, Salford. On the 
pedestal are the words which have been called Brotherton's motto: ** My riches 
consist not in the extent of my possessions but in the fewness of my wants.** 

Mr. William Harper died, Jan. 2B. He was bom In Manchester in 1800, and 
was author of The Oeniua and other poems, 1810 ; Cain and Abd^ 1844 ; and 
Memoir of Btniamin BraidUy, Mr. Harper was closely identified with 
Bennett Street SchooL 

BCr. £. B. Langworthy was elected without contest li.P. f6r Salford, In 
place of the late Bir. Brotherton, February 2. 

A public meeting in favour of the ballot was held in the Free Trade Hall, 
Februarv25. 

Francis Egerton, Earl of Ellesmere, died at his town residenee, 
Bridgewater House, London, February 18, He was buried at Worsley, 
February 20. 

The general election was one of unusual interest and bitterness, and 
resulted in the general defeat of the " Manchester School.** The Salford election 
was held on BCarcb 2, when Mr. W. N. Massey defeated Sir E. Armltage. The 
Manchester poll was on the 28th, and resulted In the rejection of Bir. John 
Bright and his colleague, Mr. Milner Gibson, and the election of Sir John 
Potter and Mr. J. Aspinall Turner. The figures were : Manchester— Potter, 
8.808; Turner, 7,854; Gibson, 6,688; Bright, 6,468. Salford-Massey, 1.880; 
Armltage, 1,204. The defeat of Mr. Bright was regarded with deep regret by 
men of all parties In the country. 

The great event of the year was the Exhibition of the Art Treasures of the 
United Kingdom, at Old Trafford, which demonstrated the wealth of the 
British artistic possessions. The Exhibition was opened by Prince Albert, 
May 6. The Queen, the Prince Consort, the Prince of Wales and Prince Alfred, * 
the Princess Boyal and Princess Alice, and the Prince ftederick William of 



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272 Anndla of JUaTichester. [UB7 

Prossla, arrived at Patricroft, and drove to Worsley Hall, the reaidence of the 
Earl of Ellesmere, June 29, and on the following day visited the Exhihition. 
Viflitora from all parte of the world came to see the art treasures. Prinoe 
Kapoleon and snite arrived in Manchester and paid a visit to the Exhihition, 
Inly 13. Nathaniel Hawthorne was there one day and saw Tennyson stroUlnfc 
through, bnt did not speak, as they, like the heroes of Gilbert's ballad of 
"Etiquette,** **had not been introduced." The Exhibition closed October 17. 
It had been open one hundred and forty-two days, of which two, the opening 
day and that of the public visit of Her Majesty the Queen« were reserved for 
the holders of two-guinea season tickets. The total number of paying visitors 
during the season was 1,053,538; of ticket-holders, 283,177; making a total of 
1,336,715. The receipts were £110,688 Ob. 8d., being £304 14s. id. over the 
expenditure. The Exhibition gave rise to an extensive literature, of which the 
most important were the Campaniana, edited by Tom Taylor; Waring's 
EocampUSt a sumptuous folio; Burger^s Trisors cTArt; and The Art Tretuures 
Examiner^ A tolerably complete collection of the books relating to the 
Exhibition, including several in the Lancashire dialect, will be found in the 
ICanchester Free Beference Library. 

Prinoe Albert visited Peel Park, Bfay 0, and there inaugurated Noble*8 
statue of Queen Victoria. 

Mr. John Moore, F.L.S., died at Hulme, Bfay 10. He was 83 years old, and 
bad been president of the Royal Manchester Institution, of the Natural History 
Society, and of the Literary and Philosophical Society, to whose Memoirs he 
eontributed a biography of Edward Hobeon. There is a brief account of his 
investigations as to the potato disease in Smith's Centenary. 

The members of the Manchester Entomological Society held their first 
meeting at Bir. Rickett's Temperance Hotel, Great Bridgewater Street* 
June 17. 

Bir. Thomas Bellot, M.RC.S., died, June. He was bom at BCanchester in 
1807, and was an accomplished Chinese and Oriental scholar. He wrote 
Sanskrit Derivation of Eiiffiish Words, 1838, ftc {Dictionary of National 
Biography.) 

Bir. William Bradley died July 4. He was bora at Manchester, January 18* 
1801, and was left an orphan at the age of three. At sixteen he advertised 
himself as a "portrait, miniature, and animal painter," and executed portraits 
at one shilling a piece. Biather Brown, then living in Bianchester, gave him 
some lessons, and he developed remarkable powers as a portrait painter. He 
went to London, when about twenty-one, and painted the portraits of Biacieady, 
Gladstone,'and many other public men. He retunied to Bianchester in 1817, in 
broken health, and died there in poverty ten years later. {City News Notes 
and Queries, vol. I) 

The Bianchester and Salford Reformatory, situated in Bleckley, was c^ieaed 
August Ow 

90 and 21 Victoria. Act to make better provision for the burial of the dead 
In the city of Bianchester, and for enabling the Corporation to purchase oertiin 
lands and effect certain improvementa in that city. August 10. 

90 and SI Victoria, cap. 132. Act to give further powers to the mayor, 
•Uermen, and burflosws of the boroogl^ of SaUbrd with res p s O to burial pnr> 



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X80a] AnTiala of McmchesUr. 273 

poMs, and to authorise arrangemento with respect to lands in and near Mar- 
borough Square, in Salford. August 10. 

Considerable damage was done to property by the rivers Irwell and Med- 
lock overflowing, in consequence of the heavy rains, August 13 and 14. 

The annual nieeting of the Chess Association was held in Manchester, 
August. The Report of this famous gathering is now scarce. {KatcUog der 
Schach'Bibliothek der Herr R. Franz, 1885.) 

The Salford Borough Cemetery, New Barnes, Eccles New Road, was opened 
September 1. Its area is about 21 acres, apportioned as follows : Church of 
England and Dissenters, 8^ acres each ; Roman Catholics, 4 acres. The 
memberH of the Church of England, the Dissenters, and the Roman Catholics 
have each a mortuary chapel. 

Mr. John B. Gough lectured on total abstinence in the Free Trade Hall, 
September 1. His lecture was afterwards printed. 

Mr. Joshua Radford, secretary to the Royal Infirmary, died September 5. 

Dr. David Livingstone visited Manchester, September 0. The great 
African traveller was received by the Chamber of Commerce at the Town Hall 
in the morning, and a welcome was also given to him in Grosvenor Street 
Chapel in the evening. 

Collections were made at the various churches and chapels In aid of the 
Indian Relief Fund on October 7, the day appointed as a day of fasting and 
humiliation. 

Mr. Charles Hulbert died near Shrewsbury, Oct. 7. He was a native of 
Manchester, and was bom 18th Feb., 1778. He was printer, publisher, editor, 
and author. He wrote History of Shreicsbury^ 1837 ; Cheshire Antiquities^ 
18:)8 ; Memoirs o/ Seventy Years of an Evenijul Life^ 1852, and a great number 
of other works, chiefly compilations. {Obituary, by his son, 1867.) 

Mr. John Taylor died at Liverpool, Dec 9. He was bom at Paisley, but 
lived at Manchester and Liverpool the greater part of his life. He was the 
author of a translation of Ovid*s Fastis 8vo, 1890 ; and of Claudian Sketches 
(poems). He was also an art critic. {Manchester School Register^ vol. iL, p. 181).) 

A robbery of bank-notes of the amount of £3,100 took place in the Cora 
Exchange, December 10. A foreigner, who gave the name of Browness, was 
taken into custody the same day. The whole of the stolen notes were found 
upon him. 

The Siamese Ambassadors visited the city, December 13. 

Mr. Archibald Prentice died December 24, at Park View, Plymouth Grove, 
aged 65. He was the son of a Scotch farmer, and, in 1816, settled in Man- 
chester, where he took an active part in public aflklrs, and was one of the 
advanced Liberals. He started the Manchester Timest which, by amalgama- 
tion with another paper, became the Manchester BacanUner and Times. He 
vrrote Historical Sketches of Manchester, 1851; History of the Anti-Corn Law 
LeaguCt IHTvi, and other works. 

185a 

A testimonial, consisting of a valuable timepiece and a box fffnt^lning 
three hundred sovereigns, was presented to Captain Willis, npon his reaignation 
of his position as chief constable, January 14. 



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274 AnTials of Manchester. 



(USt 



Bey. Richard ParldiiBon, D.D., died Jannarj 28, at the Priory of St. Bees. 
He was of yeoman stock, and was bom at Woodgates, Chipping, and after an 
early education at Brabin's School went on to Hawkshead Grammar School 
and St. John's College, Cambridge. He became master of Lea School, near 
Preston, edited the Preston Pilof, became theological tatorof St. Bee*8 College, 
of which he was afterwards principal, and In 1830 Rector of Whitworth« 
near Rochdale. In 1833 he was elected a Fellow of Ifanchester Church. He is 
the author of several volumes on theology, but is best remembered by his Old 
Church Clock, which was published in 1843. The fifth edition appeared in 188Q, 
and by the copious annotations of its editor, Mr. John Evans, has become aa 
important book of local history. 

The new warehouse belonging to Messrs. Watts, in Portland 8treel» 
was opened for business, March 10. 

The cotton spinning and doubling mill of Messrs. Lewis and Williams, 
Minshull Street, was destroyed by fire, causing damage which was estimated 
at about £20,000, March 20. 

The Synagogue of British Jews, in York Street, Cheetham Hill Road, was 
consecrated, March 25. 

A meeting on Parliamentary Reform was held in the Salford Town Hall, 
March 31. The mayor, Mr. W. Harvey, presided. 

A public dinner given to Sir James Brooke, K.C.B., Ri^Jah of Sarawak, aft 
the Queen's Hotel, Piccadilly, April 21. Mr. Ivie Mackie, mayor, presided. 

A meeting of the Cotton Supply Association was held in the Town Hall, 
May 14, for the purpose of encouraging the culture of cotton in our Bast Indian 
possessions. 

The annual WhiUuntide procession of the scholars of the Church of 
England Sunday Schools took place. May 24. The number of scholars was 11,985. 

21 Victoria, cap. 24. Act for enabUng the Justices of the County of Lan- 
caster to erect or provide Assise Courts in or near Manchester, and for other 
purposes. June 14. 

21 Victoria, cap. 25. Act for enabUng the CorporaUon of the City of Man- 
chester to raise further sums of money, and for other purposes. June 14. 

21 Victoria, cap. 37. Act for the more effectual management and repair oC 
the road from Manchester, through Hyde, to Mottram*in-Longdendale, county 
of Chester. June 14. 

Rev. Jabez Bunting, D.D., died June 16 at his house, 30, Myddelton Square. 
London. He was bom at Newton Lane, Manchester, May 13, 1779, and was 
taken by his mother to Oldham Street Chapel to receive Wesley's blessing. 
For fifty-nine years he was a minister of the Methodist Connexion, and had 
occupied every position of prominence in it. For many years he was the most 
representaUve man of that great religious organisation. He was educated by 
Dr. Pcrcival, and had for his early religious friends Dr. Adam Clarke and Dr. 
Coke. The flmt volume of a Life of Dr. Bunting, by his son, Mr. T. P. Buntings 
appeared in 1850. There are several portraits of him. 

Mr. Thomas Edmondson died June 22. When booking clerk at the Miltoa 
Pution, on the Newcastle and Carlisle Railway, he devised the ticket system 
now in ;ronrral use. lie afterwards removed to Manchester, whew he founded 
ti'k« 1-; u \\\\\'x estahlishin nls. 



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1888) Annals of Manchester. 275 

Rev. John Clnnle, LL.D., died June 23. He was born at London, April 9, 
1784, and was the Principal of Leaf Square and Seedley Grove Academies, 1812 
to 1837. He was the author of a Funeral Sermon for Rev, WUliam Roby, 1830, 
and other pamphlets. 

81 and 22 Victoria. Act providing for the separate incorporation of 
the overseers of the several townships of Manchester, Ardwlck, Chorlton- 
upon-Medlock, and Hulme, for specific purposes, for the levying and collection 
of rates, for the extinguishing the exemption of gasworks from rates. June 28. 

A boiler explosion occurred at Messrs. Sharp, Stewart, and Co.*8 Atlas 
Works, Great Bridgewater Street, July 2, when seven persona were killed and 
Ave seriously lAJured. 

21 and 28 Victoria, cap. 87. Act for amending the Acta relating to the 
Manchester Corporation Waterworks. July 12. 

The statue of the late Mr. Joseph Brotherton, 1C.P., was inaugurated in Peel 
Park, Salford, August 5. The cost was defrayed by public subscription. 

The annual show of the Manchester and Liverpool Agricultural Society 
was held at Longsight, September 9. 

lilr. Ernest Jones, the Chartist leader, who had now settled in Manchester, 
p:ave a lecture on Parliamentary Reform, In Heyrod Street, September 27. 

St. George's Church, Charlestown, was consecrated by Bishop Lee, Oct. 2. 
The architect was Mr. B. H. Shellard, and the coat of erection £7,000. It was 
enlarged in 1802. 

The Duke of Cambridge visited Manchester, October 9. 

Rev. Samuel Hall, M.A., died October 21. He was the eldest son of the 
Rev. Samuel Hall, of St. Ann's, and was educated at the Grammar SchooK and 
St John's College, Cambridge. When perpetual curate of BlUinfxe he 
abandoned his Calvlnistic views, and, becoming a Universalist, resigned hia 
position in the Church of England. 

Lord John Russell delivered an address at the Manchester Athenasum 
soiree, held in the Free Trade Hall, October 21. 

Mr. John Young Caw, F.S. A. (Scotland), died Oct. 23. He was bom at Perth 
about 1810. He was the author of works on banking, a paper on Goldsmith's 
Deserted Village^ and another on Ecdeaiasticai Affairs in Manchester. 
(Dictionary of National Biography,) 

St. John the Baptist's Church, Embden Street, Hulme, built from the 
designs of Mr. E. H. Shellard, was consecrated October 23. It was built by sub. 
scriptlon, one of the principal subscribers and workers being Mr. Herbert 
Birley. 

Sir John Potter, M.P., died at his residence, Beech House, Pendleton, 
October 25, in the 44th year of his age. He was the son of Sir Thomas Potter, 
and took an important part in the public life of the town. He was the founder 
of the Manchester Free Library, and an interesting sketch of him is given in 
Edwarda's Free Town LH^raries, When the Moderate Liberals deserted the 
** Manchester School** their choice fell upon Sir John, who defeated Mr. Bright 
at the election of 18S7. He was buried at Ardwick Cemetery October 30, when 
the respect felt by his fellow-citizens was shown by a public funeral. 

St. Mary's Church, Hulme, was consecrated Novembt^ 13. The bulMing was 
begun in 1853. The spire was completed July 88, 18je, and asceuUs to the 



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276 Anndle of Mcmchester. 



aM9^ 



height of 224 feet 4 inches ; ahove this is a vane 18 feet high, making a total 
altitude of 242 feet. This heantifol church owes its origin to the munificence 
of the late Mr. Wilbraham Egerton, of Tatton Parle, who died in 1850. The 
cost was £16,000. The architect was Mr. J. C. Crowther. 

Mr. Thomas Bazley was elected M.P. for Manchester, in the place of Sir 
John Potter, deceased, November 17. 

Mr. Robert Owen died Nov. 17. He was bom at Newtown, Montgomery- 
shire, May 14, 1771, ami after being a draper's assistant became manager of a 
cotton mill at Manchester, where he distinguished himself by business ability 
and care for the workpeople. He married the daughter of Mr. David Dale^ 
and his mills at New Lanark, near Glasgow, became models to which visitors 
came from all parts of the world. He became the apostle of Socialism, and 
devoted to its advocacy both time and money in an unstinted degree. He had 
great qualities, and some foibles, but his generosity and disinterestedness 
were never questioned, even by his slanderers. Thousands of the working 
classes embraced his doctrine as harbingers of a better day, but the failure of 
several attempts to establish communities clieckcd its prog^ss, and the 
agitution gradually ceased. The modem co-operative movement is perhaps the 
most important legacy that Socialism has left. The story of the Social i$it 
agitation, which had many adherents in Manchester, must be sought in the 
lives of Owen, by Sargant, and by Booth ; in Owen*8 numerous writings ; and 
in Holyoake's History of Co-operation. 

St. Luke*s Church, Chorlton-upon-Medlock, was consecrated by Bishop Lee, 
December 4. It was built in 1801, at a cost of £2,500. In 1865 it was rebuilt, at a 
cost of £7,000, and was conRecrated by Bishop Lee, July 1, 1865. 

Rev. Henry Halford Jones, F.R.A.S., died December 21. He was a native 
of Brown^'over, near Rugby, where he was bom June 6, 1787. He was the 
author of Philosophy of Education, 18:37, and other tracts. {Monthly yoiices^ 
B. Astro. S., XXX. 119.) 

Mr. Robert Wilson Smiles appointed librarian of the Manchester Free 
Libraries, on the resignation of Mr. Edward Edwards. Mr. Smiles reaiffned in 
1802. 

The lectures delivered by the Rev. Arthur Mursell on Sunday aftemoona 
began to excite attention. The earlier lectures were delivered at the Heyrod 
Street Institution, and their popularity led to their continuance at the Free 
Trade Hall. Several series were printed, and had a large sale. Some of the 
lectures gave rise to considerable controversy, and there is quite a pamphlet 
literature about them. Of most of these tracts there are copies in the Man- 
chester I^ree Library. There are several details of interest in the Manchester 
City News Notes and Qucriis, vol. i., pp. 'JJO^ 9^. 

1860. 

The cotton waste warehouse of Mr. Perry, situate in BloMomStiMt, Gnat 
Ancoats Street, was destroyed by fire, January 7. 

A Ore took place in the shop of Mr. Owen, toy dealer, Oldham 8tieei» 
J.iuu.u-y 11. The damage wai^ between £:i,aiU and £1,000. 

A lestiniotiial, cousibting of an elegant silver centrepiece, was presented ta 



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19597 Anncds of McmchesUr. 277 

Mr. Thomas Bazley, li^., by the memben of the Chamber of Commerce, 
Janaary 12. 

A man named Robinson, the keeper of a beerhouse in Albert Street, 
murdered his wife, then attempted to set the house on fint and finally hanged 
himself, February 1. 

A conference of Reformers fsTOurable to the general principles of Mr. 
Bright s RepresenUtion of the People Bill, was held in the Free Trade Hall 
February 1. 

Mr. Thomas Kibble Hervey died at Kentish Town, Feb. 27. He was the 
son of Mr. James Hervey, of Oldham Street, and was bom in Painley about 
1802. He was a popular poet, and editor of the Athenctum. His bent known 
piece is the " Convict Ship.'* There is a memoir prefixed to an edition of his 
poems published at Boston, U.S., 1806.' 

Bfr. James A. Turner, M.P., was entertained at a public dinner in the 
Free Trade Hall, March 4. 

A public meeting, convened by the Mayor, of the Reformers of Lancashire, 
was held in the Town Hall, March 17. 

A meeting of Temperance Reformers, held under the auspices of the 
Manchester and Salford Temperance Advocates Society, in the Com Exchange, 
on Good Friday, April 22, for the presentation of an address to Dr. Frederic 
Richard Lees. This was an expression of sympathy at a time when there was 
much controversy between variona sections of Temperance Reformers.— 
( Winskiirs Temperance Be/armatian, p. 324.) 

Rev. William Turner died at Bianchester, April 24, aged 97. He was 
author of an Essay on Crimes and Punishments read to the Manchester 
Literary and Philosophical Society, 1784. For fifty-nine years he was pastor 
of the Hanover Square Unitarian Chapel, Newcastle-on-Tyne. 

The poll for the election of members of Parliament for the boroughs of 
Manchester and Salford was taken April 30. Mr. Thomas Bazley and Mr. 
James Aspinall Turner were returned for Manchester, and Mr. William 
Nathaniel Massey for Salford. The figures were : Manchester— Bazley, 7,545 ; 
Tumer, 7,300; Heywood, 5^480; Denman, 5^235. Salford— Massey, 1,910; 
Ashworth, 1,787. April 30. 

The annual WliitsunUde procession of the scholars of the Church of 
England Sunday Schools took place June 13. The number of scholars who took 
part in the procession was 12,212. 

The foundation stone of St. Petei^s Church, Oldham Road, was laid by Mr. 
John Keymer, June 25. 

The Act 22 and 23 Victoria, cap. 10, to enable the Mayor, Aldermen, and 
Burgesses of the Borough of Salford to raise a further sum of money for 
improving their gasworks, and for other purposes. July 21. 

Two boys and a man were drowned in a pit at Moss Side, July 28. The boya 
were bathing in the pit, when they sank in the mud, and the man in attempt^ 
Ing to save them sank along with them. 

The factory operatives of Bianchester presented to the Countess of Shaftes- 
bury a marble bust of her husband. August 6w 

The first corps of Volunteers was formed in June, and having been aocepted 
by Government, became the 6th Lancashire Regiment. August 12. 



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278 Anncda of Manchester. 



a'59 



Mr. Jame« Simpson, J. P., of Foxhill, died Septembers. He was born at 
Clitheroe July 9, 1812, and in 1813 married Miss Hannah Harvey, the daughter of 
Alderman Harvey, of Salford. He was a zealous Reformer, Interested himself 
in the work of the Anti-Corn-Law League, the Temperance movement, and 
was the founder of the Vegetarian Society. (Winakill'a Temperance Hc/ar- 
jnatioTij p. 315.) 

Mr. Richard Renshaw died at Iowa Falls, U.S. A., September 5. He was 
born at Manchester 1760, and was the author of a Voyage to Cape of Good 
JTope, 18D4. There is a portrait of the author prefixed to this work. 

Rev. Cort Huthersal, M.A., died at Leamington, September 14. He was 
oom at Manchester, and was the author of Synopsis of the Various Adminis- 
trations for the Government of England, 1706-1742. (Manchester School 
Register, vol. iii., p. 44.) 

Mr. John Ashton Nicholls, P.R.A.S., died September 18. He was the on^y 
»on of Alderman Benjamin Nicholls, and was born at Chorlton-on-Medlock, 
March 25, 1823. He took an active Interest in science and philanthropy, and 
his early death was felt to be a great loss to the community. There is an 
obelisk to his memory in Great Anooats Street A Selection of Letters written 
by him was edited by his mother and printed in 1862. There is a notice of him 
in the Monthly Notices of the Royal Astron. Society, xx. 131. A F\iner€d SeTnnoh 
and Memoir^ by Rev. W. Gaskell, appeared shortly after his death. 

Mr. Robert Stephenson, the eminent engineer, died October 12, aged 56L 
In l^'27 he was engaged in the first line of railway from Manchester to 
Liverpool. 

The members of the Cotton Supply Association and their friends assembled 
in the Town Hall to meet the Right Hon. James Wilson, previous to his 
departure for India, and to discuss matters connected with the trade of India, 
October 4. 

Mr. John Bolton Rogerson died in the Isle of Man, October 15th. He was 
bom at Manchester, January 20, 1809, and was for many years a leading spirit 
in the literary coteries of the city. He wrote iSAyine, Bomancr, andHeveris^ 
1840; A Voice from the Totvn, 1842; Musings in Many Moods, 1859, and 
other poetical works. There Is a portrait of him in Procter's Literary 
Reminiscences* 

The Right Hon, B. Disraeli, M J*., distributed the prizes to the successful 
eompetitors of the evening class examinations of the Union of Lancashire and 
Cheshire at the Mechanics* Institution, at the Free Trade Hall, November I. 

The Bishop of Manchester consecrated the Church of St. Catherine, Colly- 
hurst Road. It provided 870 sittings. November 6th. 

Mr. George Wilfred Anthony died at Manchester, November 14, aged 49 
years. He was a native of Manchester, and had more than a local reputation 
as an art critic. He was one of Llverseegc's executors, and himself an artist 
of talent. He wrote chiefly under the pseudonym of "Gabriel Tinto.** 
tProcter's Lit, Rem,, p. 6a) 

Mr. Frank Stone, A.R. A, died in London, Novemlx>r la Ho was bom fn 
Bfanchestcr, August 26, IKK), and acquired distinction as a painter of historical 
and domestic subjects, and in portraiture. 

A great meeting was held in the Free Trade Hall, November 21, to take 



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1S60) 



Anncds of MaTicIiester. :i79 



steps for raising money to 0(|u!p and arm Volantoor Riflemon. The sub- 
scriptions for that purpose amounted to i><,lLO. 

Mr. ThomoM de Quincey died at E<lin!mrKh. Decemlior 8, 1T9. TI^ was bom 
August 5th, 1783. There has been Home doubt as to his birthplace ; hut it may 
now be regarded as settled that it was not Greenhoys, but I'rincess Str*»ct, in 
the house since known as the Prince's Tavern. (^Ir. John Evans in Papers of 
the Manchester Literary Cluby vol. v., pp. ZVi-^ ; Palatine Note- Book, vol. L, 
p. 40.) This remarkable man was doubtless the most distinguished of the 
natlTes of Manchester who have entered upon the thorny path of literature. 
Of his early years he has left an account of singular interest in the Conjfssiona 
of an English Opium Eater, and in the Autobiographic Sketches* His father 
was Thomas Quincey, a Manchester merchant, who died when his son was only 
five years old. De Quincey was educated at Bath and Manchester Grammai 
Schools. He ran away from school, and, later, he ran away from college, and his 
devotion to literature went hand in band with the opium habit, from which, 
however, he made several temporary escapes. He contributed to the London 
Magazine and various other periodical publications, and was probably the most 
brilliant magazine writer of the century. The papers which have been selected 
extend to sixteen volumes, and there are others which have not been collected. 
He married, in 1816, Margaret Simpson, the daughter of a Westmoreland farmer. 
His wife died in 1837, and his later years were tenderly cared for by his 
daughters. His fame most rest chiefly upon the Opium Eater, of which there 
have been many editions. The fire, subtlety, and pathos of the work give it a 
charm to be felt if not described. There is a notice of his life in Espinnsse's 
Lancttshire Worthies, and a separate biography has been pubUnhed by Dr. A. 
H. Japp. A characteristic sketch of his manner, but with some exaggeration, 
is given in Barton's Book- Hunter, where he figu.*e8 as ** Thomas Papavcrus.** 
He is buried in the Greyfriars Church at Edinburgh. There are several 
engraved portraits of him. 

Rev. James Panton Ham resigned the co-pastorate of Cross Street Chapel, 
to which he was appointed October 8, 1855, to become the minister of Essex 
Street Chapel, London. Daring his stay In Manchester he preached a sermon 
on the Sabbath Controversy, which was printed. There is a portrait of him in 
Sir Thomas Baker*s MsmoruUs. 

The Manchester and Salford Equitable Co-operative Society was founded 
by a band of young men known as the "Roby Brotherhood,** from their 
association with the Sunday School of Roby ChapeL They opened a store in 
Ancoats, June 4th. The progress of the society is recorded under date November 
8,1881. 

1860. 

St. Peter's, Oldham Road, was consecrated by Bishop Lee, January II. 
Mr. J. Holden was the architect, and the cost of erection was £4,500. 

The Rev. Canon Stowell delivered an address to the Manchester Kifle 
Volunteers, in the Free Trade Hall, January 19. 

The Hanover Mills, Buxton Street, London Road, were destroyed by dre, 
February 2. The premises contained 2[).000 spindles and Vii carding engines. 
The damage was estimated at about i:25,00a 



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280 Armala of Manchester. d^^ 

The Prince of Orange visited Manchester, February 24. 

Mr. James Braid, M.R.C.S.Edin., died in Manchester, March 25, at the age 
of 63. He was a native of Fifeshire, and received his education at Edinburgh 
University. He came to Manchester soon after beginning his career as a 
medical man, and became distinguished for his special skill in dealing with 
some dangerous and difficult diseases. In 1841 he entered into the investi- 
gation of animal magnetism, which at the time he believed to be wholly a 
system of collusion or illusion. His researches, however, led to the discovery 
of a reality in some of the phenomena, though he differed from the mesmerista 
as to their causes. Similar phenomena of abnormal sleep and peculiar con- 
dition of mind and body were found to be self -induced by fixedly staring on 
any inanimate object, the mental attention being concentrated on the act. 
This proved that the peculiar condition did not arise from any magnetic 
influence passing from the operator into the patient, as alleged by the 
mesmerists. Mr. Braid read a paper on his discovery to the members of the 
British Association, at Manchester, in 1812, and subsequently published 
several works on the subject. The most Important of these is the treatise 
which he entitled Newrypnology; or^ the Rationale of Nervous Sleep, considered 
in relation to Animal Magjutism, illustrated by numerous cases of its suc- 
cessful application in the relief and cure of diseases (1813). This discovery of 
an artificial somnambulism he appropriately designated " neuro-hypnotism,'* 
afterwards shortened to " hypnotism," a term which has oome into universal 
use. Mr. Braid and his writings were much derided by the mesmerists and 
others, but his suggestion is now generally accepted, and has been taken up in 
France, where the system is sometimes called ** Braidiam,'* and in Germany 
and other countries. The curative qualities of hypnotism are, indeed, much 
more recognised on the Continent than in England. {Dictionary of NoHonai 
Biography.) 

23 Victoria, cap. 4. Act for supplying with gas the township of Droylsden 
and other places adjacent thereto, in the parishes of Manchester and Ashton- 
under-Lyne. April 3. 

A portion of the roofing of the Victoria Railway Station fell in, April 8, 
but fortunately no person was injured. 

Bfr. John Bright, M.P., delivered an address to a meeting of BeformeiB, in 
the Free Trade Hall, April 12. 

As the result of a police raid, six keepers of betting-list houses in Thomas 
Street and neighbourhood were taken into custody, and a fine of £100 was 
imposed. April 23. 

The foundation-etone of a Greek Church, in Higher Bioughton, was laid 
by the Rev. B. Moroa, May 8. 

83 and 24 Victoria. Act for enabling the mayor, aldermen, and citiaens of 
the city of Manchester to effect farther improvements in the said city, and for 
other purposes. May 15. 

Mr. William Butterworth Bayley died, at St Leonardos, May 2a He was 
sixth son of Mr. Thomas B. Bayley, F.R.&, of Hope, and was educated at Eton, 
Cambridge, and Fort William College. He entered the Bengal Civil Service, 
and in 1819 became Chief Secretary to the Government of India. In 1825 be 
woA appointed a member of the Council, and in BCarch, 1828, on the departure 



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I860: Annals of Manchester, 281 

of Lord Amherst, Mr. Bayley, as senior member of the Government, became 
Acting-Govemor-Creneral of India, a post which he held several months, and 
then resumed his seat as a member of Coimcil. He resigned his seat on the 
Council 11th November, 1830, and coming to England, became, in 1S33, Deputy* 
Chairman, and in the following year Chairman, of the East India Company. 
He retired from public life shortly after the Mutiny. His son. Sir Stewart 
Colvin Bayley, K.C.S.I., has also filled various important offices in India, 
Apparently the only published work of Mr. W. B. Bayley is his thesis pro- 
nounced at Fort WilUam College, in 1802. 

The annual Whitsuntide procession of scholars of the Church of England 
Sunday schools took place May 28. The number of scholars who Joined in the 
procession was 11,083. 

The Manchester Racing Committee celebrated by a public dinner the cen- 
tenary of the Kersal Moor Races. This was the centenary of the revival, for 
they were held at the same place from 1730 to 1745, after which they were dla- 
continued for fifteen years. 

23 Victoria, cap. 03. Act to alter and amend the several Acta relating to 
the Manchester Corporation Waterworks, and for other purposes. June 14. 

Bir. Robert Barnabas Brough died at Bianchester, June 26. He was bom 
In London in 1828, but in early life was engaged as a clerk in a commercial 
house in Manchester, and afterwards in Liverpool, where he edited the Liver- 
pool Lion. He became a successful writer of burlesque, and was the author 
of several novels and of acme poems of unusual excellence. These have not 
been collected, but the best are given at the end of his novel of Misa Broten. 
A biographical notice by Mr. O. A. Sala is prefixed to his Margton Lynch, 

The first number of the Co-operaior was published in June. Mr. Edward 
Longfield was the first editor. He was succeeded by Mr. Henry Pitman, who 
conducted it for nine years, when it gave place to the Co-operative News. 

The Field Naturalists* Association was formed in June. 

A testimonial, consisting of a service of silver of the value of 400 guineas. 
Was presented to Bfr. Daniel Maude, police magistrate of Manchester, July 5. 

Mr. Charles Southwell died August 0. He was the youngest of thirty-six 
brothers and sisters, and came into notice as an advocate of Socialism and 
Freethought, for which he was at one time imprisoned at Bristol. In 1810 he 
was the editor of the Lancashire Beacon^ which was published at the HaU of 
Science, Campfield. In it Southwell mentions the Christian Beacon pub- 
lished in Manchester, and of which he exult ingly records the decease. Of his 
own Beacon twenty-three weekly numbers appeared, mostly undated. The la^^t 
was issued December 2a There is a copy in the Manchester Reference 
Library. Afterwards he left England for New Zealand, where he is said to 
have acted as the editor of a Wesleyan newspaper. He died, however, as he 
bad lived, an Atheist. (Holyoake's History of Cooperation^ vol. i., pp. 23S^ 

248,371.) 

23 and 21 Victoria, cap. 60. Act to enable the Ecclesiastical Commissioners 
for England to apply certain funds towards the repairs of the Cathedral or 
Collegiate Church of Manchester. August 0. 

The four companies of the Salford Volunteers were presented with silver 
bogles by the ladies of the borough, September 15. 

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282 AnncUa of McmcJiester. 



n36i 



A raUway oolliBion took place at Ordaal Lane Station, September 17, by 
which six persons were injured. 

The Deaf and Dumb School for Infants, at Old Traffofd, was inaognrated, 
September 26. 

St. Philip's Chnrch, Chester Street, Hnlme, was oonfleerated. It was 
erected at the cost of the Messrs. Birley, and the Rev. Bobert Blrley was the 
first rector. The architects were Messrs. SheUard and Brown. September 29. 

Mr. Henry Irving made his first appearance at the Theatre Royal, Sep- 
tember 29. The piece was The Spy, and the character that of Adolphe, a 
young carpenter. 

Rev. Joseph Clarke, M.A., died, Feb. 25, at Stretford, of which place he was 
the incumbent. He was bom in 1811, and was the author of The Wreck of the 
Orion, and was one of the passengers by that ill-fated nteamer. 

A boiler explosion took place at the Lancashire and Yorkshire Railway 
Company's waggon shops, Miles Flatting, October 26. Three persons were 
fatally injured. 

The Duke of Argyll visited Bianchester, November fL He distributed the 
prizes at the meeting of the TJnion of Lancashire and Cheshire Institutes. 

A meeting of the friends of voluntary education was held in the Free 
Trade Hall, November 13. 

Bartholomew Onley, the keeper of a betting-list house, in Thomas Street, 
was fined £100, November 26. 

The Empress of the French paid a visit to Manchester, November 30. She 
visited the principal warehouses and manufactories, and received an address 
from the Corporation. 

The Sal ford Natural History Society was formed, November. 

In consequence of the heavy rains, the river Medlock overflowed its 
banks, December 6, causing much Inconvenience and loss to property-owners. 

The Co-operative Printing Society was formed. 

Public baths and washhouses were opened in Leaf Street, Stretford Road. 
Hulme. 

The Assembly Room, Mosley Street, was sold, and a new one built in York 
Street, Cheetham Hill, at a cost of £14,000. 

1661. 

On the first of January appeared The Dawn: a Journal of Social m,,' 
lieliffious Progress, published by J. W. Farquhar, of New Corporation Sm-i t , 
It was discontinued with the 24th number, December 1, 1802. The writers wvrt* 
chiefly Mr. Thomas Robinson, of Newton Ueath, and Mr. Edward Hrothrrtmi. 

A fire at the Greengate cotton waste mill of Mr. Peter Andrew, January 
10, caused damage to the amount of £7,00a 

The Bee Hive Cotton Mills, situate in Jersey Street and Bcn^nl Strict, 
were destroyed by fire, January 11. The damage was entimated at i:.'r.j « i\ 

A conference on Indian alTairs was held in the board room of the C l.aii.l rr 
of Commerce, January 31. 

Mr. Charles Henry Tlmperley died at lx)ndon, January. He wnx > < rn at 
Manchester about 1705, and was a printer, who afterwards devoted Itiui^i \t to 



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2aii] Awnals cf Mcmchesler. 288 

literature. He wrote a DietUmary of Printerg, 1830; Annals of Manchester^ 
1839; Songa of the Press, 1846, &o. These show great indnetry and ability. 
(Procter's Streets, p. 188; Reliquary^ vol. xiv. p. 143.) 

A boiler explosion happened at the paper works of Messrs. Dickinson, 
situate in Elm Street, Water Street, near B^gent Boad« February 4. Three 
persons died from injuries they received. 

A Are broke out amongst warehousea off High Street, February 8, doing 
damage to the amount of £10,000. 

Bfr. Joseph Adshead died at Withington, Bianchester, February 15. He 
was bom in 1800, and was a member of the Manchester Corporation. He wrote 
The Wreck of the Rothesay CastU, 1831 ; Prisons arid Prisoners, 1845 ; and a 
number of pamphlets on social and local politics. 

Representatives of the different Chambers of Commerce of Manchester, 
Glasgow, Liverpool, and other towns met at the Westminster Palace Hotel, 
February 19, to adopt a petition to Parliament, to amend the laws relating to 
land in India for the growth of cotton. 

The foundation-stone of St. Paul's Church, Chorlton-on-Medlock, was laid 
by the Rev. E. Rirch, March 9. 

Mrs. E. Hadfleld died March 23. She was a Quakeress, and author of 
Sprays from the Hedgerows (poems), 18S0. 

A town's meeting was held in the Manchester Town Hall, March 28, when 
resolutions in favour of Parliamentary Reform were adopted. 

The annual Whitsuntide procession of the scholars of the Church of 
England Sunday Schools took place May 20. The number of scholars in the 
procession was 13,142. 

The colours which formerly belonged to the first battalion of the Indepen- 
dent Manchester and Salford Volunteers of 1803, and which for a long time had 
been deposited in St. John's Church, were presented to the 5th or Press Com- 
pany of the 3rd Manchester Rifle Volunteers, June 1. 

The officers of the 2nd Regiment of Manchester Rifle Volunteers, nnJ 
other friends of Lieutenant-Colonel Deakin, entertained that gentleman at 
dinner, at the Albion Hotel, June 3, and presented him with an equestrian 
portrait of himself, as a testimony of their esteem and regard. 

A very extensive fire broke out at the works of Messrs. Parr, Curtis, and 
Madeley, Chapel Street, Great Ancoats, June 15, doing damage to the amount 
of about £80,000. 

Mr. Eaton Hodgkinson, F.R.S., died at Eaglesfleld House, Higher Brough- 
ton, Juno 18. He was born Feb. 28, 1789, at Addorton, Great Bud worth, where 
his father, a farmer, died when the boy was six years old. He was sent to the 
Korthwich Grammar School, where the injudicious severity, not to say 
brutality, of the schoolmaster, produced a nervous tremonr of the hands and 
speech which in after life was a serious disadvantage. In 1811 he persuaded 
his mother to embark in the pawnbroking business in Manchester. Here he 
found congenial society, and was able to pursue those scientific and mathe- 
matical studies which were the passion of his life. He was appointed Profesnor 
of the Mechanical Principles of Engineering at University College, London, 
and travelled a good deal on the Continent. His researches had chiefly refer- 
ence to the strength of materials and allied subjects. He contributed largely 



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284 Annals of Manchester. 



OMl 



to the transactions of learned societies, and was himself enrolled In the ranks 
of the Royal Society, the Geographical Society, the Royal Irish Academy, the 
Royal Institute of British Architects, &c A memoir of him by Mr. Robert 
Rawson appeared in the Memoirs of the Manchester Literary and Philosophical 
Society, 3rd series, vol. ii. p. 145. 

Alfred, a patriotic play, by Martin Farquhar Tapper, was first acted at the 
Qaeen*8 Theatre, June 25. The leading part was taken by Walter Montfcomerj. 
The author was present on the first night. The play was printed for private 
circulation and afterwards published. 

24 and 25 Victoria, cap. 75. Act for the Manchester and WUmslow Turn- 
pike Roads. June 2a 

Bfr. WiUiam Willis, bookseller, died July 20, in his 54th year. He was of 
humble extraction, but for some years carried on a prosperous trade ; bat« 
although helped pecuniarily by his brother, he was not permanently succeasfol. 
He was the publisher of several cheap books, such as Seacome*s Haute of 
Stanley, HolUn worth's Mancuniensis, &c. At one time he was a staunch 
Radical and follower of Fergus O'Connor, and his shop was an arena for 
political discussion. In later years he joined the Church of Rome, and became 
a strong Conservative, but his new associates were not always able to prevent 
him from arguing in favour of his earlier views and against his later convic- 
tions. He was the stormy petrel of vestry meetings, and on one occasion was 
appointed churchwarden of the Collegiate Church, but the election was invalid* 
as he had not paid his rates. An account of this eccentric character, written 
by Mr. Joseph Johnson, appears in The Manchester Cataiogve, December, 
1883. 

The friends and supporters of Mr. John Cheetham held a meeting at the 
Free Trade Hall, July 23, to promote the election of that gentleman as M.P. for 
South Lancashire. 

Rev. Robert Cox Clifton* M. A., died at Somerton Rectory, July 30. aged 51. 
He was rector of Somerton and canon of Manchester, and wrote several 
pamphlets on matters connected with the ecclesiastical, educational, and 
sanitary affairs of the locality. 

At the meeting of the Salford Town Council, August 7, an agreement with 
Messrs. Greenwood and Haworth was sanctioned in relation to their laying 
down, on ** Haworth's Patent Perambulating Principle," an Iron tramway, for 
the passage thereon of omnibuses, to be moved by horse power upon and along 
the following roads and streets, commencing at a point near Cross Lane, and 
proceeding thence over Windsor Bridge, along the Crescent, Crescent Parade, 
Bank Parade, Whitecross Bank, Chapel Street, and New Bailey Street, towardii 
and to AlbeH Bridge, in Salford. 

Mr. Thomas Witlam Atkinson, architect and traveller, died at I^ower 
Walmer, Au^^ust 13. He was a native of Yorkshire, and in early life was a 
stone carver, but settled in Manchester as an architect. He gave up his pro- 
fession in order to travel, and was almost the first to open out the regions of 
Eastern Russia. He wrote Oriental and Western Siberia; £jri}lorationM^ 
1858; Travels in the Region of the Upper and Lower Amazon, IcOl. His 
widow published RecolUciions of Tartar Steppes, }863» and his daughter is the 
writer of Lives of the Queens of Prussia* 



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jui] Awnala of Manchester. 285 

A fire broke out in the old Irk Cotton Mills, Augnst 17, doing damage to 
the amount of several thousand pounds. 

A dramatic licence was granted to Bfr. H. B. Peacock for the Vne Trade 
HalU August 20. 

About 300 carters employed by the Tarioas carriers stmek for an earlier 
cessation from labour, August 29. 

The thirty-first meeting of the British Association was held in Manchester, 
beginning September 4. The President was Sir William Fairbainu 

The Congregational Church, Chorlton Road, was opened September 12. 
The following statement of the history of the church was placed in a cavity in 
the foundation-stone which was laid July 7, 1860: "Cannon Street Chapel 
was built in 1756. The first minister was the Bev. Caleb Warhurst, who came 
here with the congregation from Cold House to one meeting north of Shude- 
hill. He continued minister up to the time of his death on November 5, 1763. 
The second minister was the Rev. Timothy Priestley (brother of the philoso- 
pher of the same name), of Kipping, near Halifax, who sustained the 
pastorate for nineteen years, and afterwards removed to London. The Rev. 
David Bradbury, from Ramsgate, accepted the invitation of the church on the 
14th of Au};ust, ITSo, and resigned the same in 1705. He was succeeded by the 
Rev. William Roby, from Wigan, in September, 1796. Mr. Roby left for 
Grosvenor Street Chapel in December, 1807. The Rev. William Marsh, of 
Dukinfield, was the next pastor. He accepted the charge on the 3rd July, 
1808, and resigned the same in September, 1812. The Rev. William Evans, of 
Aylesbury, undertook the charge on the 25th April, 1813, and held it until 2Uth 
September, 1817. The Church was without a pastor for nearly two years, when 
the Rev. Robert Allott, of Eastwood, Yorkshire, accepted the office on 25th 
July, 1819. He resigned on 2nd August, 1822. Again, for nearly two years, the 
church was without a pastor. In September, 1824, the Rev. John Whitridge. 
of Oswestry, accepted the pastorate, resigning on the 23rd September, 1827, 
On the 7th October, in the same year, the Rev. Samuel Bradley, from Motley 
Street Chapel, entered on the pastorate, which he resigned on April 14th, 1814. 
On the 19th May of the same year, the Bev. James Dean, of Topsham, was 
invited to the pastorate, which he resigned on the 1st October, 1817. The Rev. 
William Parkes, of Lancashire Independent College, received and accepted an 
Invitation from the church, and commenced his labours on the 9th July, 18>(8. 
He resigned the pastorate on the 23rd September, 1855. The Rev. Jam*s 
Bruce, of Bamford, became pastor in June, 1^6, and resigned in Septentber, 
1860. In December of the same year, the Bev. Professor Newth, of Lancashire 
Independent College, consented to accept the office of preacher, which he holds 
at this time. Built in 1756, Cannon Street Chapel was rebuilt in 1828 at a cost 
of £1,800. In consequence of the prevailing tendency of the worshippers to 
raside in the suburbs, the congregation had been growing less for some yeara 
The office-bearers have made attempts to devise some plan by which to meet 
Ibo difficulty caused by this condition of matters, and eventually it was 
nsolved to seek the benefit of the Charitable Trusts Act, the Commissioners 
under which, on the 11th November, I860, gave power to sell the property. A 
sale was effected on 2nd March, 1800, when the property was disposed of for 
the sum of £2,800." 



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286 ArmcUs of Manchedev. cims 

A meetiiig of the Manchester Chamber of Coxmneroe, the Cotton Supply 
Association, and the Manchester Cotton Company Limited, was held in the 
Town Hall« September 19, for the purpose of meeting BL Hon. S. Laing, pre- 
vious to his return to India as Finance Biinister. 

There were 43,500 perbons receiving parochial relief in the fourth week of 
September. 

An alarming fire occurred in the waste warehouse situate in the Old 
Factory Yard, Miller Street, Shudehill, October 3. The damage was estimated 
at from £10,000 to £12,000. 
<* 7%e cotton mills began to run short time in October. 

Mr. Benjamin Dockray died, at Lancaster, November 4. He was bom at 
Manchester in 1786^ and was author of Remarks upon CcUholic Emaneipaiiofk, 
1817, and Egeria^ or Casual Thoughts and Suggestions^ 1831-10. 

Mr. John Hall, M.R.C.S., died at Congleton, November 27. He was a eon 
of the Rev. Samuel Hall, of St. Ann*s, and was born October 0, 1786. He was 
the father of Mr. Charles RadclifTe Hall, M.D. 

A dinner was given to the Hon. Captain Denman, at the Palatine Hotel, by 
the Rifle Volunteers, December 6. 

St. Jameses Church, Hope, was consecrated by Bishop Lee, December 14. 
Mr. W. Scott was the architect, and the cost of erection £8,500. 

There was a general cessation of business in the city on December 88, the 
day of the funeral of the Prince ConsorL 

Bfr. Absalom Watkin died December 23. He was bom in London, June 27, 
1787. He came to Manchester, at the end of the last century, to be a clerk with 
his uncle, Mr. John Watkin, a cotton broker. Thus began a career which waa 
identified with the political, social, and commercial progress of Manchester. In 
conjunction with Mr. John Taylor, he wrote The Clvbt in the Manchester Iris, 
afterwards reprinted in a separate form. His letter to Mr. John Bri(;ht~and 
Mr. Bright*s reply— in relation to the Crimean war, attracted universal 
attention. His son. Sir Edward Watkin, has printed the first part of a 
biography, Absalom Watkin, Fragments, No. 1, Manchester, 1868. 

The population of Municipal Manchester at the seventh census was 
338,722, and of the Parliamentary Borough 357,070. The population of Salfoid 
was 102,449, both for the Municipal and for the Parliamentary Boroughs, 

1862. 

A fire broke out in the buildings which front Market Street and w%h 
Street, January 2, and great damage was caused. 

A meeting was held in the Town Hall^ and a subscription oommeneed for 
raising a monument in Manchester to the memory of the lata Prince Consort, 
January 6w 

Great distress prevailed among the labouring classes of Manchester and 
Lancashire generally, owing to the slackness of trade. January. 

McMHrs. Kershaw and Co. commenced granting relief to their workpeople. 
January. 

A flro broke out in the tanyard of lir. Nelson, Bed Bank, February 14, 
which did dama.;e estimated to be between £6,000 and £7,000. 



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2852] Annals of Manchester. 287 

A flre broke out on the premises of Messrs. Nichols, Morris, and Co., Pic* 
cadilly, Febroary 19, doing damage to the amount of several thousand pounds. 

Mr. James Rigby, of Salford, died March 0, at the age of 60, " having never 
tasted animal food.** He was the faithful friend and secretary of Robert Owen, 
whose last days he soothed. He first came into notice from his exertions in 
behalf of the Ten Hours BilL (See further in Holyoake's History of Co-opera- 
tion, vol. 1., p. 370 ; Holyoake's Life and Last Days ofBobert Owen, London, 
1871.) 

Mr. James Collier Harter died at his residence, Broughton New Hall, 
March 2, in his 74th year. He was for fourteen years treasurer of the Man* 
Chester Infirmary, and was also connected with most of the principal charities 
in the city. He was buried at St. John*8, Higher Broughton, March 15. 

A railway van, 10ft. long and 8ft. wide, was made in twelve hours at the 
Ashbury Works, Ashton Old Road, Openshaw, liarch 2S^ 

St. Paul*s Church, Chorlton-on-Medlock, was consecrated March 29 by 
Bishop Lee. Messrs. Clegg and Knowlee were the architects, and the cost of 
erection was £4,900. 

Mr. Bobert Brandt, Judge of the Manchester County Court, died at his 
residence in Ptodleton, April 15, aged 00 years. 

Right Hon. W. B. Gladstone, Chancellor of the Exchequer, visited the city, 
April 23, and distributed the prices in the Free Trade Hall to the successful 
students of the Lancashire and Cheshire Union of Institutes. On the following 
day he addressed a meeting at the Town Hall. 

A meeting of the resident gentry was called by the liayor (Mr. Thomas 
Goadsby), to consider the propriety of forming a relief committee. April 29. / 

A great meeting of the unemployed operatives of this city took place in 
Stevenson Square, April 29. There were from 2,000 to 8,000 persons present. 

Mr. Evan Mellor, land agent, was murdered, at his office in St. James's 
Square, by William Taylor, May 10. The three children of the latter were also 
found dead the same day at his residence, Britannia Buildings, Strangeways. 

Bev. Samuel Warren, LL.D., died at Manchester, May 23. He was a 
Wesleyan minister, but left that body in consequence of the Fly Leaves con- 
troversy, and afterwards became incumbent of All Souls* Church, Ancoats. 
He was author of Chronicles of Wesleyan Methodism^ 1827 ; Sermona on 
Various Subjects^ 1833 ; and other books and pamphlets. His son, Samuel 
Warren, Q.C., was the author of Ten Thousand a Tear* 

A meeting, convened by Mr. Thomas Croadsby, mayor, to consider the pro* 
priety of adopting a scheme for granting loans to unemployed operatives. Mny. 

The Board of Guardians had some 400 or 500 men at work, in return for 
relief to the extent of 2b. Gd. for man and wife, and 5s. to Os. per week for large 
families. May. 

The annual procession of the scholars of the Church of England Sunday 
schools took place, June 9. The number of scholars In the procession waa 
about 9,700. 

Mohammed Said Pasha, Vioeioy of Egypt, visited this city, July 8. 

£17,000 subscribed in five days by noblemen and meml>ors of Parlia* 
ment for the Lancashire distress. The sum finally amounted to £52,000. 
July 19. 



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288 Armcda of Manchester. H^a 

25 and 26 Victoria, cap. 206. Act for consolidating and amending the Aeta 
relating to the Corporation of Salford, for extending their powers, and for 
other purposes. August 7. 

dB30,000 received from Australia on account of Lancashire Belief Fond, 
September 7. 

Mr. Alexander Henry died, October 4. He was a native of Ireland, but 
passed his earlj life in Philadelphia. At the age of 21 he came to Manchester, 
and was the founder of the firm of A. and S. Henry. He was M.P. in the 
Liberal interest for South Lancashire from December, 1847, to July, 1832. He 
was an ardent reformer. His son, Bir. John Snowden Henry, was afterwards 
Conservative M.P. for South-East Lancashire. Another son, Mr. Mitchell 
Henry, who was educated for the medical profession, in which he had already 
gained distinction, entered i arllament as a Liberal. (Baker's Memorials^ 
p. 123.) 

Captain Thomas Brown, who was for twenty-two years curator of the 
Natural History Museum, died October 8. He was born at Perth in 1785, and 
educated at the Edinburgh High School. When about twenty years old he 
joined the Forfar and Kincardine Militia, of which he became captain in 1811. 
When quartered at Manchester he edited Goldsmith's Aniynated Nature for 
Mr. Gieave. The regiment having disbanded, he invested his money in a Fife- 
shire flax mill, which was burned down before it was insured. He then became 
a professional author, and wrote numerous scientific works. In 1840 he was 
appointed curator of the Museum in Peter Street, and retained the position 
until his death. 

Mr. John Burton Rondeau died, in reduced circumstances, at Manchester, 
October 10, aged 37. He was an indefatigable collector of curious and scarce 
books and tracts, and wrote some bibliographical papers and oonununications. 
Most of his collection passed into the hands of Mr. James Crosaley, and were 
dispersed at the sale of the Crossley library. 

The new Court of Record, Salford, was opened October 28. 

Mr. Richard Cobden, M.P., addressed a meeting of the members of the 
Manchester Chamber of Commerce, on international maritime law, 
October 24. 

Relief Committees were organised at Barton-upon-Irwell, Chorlton, and 
Salford. October. 

A pastoral from Cardinal Wiseman, November 30, in reference to the Lan- 
cashire distress, and urging efforts for its relief, was issued. 

The expenditure for eight weeks of Central Executive Committee for out- 
door relief was £13,734 2s. 4d. ; Relief Committee, £10,157 6s. 4d. December 7. 

Rev. William Brocklehurst Stonehouse, M.A., D.C.L., died at Owston, 
Lincolnshire, December la He was bom at Bianchester, 1792, and was the 
author of History and Topography of the IsU of AxhdnUt 1830. {MancheaUr 
School Begitter, iil. 40.) 

The Ifanalon House Committee grant £55,000 for the relief of the Laa- 
eaahlre distress, December 19. Tha contributions received during the week 
amounted to £23,400. 

I At a county meeting In Cheshire. £30,000 was received for the La nc as h ire 
distress, December 30. 



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X3es] Annals of Manchester. 289 

The IndtLstricU Partnerahips Record published. It was edited by Messrs. 
£. O. Greening and Robert Bailey Walker. The title was changed to Social 
Economist^ when Mr. G. J. Holyoake became Joint editor. 

Rev. William Metcalfe died at Philadelphia, in the 75th year of his age. 
He was a native of Orton, in Westmoreland, and haying adopted the faith of 
the Bible Christians, he became assistant in Cowherd's academy at Salford in 
1811. In 1817 he emigrated to Philadelphia, where he founded the Bible 
Christian Church stili existing there. In 1830 he converted Silvester Graham 
and Dr. W. Alcott He was the editor of the Moral Reformer, the Library of 
Health, the Temperance Advocate, Independent Democrat, and American Vege- 
tarian. He was a delegate to "The World's Peace Convention** in 1851, and 
in 1855 he became the minister of the Bible Christian Church, Salford, and had 
the melancholy duty of preaching the funeral sermon of his friend Brotherton. 
He was the author of various pamphlets. Futher particulars of his life are 
i^iven in Williams's Ethica of Diet (Manchester, 1883), p. 200; Memoir of 
William Metcalfe, by his son (Philadelphia, 1806). 

Mr. Andrea Crcstadoro, Fh.D., was appointed chief librarian of the Man* 
Chester Free Libraries on the resignation of Mr. R. W. Smiles, who had been 
appointed in 1858. 

A Ladies* ReUef Committee was formed by Mrs. Goadsby and others. 

The unemployed operatives were drafted into schools, and set to teach 
each other. 

For particulars of the Cotton Famine and the relief of the distress caused 
by it, see under date December 4, 1805. 

186a 

Mr. George Frederick Mandley died at Ezmouth, January IL He was 
bom in London, March 19, 1809, and was intended for the legal profession. 
When quite a lad he attracted the notice of C^bbett and became associated 
with other Radicals, and the "Boy Orator** was not unknown as a speaker at 
Blackheath and other gatherings. His indentures were cancelled, and about 
1828 he established himself as a commission merchant and shipper in Man- 
chester. He threw himself with great ardour into political life, and was a 
valued ally of Mr. Brotherton in the Salford election contests. Having Joined 
the Socialists, he drew up the rules for the management of the Hall of Science 
In Campfield. In 1834 he was High Chief Banger of the Foresters, and drew up 
a constitution for that important friendly society. He was in correspondence 
with Robert Owen, Lord George Bentlnck, and many well-known politicians, 
and it is a matter of regret that by his express directions the bulk of the letters 
received by him— and other MSS.— were destroyed. Mr. Brad»haw is believed 
to have received from him the suggestion for the first railway guide. He was 
an accomplished amateur actor, a theatrical critic, a lover of art, and a friend 
of most of the local literary men of his time. From about 18-10 to 1810 he was 
superintendent of births, marriages, and deaths. His trade reports gave a new 
development and Importance to that class of documents. Many of his 
communications to periodical literature were signed '* Qulntus Hortensius.** 
It is not possible now to Identify his numerous anonymous pamphlets, but 
T 



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S90 ArmalB of Manchester. nso 

Trtutarianim no Novelty; PoptUar Phrenology, 1862; and The Herald of 
the Future^ a periodical issued at Manchester in 1830, came from his pen. 

Mr. Edward Lojd died at Croydon, January dO, aged 63. He was the 
brother of Bir. Lewis Loyd, the banker, and presented several bronzes after the 
antique to the Royal Institution. His son, Mr. Lewis Loyd, was high sheriff 
of Surrey, 1863. <Baker*s Memoriala^ p. 109.) 

The George Griswold arrived in the Mersey, from New York, with a 
cargo of provisions for the distressed operatives of Lancashire, February 9. 
The vessel was received with a royal salute. 

The Bank of Manchester Limited was broken open and about £1,000 stolen, 
February 14. 

The foundation stone of St. Michael's Church, Lavender Street, Hulme, 
was laid, March 10, by Dr. Lee, Bishop of Manchester. The consecration of the 
church took place May 14, 1864. The district was formed in 1860, when it was 
placed under the care of the Bev. J. N. Pocklington. The church, rectory, and 
schools were built by members of the Birley family. The architect was Mr. 
Medland Taylor. 

There were public rejoicings in Manchester and Salford in celebration of 
the marriage of the Prince of Wales, March 10. 

The Emigration Aid Society was established in April, and 1,000 operatives 
from Lancashire left for New Zealand, April 30. 

Mr. Alexander Kay died May 10, at Wimbledon Park, Surrey. He was bom 
in 1792, and was a solicitor in extensive practice, and having entered the City 
Council he was Mayor of Manchester in 1843-44 and 1814-45. He took an active 
Interest in the charities of the town, and was the author of Address to the 
Members of the Town Council of Manchester^ 1845 ; pamphlets on Hulme's 
Charity, etc., 1845-55. 

The annual Whitsuntide procession of the scholars of the Church of 
England Sunday Schools was on May 25. The number of scholars In the 
procession was 16,541. 

A meeting was held In favour of Mr. Somes's Sunday Closing BUI, June 1: 

An anti-slavery conference was held June 3. 

Bev. Henry Crewe Boutflower died at West Felton, Salop, June 4. He was 
bom at Salford, October 23, 1706, and gained the Hulsean essay prise in 1817. 
He left materials for a History of Bury, {OramTnar School Begister^ vol. ill., 
p. 3.) 

A conference of representatives of Boards of Guardians was held in Man- 
chester, to consider the Ehiblic Works Bill, June 19. 

The state of trade in Manchester was thus stated on June 20— Factory 
operatives working 4,242, receiving relief 9,104; Joiners working 106, receiving 
relief 573; mechanics working 317, receiving relief 803; shopkeepers working 96» 
receiving relief 108; colliers working 4, receiving relief 13; agricultural and 
other outdoor labourers working 300, receiving relief 059; domestic servants 
working 200, receiving relief 95; various other tirades working 1,500, receiving 
relief 3,523. Total 22,100. June 20. 

Bev. Moncure D. Conway, B.D., gave his first public address in England at 
the Free Trade Hall, June 21. The Southern sympathisers caused great 
disturbance in the halL He was the son of a Virginia slaveowner, and having 



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1868] 



Annals of Mcmchester. 291 



become an AboHtioBlst, came to this country to advocate the cause of the North. 
He was afterwards for a number of years minister of South Place Chapel, 
Flnsbury, 

26 and 27 Victoria. Act for enabling the mayor, aldermen, and citizens of 
the town of Manchester to construct new works and acquire additional lands 
in connection with their waterworks, to extend their limits of supply, tc 
improve Piccadilly in Manchester, and for other purposes. June 22. 

The foundation stone of the Masonic Hall, Cooper Street, was laid July 26. 

Mr. James H. Caldwell died September 11, aged 70. He was an actor and 
theatrical manager in England and America, and made his debut (as a child) at 
the Manchester Theatre. He settled In 1816 in America, where he died. His 
granddaughter, Miss Mary 6. Caldwell, In 1881, gave $900,000 to found a 
Catholic University in America. 

Mr. Edward Stephens, M.D., F.R.C.S., died September 14. He was bom at 
Manchester, 1801, and received his education at the Manchester jGrammar 
School. He was the author of Introductory Address to the Students of the 
Manchester Royal School of Medicine^ 1S15 ; &c. {Lancet, November 28, 18G3 
Manchester School Register, vol. ill., p. 155.) 

The shock of an earthquake was felt in Manchester, October 0. 

A public meeting was held in the Free Trade Hall to welcome the Rev. 
Henry Ward Beecher, October 0. Mr. Beecher came to England to advocate 
the cause of the American Union. His speeches, delivered whilst In this 
country, were collected and published in a volume. 

A review of the Manchester Volunteers was held in Heaton Park, Oct. 10. 

A meeting of the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel In Foreign Parts 
was held in the Com Exchange, October 12. The Dean of Manchester presided, 
and the Bishop of Oxford, who had preached on behalf of the Society, on 
Sunday, at the Cathedral, was the principal speaker. A crowded meeting was 
held in the Free Trade Hail under the presidency of the Hon. Algernon 
Egerton, M.P. 

A meeting was held in the Free Tirade Hall, to txam an aasodatlon for the 
abolition of capital punishment, October 13. 

The Church Congress was held in the Free Trade Hall, October IS, It, and 
15. The Bishop of Manchester was the president. 

^Ir. John Ashton Yates died at the Park, Prestwich, November 1. He wan 
bom at Liverpool In 1782. He was the author of On the Distresses of the 
Country, Liverpool, 1815; Colonial Slavery, 1827; Essays on Currency, lft27; 
Present Depression of Trade, 1811. {Proceedings of Literary and Philo- 
sophical Society of Liverpool, vol. xix., p. 4.) 

The Liberation Society held Its annual conftoence, November 18^ at the 
Free Trade Hall, under the presidency of Mr. Jamea Sidebottom. In the 
evening a public meeting was held, of which Bfr. Hugh Biason was chairman. 

Mr. James Bagot died November 20. He was a well-known atreet character, 
and generally styled "Chelsea Buns." There is a notice of him in the Man- 
chester Oiuirdian, May 21, 1872, and in Procter^s Byegone Manchester. 

A severe gale caused great damage in Manchester, December 8. 

George Victor Townley, a resident of Hendham Vale, was found guilty, at 
the Derby Asaixes, of the murder of a young lady to whom he bad been engaged 



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292 Annals of Manchester, p^a^i 

to be married, but who had broken off the engagxnent. The murder waa 
committed at Ingwell Grange, near Derby, December 12. He was afterwards 
reprieved, on the plea of insanity, and committed suicide whilst in the asylum. 

The Council of the United Kingdom Alliance adopted the draft of a 
" Permissive Prohibitory Liquor Bill." (See under date March 22, 1861) 

The Manchester and Salford Temperance Union was formed. 

Mr. Thomas Nicholson died at Woodhouse. He was bom at Hunalet, near 
Leeds, in 1806, and lived the e^reater part of his life in Manchester. He was 
author of A Peal for the People^ 1819; The Warehouse Boy of Manchester^ 
1852; The Thunderstorm^ 1861; and other poems and sketches. (Procter's 
Memorials of Byegone Mancliester, p. 208.) 

1864. 

The Manchester City News^ No. 1, Saturday, January 2, was published by 
Charles (yowen Smith. 

The amount of loan sanctioned by the Poor Law Board for the dty of 
Manchester for the several purposes, as provided for by the Public Works Act» 
18634M— £25,000, January 11; £130,000, January 14. 

The Education Aid Society was established in Manchester, February. Its 
principal founder was Mr. Edward Brotherton. 

A tire at Messrs. Koby and Harwood*8 caused damage estimated at £ci,00a 
^larchl. 

Stamp Collectors' Advertiser, No. 1, March 15, was published by C. and II. 
Gloyn, Acomb House; printed by A. I. Jones, Cavendish Street, afterwards by 
A. Ireland & Co., Pall Mall. Its existence was a very short one. 

The Permissive Bill of the United Kingdom Alliance was introduced in the 
House of Commons by Wilfrid Lawson and Thomas Basley, liarch 22. 

Alderman William Neild died suddenly in one of the committee rooms of 
the Town Hall, April 4. He was bom near Bowdon, in 1780, and having married 
a daughter of the founder, became a partner in the firm of Messrs. Thomas 
Hoyle and Sons, calico printers. He was one of the foremost of those who 
obtained for Manchester its civic charter, and was one of the first aldermen 
appointed. He was interested in education, and was chairman of the trustees 
of the Owens College. He is buried in Bowdon Churchyard. 

A Reform conference, under the presidency of Mr. GeoTgjb Wilson, was 
held in Manchester, April 10. 

The Albert Memorial Church, Queen*s Road, Miles Platting, was conse- 
crated April 25. The architect was Mr. J. Lowe. The sittings number 66& The 
cjst was £1.400. 

Mr. John Shut tie worth died April 26. He was bom at Strange ways in 178fl 
and for many years was a leader amongst the advanced reformers of the town. 
He was one of the first aldermen elected, but retired in 1800. He held the 
office of distributor of stamps. He was an effective speaker and writer. His 
iMt public appearance was when reading a paper at the British Association, in 
liXn, on the Manchester Gasworks. 

Mr. James Kershaw, M.Pn died at his residence. Manor House, Streathan, 
April 27. He was bom in Manchester In ITOS, and was ths head of the firm ol 



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1861] 



Annals of Manchester. 293 



Messrs. Kershaw, Sidebottom, and Berry. He was a member of the Corporation, 
laid In 1847 was elected M.P. for Stockport, which he represented until his 
oeath. He was an office-holder in Dr. Halley's Independent Church ; and in 
Parliament, as a silent member, gave his support to the Liberal party. 
(Gentleman's Mtigazine, June, 1864, p. 809.) 

The Consecration of St. Michaers Church, Hulme, took place May 14. 
(See under date March 10, 1883.) 

The annual Whitsuntide procession of the children of the Church of 
England Sunday Schools was held May 16. The number of scholars was about 
13.883. 

The foundation stone of the Memorial Hall, Albert Square, was laid by &Ir. 
Alderman Mackie, June 16. 

There was a strike of workmen engaged in building the new County Prison, 
Strangeways, in June. 

The first Assizes for the hundred of Salford were held in the Assise Courts, 
Manchester, July 25. 

The corner stone of the new tower to the Cathedral was laid by Bishop Lee, 
August 4. 

Mr. George Darling died August 4. He was for nineteen years super- 
Intendent of the Rusholme Road Sunday School, where a tabl'et has b^en 
placed to his memory. He is buried in Ardwick Cemetery. (Griffith's 
Memories of the Past, p. 228.) 

Lord Stanley p^slded at the annual dinner of the Warehousemen and 
Clerks* Association, at the Queen*s Hotel, October 31. 

Mr. John Heywood died October 7. He was bom in 18J1, and was a brother 
of Alderman Abel Heywood. He was the founder of a large bookselling, 
printing, and publishing business. He was elected a member of the City 
Council in liarch, 1800, but was defeated in November, 1861. He was chairmsu 
cf the Chorlton Guardians. 

The Right Hon. W. E. Gladstone, Chancellor of the Exchequer, visited 
Manchester, October 14, and distributed the priaes gained at Oxford Local 
Middle-claRs Examinations. 

Rev. Richard Bassnctt, M.A., incumbent of Gorton, died, October 20. He 
was bom at Manchester in 1709, and wrote Hejfections <m Liturgical Reforms, 
lb33. {fh-ammar School Register, vol. ill., p. 49.) 

The statue of the late Prince Consort, by Matthew Noble, was Inaugurated 
in Peel Park, Salford, November 7. 

Alderman John Marsland Bennett, who was elected Mayor of Manchestet 
November 9, was on the same day elected Mayor of Ardwick. By custom a 
mayor Is appointed for the manors of Upper and Lower Ardwick. The manor 
was purchased by Alderman Bennett, In 1869. 

Mr. James Heywood Blarkland, D.C.L., F.RS., died at Bath, Deccnilter 2S. 
He wa<i bom in Manchester, December 7, 17S8. This distinguished antiquary 
was the author of Chester Mysteries, 181S; Remarks on English Churchrs, 
Third edition, 1813; Prayers and Life of Bishop Ken; and other works and 
papers, chiefly on archieology and ecclesiology. (Gentlemans Magaxine^ 
vol. xviU, 1865, p. 6«9.) 

The house at Cmmpsall, known as '*01dham*s tenement,** and believed to 



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294 AnTials of Manchester. PMs 

be the birthplace of BUhop Oldham, was demolished. A description with 
phctographs was privately printed by Bir. (afterwards Sir) Thomas Baker. 

The Manchester Cotton Company Limited was wound up* and the plant in 
India sold. 

The Wholesale Co-OperatiTe Society was established. 

The Hunt's Bank Bridge was built. It is constructed of iron and is of one 
•pan. 

The Prince's Theatre, Oxford Street, was built. The property belonged to 
a joint-stock company. 

1865. 

Mr. Richard Buxton died January 2. He was bom at Frestwich, January 
IS, 1786, and was one of the most remarkable of the local self-taught botanists. 
He wrote a Guide to Flowering Plants near Manchester, 1849, of which a 
second edition appeared in 1850. Prefixed to it is an autobiographical sketch of 
great interest. 

A great Reform meeting was held in the Free Trade Hall, February 1. Mr. 
George Wilson presided. 

Three thousand pounds worth of jewellery was stolen from Mr. Howard's 
shop in Market Street, February 4. 

Mr. John Cheetham was elected M.P. for Salford, February 13, in place of 
Mr. Massey, who had resigned. Mr. Massey was bom in 1809, and first entered 
Parliament in 1^2 sa M J>. for Newport, Isle of Wight. After resigning his 
seat for Salford, he went to India as Finance Minister, but returned in 1868, 
and in 1872 became BLP. for Tiverton, a borough which he represented until 
his death, which occured in London, October 25, 1881. He wrote a History of 
England during the Reign of George III, 4 vols., London, 1855-63. 

The Art Workmen's Exhibition was opened at the Royal Institution, 
February 20. Lord Houghton gave an address. 

Mr. John Cassell died at London, April 2. He was bom at Manchester, 
January 23, 1817. He was one of the pioneers of temperance, as well as the 
founder of one of the greatest publishing firms in the United Kingdom. His 
early circumstances were so humble that his parents were too poor to give him 
anything beyond the most rudimentary school education, but, like many other 
Manchester worthies, he triumphed over circumstances. As a carpent<er*s 
apprentice, be saw much of the evil effects of drinking among his fellow-work- 
men; and after hearing one of the Preston advocates of temperance, Mr. 
Thomas Swindlehurst, he signed the pledge, which proved a stepping-stone 
to fame and fortune. Shortly afterwards, in 1835, Mr. Joseph Llvesey visited 
Manchester, and, in his Autobiography, thus describes John Cassell: **I 
remember him well, when lecturing in Mr. Beardsall's Chapel, Oak Street, 
standing on the right just below, or on the steps, of the platform, in bin 
working attire, with a fustian jacket and a white apron on. He was then an 
apprentice, and, without serving his time, he left Manchester, a raw, unculu- 
▼ated youth.** He left it in search of work, and eventually found his way to 
London. Hero his earnestness as a speaker on the temperance platform 
secured him an enga;;emcut. He travelled for a number of years, chiefly 
through the southern counties, and was kuawu as '*the Manchester corpcater.** 



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1868] 



AuTuda of Mcmehester. 295 



Among his converts were the Bey. Charles Garrett and Mr. T. H. Barker, 
secretary of the United Kingdom Alliance. At the time Mr. Garrett heard him 
(ISU)) he Is described las '* long, thin, and cadaverons," but he appears to have 
been a most effectlTe lecturer. His connection with the temperance movement 
laid the foundation for the establishment of an extensive business In tea and 
coffee ; and the immense packet tea trade owes ita first development to John 
Cassell. This business proving unprofitable, he confined his attention to the 
issue of cheap literature. He was introduced by Lord Brougham to the 
members of the Social Science Congress, at Bradford, "as one whose services 
to the cause of popular education entitled him to a place in the front rank of 
English philanthropists." John Cassell had an ambition to represent the 
people's cause In Parliament, but his mind was so burdened with the cares 
of his gigantic business that he had never had time for work other Uian 
temperance. In addition to his public advocacy, he published periodicals for 
the promotion of temperance. No biography of Mr. Cassell has yet appeared. 

Mr. Richard Cobden died April 2. He was bom at Dunford, Midhurst, in 
1804, but having entered a commercial career became a Manchester manu- 
facturer. He took an active share in local work, and was appointed alderman 
on the formation of the Corporation. His chief mission was the repeal of the 
Corn Laws and the establishment of the principles of Free Trade. He was the 
central figure of the Anti-Corn Law League, and his speeches had greater 
effect than those of any one else, as Sir Robert Peel acknowledged, in 
convincing that statesman and the nation of the necessity of the change. Mr. 
Cobden was in Parliament from Iftil to ISo!, when, like many other Liberals, he 
was defeated. He was, however, elected for Rochdale in lHo9, and, after 

declining a seat In the Cabinet offered him by Lord Palmerston, he negotiated 

the commercial treaty with France in 180a His Political Wrilinff8 have been 

collected. There is an excellent Life of Cobden, by John Morley, and various 

other biographical sketches have appeared of the great apostle of Free Trade. 

After the repeal of the Com Laws, a national testimonial amounting to over 

£dO,000 was presented to Cobden. 

The Princess Imperial of Braail and her husband visited Manchester, April 4. 
A meeting was held in the Town Hall, April 18, for the purpose of 

founding a Cobden memorial. 

The Cathedral was broken into and the maoe and contents of three poor 

boxes stolen. May 1. 

The fall of the Gaythom Mill caused the death of three men, May 4. 

A National Reform Conference was held in the Free Trade Hall, May 15, 

BIr. George Wilson in the chair. 

The annual procession of the scholars of the Church of England Sunday 

Schools was held June 6. The scholars numbered 12,0TL 

28 Victoria, cap. 90. Act for enabling the mayor, aldermen* and citixens of 

the city of Bianchester to construct new streets, enlarge markets, improve the 

channel of the river Medlock, and to effect further improvements in the said 

city, and for other purposes. June 10. 

28 and 20 Victoria, cap. 145. Act for enabling the mayor, aldermen, and 

ciilxeAii; of the city of Manchester to construct new works in connection with 

t heir waterworkn, and for other purposes. June 20. 



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296 Annals of MancJiester. asss 

Mr. John Cheetham waa reelected M.P. for Salford, without oppoaition, 
July 12. 

At the general election, July 13, Mr. Bazley and Mr. Jacob Bright were tbe 
accepted Liberal candidates, but Mr. Edward James, Q.C., appeared as an 
independent Liberal and Mr. Abel Heywood as an advanced LiberaL Mr. 
Bazley and Mr. James were elected. At the close of the poll the figures stood 
as follows: Bazley, 7,009; James, 6,608; Bright, 5,562; Heywood, 4,242. 

The shop of Mr. McFerran, Jeweller, was broken into July 18, and valuables 
to the amount of £13,000 stolen. 

Rev. William Birley, M.A., died at Salford, July. He was bom Febmary 
10, 1813, and was curate of Singleton, and afterwards incumbent of Chorlton- 
cum-Hardy, and rector of St. Stephen's, Salford. He wrote a Letter on Man^ 
Chester and Salford Education BUI, 1851. 

St. Luke*8 Church, Weaste, was consecrated by Bishop Lee, August fi. 
Mr. G. 6. Scott was the architect, and the cost of erection was £6,500. 

Sir Benjamin Heywood, Bart, F.R.S., died August 11, aged 71. He was 
the founder of the Manchester Mechanics* Institution. In 1831 he was elected 
M.P. for the county of Lancaster, and was created a baronet in 1838. There is 
a portrait of him, by William Bradley, in the Mechanics' Institution. (Baker*f 
Memorials, p. 115.) 

The Rev. Hugh Stowell, M. A., rector of Christ Church, Salford, and Canon 
of Manchester, died October 8, in the 68th year of his age. Mr. Stowell was 
bom in 1700, at the Parsonage, Douglas, Isle of Man. He married, in 1828, the 
eldest daughter of Mr. Richard Ashworth, barrister, of Pendleton, by whom 
he had a family of three sons and six daughters. He was one of the most 
prominent leaders of the Evangelical party in England. He was the author of 
Pleasures of HeUffion, and other Poems, 1832, and various sermons and 
pamphlets. There is a Life of Stowell by J. B. Marsden. He is buried at 
Christ Church, Salford. 

Sir Sydney Cotton presented new colours to the regiment of the Scots 
Greys, stationed at Hulme Barracks, October 10. 

The Queen of the Sandwich Islands visited Manchester, October 27. 

The Manchester Committee for the Shakspere Tercentenary founded a 
scholarship of £10 in the Owens College, and two scholarships of £20 in the 
Free Grammar School, November 8. 

Mrs. Elizabeth CIcghom Gaskell died November 13. Her maiden name 
was Stevenson. She became the wife of the Rev. William Gaskell, M.A., the 
minister of Cross Street Chapel. In liMS, by the publialiing of Marp Barton^ 
she acquired a sure place as a writer of English fiction. Her other writings 
include North and South, Cranford, Lizzie Leigh, and Wives and Daughters, 
She also wrote the Life of Charlotte Bronte, and some statements in the first 
edition led to its withdrawal amid considerable controversy. Mrs. Goskell's 
home in' Manchester was vinited by numerous celebrities; and she gave her aid 
and influence to many good works. She is buried at Knutsford Presbyterian 
Chapel. 

Mr. Felix John Vaup^han Siuldon died at Moorshedabad, November 25. Ho 
was bom at Pendleton in 1708, and became professor of Oriental languages at 
King's College, Loiulon. Ho was the author of ^n Address on the Lan(/uages 



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1865] AnTials of Manchester. 297 

and Literature of Agio, 183S, and varioos Oriental works. (Manefiester 
School Register, vol. ii., p. 244.) 

The final meeting of the Conndl of the Cotton Belief Fand waa held 
December 4, under the presidency of the Sari of Derby, who not only sub- 
scribed £5,000 but gave his valuable time and influence to the work of 
the Relief Fund. The black days of the cotton famine will not readily 
be forgotten, though less of the distress was visiblo in Manchester than 
in the smaller towns. The war of the secession nuuie it evident that 
the supply of the raw material for the staple industry of Lancashire 
would be precarious, but few anticipated the long continuance of the 
struggle, and the consequent sufferings of the unemployed. When Mr. 
Thomas Goadsby, as Mayor of Manchester, convened a meeting in the Town 
Uall, April 29, 1802, the situation was so little understood that it was decided 
not to take any action. Another meeting was called within a month, and 
adjourned for a week. In the interval a committee was formed with Mr. John 
William Maclure as its honorary secretary. Ten Manchester gentlemen gave 
£100 each, and the Rev. E. Walker, then incumbent of Cheltenham, but 
formerly of St. Jude*s, Manchester, had collected £384, in his church, for relief 
purposes. On July 19, 1862, a meeting was held at Bridgewater House, London, 
of noblemen and members of Parliament connected with Lancashire, and a 
committee formed, which eventually collected £32,000. The Manchester 
Executive was enlarged, and the Bridgewater House committee and also the 
Liverpool committee sent .their funds to it. The meetings of the general 
committee were now little more than formal, but at one of them, November 3, 
1862, Mr. Richard Cobden, BLP., spoke, and with a prophetic instinct urged the 
executive to bolder action, declaring that whilst the subscriptions had then 
only reached £80,000, a million would be needed to carry the operatives through 
the crisis. He therefore urged that an active canvass for subscriptions should 
be undertaken. This advice was adopted at a later date. The county meeting 
was summoned by the Earl of Sefton for December 2, and was a great and 
influential gathering. About £70,000 were promised at this meeting. In order 
to obviate dilBculties as to ** labour test,** Mr. Thomas Evans— one of a work- 
men's deputation to the Manchester Guardians— suggested an education test, 
and this led ultimately to the establishment of the adult elementary schools 
throughout the district. In these schools might be three generations of the 
same family engaged in a common attempt to master the difficulties of the 
alphabet. To these were added sewing schools for the girls. The report of the 
Executive Committee, adopted at the final meeting, contained the following 
paragraph : " At the meeting of the general committee in March last, a ho|)o 
was expressed that it might be possible, during the sununer months, entirely 
to discontinue the distribution of relief through the local committees. Tliis 
anticipation, the central executive committee is happy to state, has been fully 
realised, and since June 19 last no grants have been made to any district. Your 
committee trusts that it will not be necessary to resume the distribution of 
relief ; but in the still exceptional state of the cotton trade, it is thought more 
prudent to defer the coiisiilcration of the disposal of the balance remaining in 
the treasurer's hands. It is with no little satisfaction that your committee 
contemplates the extraordinary crisis which has been passed through since 



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298 AnTuda of Manchester. j23ja 

1862. There has actually been a diminution of crime under circamstances 
w^hen, from compulsory idleness and poverty, an Increase might have been 
expected. Notwithstanding the gloomy forebodings of those who, in the early 
part of the distress, expressed their opinion that the distribution of relief 
through exception!il channels would tend to a permanent increase of 
pauperism in the district, returns from twenty-eight unions prove that the 
pauperism of the cotton district has been reduced to the ordinary leveL As 
the last week in November, 1862, was the time when almost the lai^gest 
number of persons were in receipt of relief, returns have been obtained from 
the guardians for the corresponding week in November, 1865; and the 
following figures show the numbers relieved by them at that time in 1861 and 
1865, and by the guardians and relief committees in 1868, 1863, and 1864 : 

1861. 1862. 1863. 1864. 1865. 

Ashton-under-Lyne. 1,827 ... 66,363 ... 23,568 ... 20,638 ... 1,417 

Barton-on-IrweU 663 ... 8,010 ... 1,230 ... 1,220 ... 806 

Blackburn 4,110 ... 88,104 ... 0.4o7 ... 10,012 ... 4,063 

Bolton 3,200 ... 19,625 ... 8,013 ... 6,543 ... 3,106 

Burnley 1.503 ... 17,502 ... 13,046 ... 16.948 ... 1,557 

Bury 1,782 ... 29,926 ... 10,048 ... 15.113 ... 2,93;> 

Chorley 1,350 ... 7,527 .„ 3.409 ... 2,471 ... 1,155 

Chorlton 2,042 ... 15,367 ... 9,984 ... 6,694 .. 3,993 

Clitheroe 624 ... 1,379 ... 976 ... 1,138 ... 547 

Fylde(The) 633 ... 1,282 ... 1,086 ... 771 ... 099 

Garstang 567 ... 1,026 ... 696 ... 807 ... 458 

Glossop ,.. 221 ... 7,605 ... 6,752 ... 3,263 ... 105 

Haslingden 940 ... 17,346 ... 3,340 ... 7,108 ... 1,213 

Lancaster 903 ... 1,129 ... 1,025 ... 001 ... 7S9 

I.eigh 636 ... 2,722 ... 1,091 ... 901 ... 806 

Macclesfield 2,158 ... 6,600 ... 2.775 ... 2,429 ... 2,310 

Manchester 4.678 ... 62,477 ... 13,818 ... 9.035 ... 5,048 

Oldham 1.622 ... 28,851 ... 8,371 ... 9.164 ... 1.802 

I'reston 4,805 ... 49,171 ... 17,489 ... 13,226 ... 2.377 

Prestwich 001 ... 4,794 ... 1,958 ... 1,078 ... 593 

Rochdale 2,060 ... 24,961 ... 8.132 ... 6.243 ... 1.789 

Saddleworth 237 ... 2,414 ... 1.287 ... 968 ... 261 

Salford 2,507 ... 16.603 ... 6.C00 ... 3.600 ... 2,265 

Skipton 1.902 ... 2,635 ... 1,850 ... 2,030 ... 1.S54 

Stockport 1,674 ... 34,612 ... 10.601 ... 8.503 ... 1,189 

Todmorden 795 ... 7,500 ... 1.089 ... 2,006 ... 668 

Warrington 1.131 ... 1,992 ... 1.416 ... 1,4\S ... 1.220 

Wigan 2,360 ... 14,9:.9 .. 11.627 ... 5,Km ... 8.5:J8 

Total 47.637 Z 45b.441 Z 170,268 ... 149.923 ... 4«.207 

Tour committee cannot refrain from expressing at this opportunity its highest 
sense of the credit due to the local committees for the result it is now able to 
record ; the self-denial, energy, and Judgment which these bodies hare brought 
to bear upon their labours cannot be over-estimated.** The table on page 290 
Hbows the progress of the work of relief. 



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1M5] Armala of Manchester. 299 

Numbera Out of Work, NumbevB Relieved, and Proportions of Persons 
Bdieved to those entirely Out of Work. 
188S. Out of Work. RoUered. 

Juno 129,774 

July 153,774 

August 216,437 

September 277,108 

October 871,496 

November 244,616 458,441 187 percent. 

December 247,230 485,434 196 „ 

I869L 

January 228,992 451,343 197 », 

February 239,751 432,477 180 „ 

March 210,466 420,213 174 „ 

April 215.522 362,076 168 ^ 

May 191,199 289.975 151 „ 

June 168,038 255,578 152 „ 

July 178,205 213,414 129 „ 

August 171,535 204,0 3 119 „ 

September 160,8:i5 181,136 114 „ 

October 154,219 167.(T78 108 „ 

November 169,117 170/2(i8 107 „ 

December 149,088 180,298 120 „ 

1864. 

January 158,653 202,785 127 „ 

February 153,864 203,108 132 „ 

March 148,920 180,027 120 „ 

AprU 124,828 147,280 117 „ 

May 116,560 116,088 90 „ 

June 106,161 100,671 95 

July 101,568 85,910 84 „ 

August 102,000 83,063 81 „ 

September 135.821 92,379 68 „ 

October 171,508 136,208 78 „ 

November 153,295 149,923 97 

December 126,977 130,397 102 „ 

January 114,488 119,644 UM 

February 115,727 125.885 108 „ 

Biarch 113,704 111,008 97 „ 

AprU 104,571 95.703 91 .. 

May 80,001 75,784 88 ., 

The following excellent summary is quoted from Dr. Watts : ** The books of the 
Central Executive show thirty -nine thousand eight hundred and ninety-eight 
separate entries of subscriptions up to the end of December, 1804, conveyed in 
eighty-six thousand seven hundred and sixty-four letters, which letters, in 
December, 1802, and January, 1803, came to hand at the rate of eight hundred per 
day. The letters despatched up to the end of December, 1804, were one hundred 



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300 Annals of Manchester. 



and flfty-flve thousand eight hundred and sixty-three, besides flye hnndied i 

eighty-two printed documents, which numbered one hundred and 8ixty-fiT« 

thousand seven hundred and twenty-four copies. The total sum dealt with in 

the balance sheet of December 31, 1851, is £931,906 Is., of which amoitnt 

£13,510 7s. is set forth as " promised but not collectable.** In some instanees 

the donors have themselves, after partial payment, fallen victims to the crisis; 

in others, payment is probably refused upon the plea that money is not needed; 

and we hope that the men whose conscience will allow them to enjoy thm 

reputation of having given, whilst the money is still in their own purees, «re 

very few indeed. The total sum distributed in relief by the central executive 

through the various committees was £811,800. To this the Mansion Uoaae 

committee added £410,002, besides sending £53,531 to committees in Ashum* 

under-Lyne district, which were not recognised by the central executive ; and 

the various committees themselves made local collections amounting to£207,UOB. 

and received direct from other sources £40,660. To the amount of local sul>- 

scriptions is to be added about £80,000 collected in Manchester, and paid direct 

by the collecting committee into the funds of the general committee. Thus th« 

total sum of money distributed by committees was £1,661,670, in addition to 

which there passed, in food and clothing, through the hands of the central 

executive, sixteen thousand five hundred barrels of flour, nine hundred and 

ninetv -seven barrels of beef, bacon, &c, five hundred barrels of biscuits, four 

hundred and ten cases of fish, two hundred and twenty-eight sacks of poutocs, 

carrots, turnips, &c., two hundred and twenty-flve deer, with many hundreds 

of pheasanta, hares, rabbits, &c., twenty eight chests of tea, two and a half 

pipes and one hundred and eight dosen of wine, eleven thousand five hundred 

and nineteen tons of coal, and eight hundred and ninety-three bales of clothing, 

blankets, and clothing materials. The whole of these contributions in kind 

were valued at £111,068, making the total amount of public subscriptions 

£1,773,647. Large contributions of clothing and materials for clothing passed 

also through the Mansion House committee, but of the value of these no 

accurate estimate seems to have been made. The balance sheet of the central 

executive to December 31, 1861, shows the receipt of twenty-flve thousand nine 

hundred and ninety-nine separate individual donations, amounting to £242,865 

12s. 8d.; collections at three thousand and ninety-three churches and chapels, 

£53,265 6s. Od.; collections from five thousand four hundred and three parishes* 

£65,617 8s. 2d.; collections amongst the workpeople of one thousand four 

hundred and eighty-four firms, £15,715 Os. 4d. Collecting committees were 

organised in one thousand two hundred and forty-one places in connection 

with the central committee in Manchester, exclusive of the committees in 

connection with the Mansion House fund; and the exertions of those who 

remitted to Manchester resulted in the sum of £I07,7H2 los. Id. So that, 

deducting from the individual donations the above-named £tV,tt)0 paid in by 

the Manchester collecting committee, we find that about three-fifths of the 

fund resulted from regular organisation and sustained eflbrt« one-sixth from 

spontaneous individual benevolence, one-seventh from collections in places of 

worship, and about one-sixtieth from the working people employed by irarions 

firms. Looking to the localities from which the subscriptions c ime, we find 

every quarter of the globe represented, illustrating at once the immense field 



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X866) 



Awuds of Manchester. 301 



coyered by the Anglo-Saxon race, and how Impoaelble It U tor either space or 
time to separate man from home sympathies or home interests." Much fear 
and some anger was expressed by the newspapers from time to time that 
Lancashiro was not doing its duty. The returns of the honorary secretary, 
compared with the balance sheet, show that the collections by local committees, 
including the ^Manchester collecting committee, were equal to forty-one per 
cent of the whole central fund, and to twenty-four per cent of the total sum, 
including the amount distributed by the Mansion House committee. The 
reader will form his own conclusions as to whether a district containing about 
t.*n per cent of the population of England and Wales, whilst suflfering under 
such a paralysis as the cotton famine, which destroyed one-half of its principal 
industry and inflicted a large extra burden of poor-rates, did its duty by finding 
twenty-four per cent of the relief fund, in addition to the immense amount 
which is known to have been distributed in private charity, but which cannot 
lie reduced into statistical shape. During the continuance of the cotton famine 
the death rate actually decreased. The good conduct of the operatives was the 
theme of general praise, and was only broken by the riots at Staly bridge, due 
largely to injudicious treatment of a local committee. This outbreak, on March 
I.), was not quelled until the arrival of a company of Hussars from Manchester. 
Tlie disturbances were renewed on March 21 and spread to Ashton, where it was 
promptly suppressed by the authorities. The Public Works Act was passed in 
180i, and al>out £KOOO,000 was expended under it in the cotton district. At the 
final meeting of the general committee thanks were voted to Lord Derby, the 
president, to Sir J. P. Kay -Shuttle worth, and to Mr. J. W. Maclure, the 
honorary secretary of the fund ; and it was decided to present a handsome 
testimonial to Mr. Maclure. The principal sources of information respecting 
the distress in Lancashire are The FacU of the Cotton Famine^ by Dr. John 
Watts, 1800; Home Life of the Lancashire Factory Folk in the Cotton FaminCt 
by Edwin Waugh, 1807 ; History of the Cotton Famine^ by Arthur Arnold^ 
181M; and the ofllcial publications of the Relief Fund. 
St. Mark's Church, Gorton, was built. 

1866. 

The Memorial Hall, Albert Square, waa opened January 18, in commemora- 
tion of the two thousand Nonconformist Ministers ejected from the Church of 
England in 1602. 

A great meeting was held in the Free Trade Hall, January 30, under the 
auspices of the National Reform Union* Mr. George Wilson presided. 

The Union and Emancipation Society was dissolved and the final soiree 
hold at the Town Hall, January 22. Mr. T. B. Potter, M.P., presided, and 
Professor Gold win Smith gave an address on the Civil War in America. 

A portion of the roof of the London Road Station fell, January 22, killing 
two men and wounding several others. 

Mr. John Gray Bell died, February Ifi. He waa bom in 1823, and, after 
some experience as bookseller and publisher in London, settled in Itfanchester. 
The early numbers of his second-hand book catalogue, styled The BibliographerM 
Manual^ contain literary notes. He also complied a OeneaJLogieaX Account oj 
the Descendants of John of Gaunt, of whom he waa one. 



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302 Annala of Mancluster. 

Mr. Thomas Ooadsby died February 16. He was mayor of Mancaester in 
1861-2. 

The second Art Workmen's Exhibition was opened February 26. 

Mr. Robert Buchanan died at Bexhell, Sussex, March 4. He was bom at 
Ayr, in 1813, but for some years was a prominent Socialist lecturer in Man- 
chester, where most of his writings were published, and where he was prose- 
cuted for the Sunday meetings at the Hall of Science. He was the father of 
Mr. Robert Buchanan, the poet and novelist. There is a notice of hmi in the 
Dictionary of National Biography, 

At a meeting of the committee of the Ck)bden Memorial Fund, March 6, it 
was decided to erect a statue to his memory. 

Mr. Edward Brotherton died March 23. He was bom in 1814, and in early 
e was engaged in the silk trade, but forsecing that the commercial treaty 
with France was likely to bring to an end the prosperity of his business, be 
retired with a competence, which, however moderate according to modem 
ideas, was adequate to his simplicity of life. After a year of Continental 
travel, he devoted himself to the work of popular education. He saw that 
the existing agencies for the instruction of the children of the poor were quite 
unequal to the task. The letters of E. B. in the Manchester newspapers 
excited great attention, and led to the formation of the Education Aid Society, 
which gave aid to all parents too poor to pay for the education of their children. 
The experiment of what the voluntary system can do was tried in a way and 
to an extent not previously attempted, and the result was to find that such 
was the apathy and indifference of a large proportion of the parents, that 
nothing but compulsion in one form or other could bring their children within 
the reach of education. It was this demonstration, which Mr. H. A. Bruce, 
Bkfterwards Lord Aberdare, called the '* thunder-clap from Manchester,** that 
paved the way for the Education Act of 1870. Brotherton*s seal and devotion 
to the cause was unbounded. He had patience, a winning grace of manner, a 
candour only too rare in controversy, and an unselfish devotion to the public 
good. In the course of his visitations amongst the poor he caught a fever, of 
which he died after a few days* illness, at Cornbrook, and was buried at the 
Wesleyan Cemetery, Cheetham Hill. There is a portrait of him in the Man- 
chester Town HalL Besides many contributions to periodicals, he wrote 
Aformoniftm Exposed, 1&16; Spiritualism, Stcedenborg, and the New Churchy 
London, 1860. (This pamphlet has reference to the claims of the Rev. Thomae 
Lake Harris to a secrship similar to that of Swedenborg— claims which were 
vehemently denied by many members of the " New Church signified by the New 
Jerusalem in the Revelation.** as the Swedenborgian congregations are officially 
styled. Brotherton prints a letter from Dr. J. J. Garth Wilkinson as to 
identity of the phenomena of reHpiration in Swedenborg and Harris. FVom 
this it will be seen that Brotherton was a disciple of Swedenborg, with a 
tendency to belief in spiritualist ic phenomena.) The Present State of Pojndar 
Education in Manchester and Sal ford, 1864. This is the substance of seven 
letters by E. B., reprinted from the Manchester Guardian^ January 1, 1804. 

Mr. Charles Dickens gave readings at the Free Trade Hall, April 12. So 
spontaneous was the enthusiasm of the Manchester audience, that, accustomed 
as Mr. Dickens was to the most genial, hearty, and voclferoos greetlnga, this 



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^^0] AnTUils of ilanchesUr, 303 

affected him deeply— indeed, he was always so susceptible to a popnli^^ tribute 
of this kind that it took him some moments to recover himself sufficiently 
either to commence or continue the reading. (Dolby's Charles Dickens as I 
Knew Him, page 16.) 

29 Victoria, cap. 1. Act to enable the proprietors of the Manchester Royal 
Exchange to puU down and rebuild the same, and for other purposes with 
respect to the said Exchange. April 23. 

The first annual meeting of the Manchester Volunteers Aid Society wa^ 
held April 25. The object was to assist in paying the expenses of the volunteern. 

Rev. Cecil Daniel Wray, M.A., Canon of Manchester, died April 27. He 
was bom in 1778, and was the author of The Street Politicians^ 1817, and of 
other tracts and sermons. {Manchester School Register, vol. iii., page 03.) 

BIr. John Bright addressed a meeting of the National Reform Union, in 
the Free Trade Hall, May 1. 

Mr. John Criichley Prince died at Hyde, May 5, He was bom at Wigan, 
June 21, 1808, where his father was a reedmakcr. A collected edition of his 
poetical works appeared in 1S82 under the editorial care of Dr. G. A. Douglas 
Lithgow, who has also written an excellent biography. Prince's intemperate 
habits was a chief cause of the misery of his very unhappy life. It may bo 
doubted if his reputation as a poet will endure, but his verses have had great 
popularity, and from their healthy tone have had an exceedingly beneficial 
influence. He was resident in Manchester during a portion of his career. 
(^Vxon's Cheshire Gleanings.) Dr. Lithgow*s edition of the Poems contains a 
very full account of Prince's life in Manchester, and of the condition of local 
literature. Mr. Proctor's Literary Hemijiisceiices also include a sketch of the 
" Bard of Hyde." Prince is buried in St. George's Church, Hyde. 

29 and 30 Victoria. Act for enabling the mayor, aldermen, and citizens of 
the city of Manchester to erect a Town Hall, Police Court, and other buildings, 
to acquire additional lands, and for other purposes. May 18. 

The annual Whitsuntide procession of the Church of England Sunday 
schools was held May 21. The scholars numbered 12,Si2. 

By an extensive fire at the warehouses of the London and North Western 
Railway Company, near Ordsal Lane, damage estimated at from £^,000 to 
£300,000 was done. May 23. 

The Stamp Office, Cross Street* was broken into and about £10,000 worth of 
stamps stolen. May 28. 

At the year ending June there were 337 carriages plying from the stands 
within the city ; 518 drivers were licensed ; 758 articles found in the cabs were 
taken by the drivers to the Town Hall ; of these 307 were restored to owners. 
£24 was given to drivers for delivering up the articles. There were 22 stands 
in the township, and 74 licensed proprietors. 

The Hulme Free Library, Stretford Road, was opened June 15. 

The extent of sewerage constructed in Manchester up to June 31, 1800, was, 
main sewers, 05 miles 476 yards ; cross sewers and eyes, 147 miles 1,018 yards. 
Total area of streets paved and sewered, 1,000,073 yards, at a cost of £320,387. 

A large and commodious swimming bath was opened at the Mayileld Baths, 
July 2. The dimenaiona were 76 feet in length by 37 in width, and varying in 
depth from 4 to feet. 



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804 Annals of Manchester. cxag^ 

An amateur dramatic performance was given at the Athenaeum, in aid of 
the Ciitchley Prin